Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011

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<ul><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 1/12</p><p>Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake and Tsunami 2011 </p><p>Learning and Teaching Guide for Geography Teachers</p><p>1</p><p>Tohoku Earthquake11-3-2011Magnitude: 9</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 2/12</p><p>Figure 1 Northeast coastal area of Honshu is a famous tourist attraction of Japan before the Tohoku</p><p>Earthquake in 2011</p><p>At 14:46 (Japan time) of 11 March 2011, a cataclysmic 9-magnitude earthquake hit the</p><p>northeast coast of Honshu, Japan. The hypocenter is about 130 km off the east coast of Ojika</p><p>Peninsula of Tohoku, which is very close to Sendai, a large city in northeast Honshu. The</p><p>earthquake was so powerful that it shifted the earth axis and made it spin a little faster.</p><p>Minutes after the occurrence of the 9-magnitude earthquake, destructive tsunami waves</p><p>of about 10m high struck the northeast coast of Honshu, leading to massive destruction of the</p><p>region and high casualty. The tsunami triggered by the Tohoku Earthquake even reached</p><p>many other countries on the eastern side of the Pacific Ocean several hours later.</p><p>Many areas in Japan were set ablaze after this terrible earthquake. Even more disastrous</p><p>was that the earthquake triggered the Fukushima I nuclear accidents, which was the most</p><p>destructive nuclear power incidents after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. It included a series</p><p>of ongoing equipment failures in the nuclear power station and the release of large amount of</p><p>radioactivity.</p><p>According to news report, volcanic activities were also found in other parts of Japan afew days after the occurrence of the Tohoku earthquake. Volcanic activities, with smoke and</p><p>ash reaching 4,000m high, was found at Volcano Shinmoedake ( ) of Kyushu on 13</p><p>March 2011. In Honshu, earthquakes hit the region of Mt. Fuji a few days after the Tohoku</p><p>Earthquake (aftershocks) and some Japanese worried that this would cause Mt. Fuji to</p><p>become active again.</p><p>This tragedy is a rich and appropriate case study for Hong Kong students to study</p><p>various issues in the geography curricula. In the following pages, some suggestions were</p><p>highlighted for teachers consideration to include this case into their teaching plans.</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 3/12</p><p>(A) Syllabuses for Secondary Schools Geography (Secondary 1-3) (1998)</p><p>The following two issues in this curriculum are especially relevant to the case study of</p><p>Tohoku Earthquake 2011:</p><p>1. Secondary TwoThe Unstable Earth</p><p>Guiding Questions Explanatory Notes Concepts</p><p>Why is our Earth unstable?</p><p> What makes up the Earth crust?</p><p> Where are the global volcanic and</p><p>earthquake belts?</p><p> What are the causes of</p><p>earthquakes and volcanic</p><p>eruptions?</p><p> Earths crust and plate</p><p>movement</p><p> Causes of earthquakes and</p><p>volcanic eruptions-</p><p>interaction of plates</p><p> Distribution of global</p><p>earthquake and volcanic</p><p>belts</p><p> Plate tectonics</p><p> Earthquake and</p><p>volcanic belts</p><p> Spatial</p><p>association</p><p>Why do so many people still live in the</p><p>unstable areas?</p><p> What are the consequences of</p><p>earthquakes and volcanic</p><p>eruptions?</p><p> Why do people still live in these</p><p>unstable areas?</p><p> Hazardous effects of</p><p>earthquakes and volcanic</p><p>eruptions</p><p> Reasons for people living in</p><p>unstable areas</p><p> Hazards</p><p> Human</p><p>response and</p><p>adjustments to</p><p>hazards</p><p>Are they making the right choice?</p><p> What can be done to minimize the</p><p>negative impacts of earthquakes</p><p>and volcanic eruptions?</p><p> Is it wise to live in the unstable</p><p>areas?</p><p> Measures taken to reduce</p><p>losses</p><p> Factors affecting mans</p><p>choice</p><p> Human</p><p>modification of</p><p>the environment</p><p> Choice</p><p> Perception</p><p>Besides studying about plate tectonics and earthquakes, the case study also enables</p><p>junior form geography students to re-consider the actual cost of nuclear power and whether it</p><p>should be one of our choice of power.</p><p>3</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 4/12</p><p>2. Secondary 3Struggle for power resources</p><p>Guiding Questions Explanatory Notes Concepts</p><p>Is nuclear power a possible way out?</p><p>What are the advantages anddisadvantages of using nuclear</p><p>power?</p><p> Should our country (China)</p><p>develop nuclear power?</p><p> Pros and cons of developing</p><p>nuclear power Conflict between</p><p>development and</p><p>environmental conservation</p><p> Development</p><p>andconservation</p><p>conflict</p><p>(B) Geography Curriculum Guide (Secondary 1-3) (2010)</p><p>Similarly, two issues in the revised Geography Curriculum Guide of S1-3 (which will be</p><p>implemented in 2012) are relevant to the case study of Tohoku Earthquake 2011.</p><p>1. Living with Natural HazardsAre we better equipped than the others?</p><p>Guiding Questions Knowledge</p><p>Why does our land shake violently?</p><p> What are the causes and effects of</p><p>earthquakes?</p><p> How do people in the world prepare for and</p><p>respond to earthquake?</p><p> The global distribution of earthquakes and</p><p>its relationship with plate boundaries</p><p> The primary and secondary damages</p><p>caused by earthquakes</p><p> Preventive (e.g. early warning, education,</p><p>shelter) and remedial (e.g. emergency aid,</p><p>improving prediction) measures to reduce to</p><p>negative effects of earthquakes</p><p> A comparison of the impacts of natural</p><p>hazards and the respective preventive and</p><p>remedial measures adopted by the more</p><p>developed and the less developed regions Reasons for the people of the less</p><p>developed regions being more vulnerable to</p><p>natural hazards than those living in more</p><p>developed regions</p><p> Reasons for people choose to stay in, or are</p><p>unable to move away from hostile areas</p><p>affected by natural hazards</p><p>4</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 5/12</p><p>2. Scramble for Energy</p><p>Guiding Questions Knowledge</p><p>Why do we struggle for energy resources? What are the major types of energy</p><p>resources of the world? Where can they be</p><p>found?</p><p>Major types of energy resources of theworld: renewable and non-renewable</p><p>resources</p><p>What alternatives do we have?</p><p> Is nuclear power a possible way out?</p><p> The pros and cons of using nuclear power</p><p>and its increasing role in future energy</p><p>supply</p><p>(C) Geography Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6) (2007)</p><p>In senior secondary Geography, teachers can use the case study in teaching of the issue</p><p>Opportunities and RisksIs it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?. The whole issue is</p><p>about plate tectonics, earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions.</p><p>1. Opportunities and RisksIs it rational to live in hazard-prone areas?</p><p>Guiding Questions Explanatory Notes Concepts</p><p>1. What has happened to areas with</p><p>active tectonic activities?</p><p>2. What areas have been frequently</p><p>affected by earthquakes, volcanic</p><p>eruptions and tsunamis?</p><p>3. What spatial patterns exist in these</p><p>natural hazards?</p><p>4. Why are there such patterns? How</p><p>is it related to the global distribution of</p><p>plates and plate boundaries?</p><p> Natural hazards commonly</p><p>found in areas with active</p><p>tectonic activities (including</p><p>earthquakes, volcanic</p><p>eruptions and tsunamis)</p><p> Global distribution patterns</p><p>of these natural hazards</p><p> Relationship between the</p><p>distribution pattern of these</p><p>natural hazards and that of</p><p>tectonic activities</p><p> Location and spatial</p><p>distribution</p><p> Place and region</p><p> Natural hazard</p><p> People-environment</p><p>interrelationship</p><p>5. What and where are the major</p><p>plates and plate boundaries?</p><p>6. What are the related landform</p><p>features at plate boundaries? How are</p><p>they formed?</p><p>7. How does plate movement create</p><p> Brief description of the</p><p>internal structure of the</p><p>earth</p><p> The names and types of</p><p>major plates and plate</p><p>boundaries in the world, as</p><p> Plate tectonics</p><p> Natural hazard</p><p> Location and spatial</p><p>distribution</p><p>5</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 6/12</p><p>Guiding Questions Explanatory Notes Concepts</p><p>natural hazards that develop with</p><p>these features?</p><p>well as their location</p><p> The major landform features</p><p>at plate boundaries and theirformation</p><p> The relationship between</p><p>plate movement and natural</p><p>hazards</p><p>8. What are the effects of earthquakes,</p><p>volcanic eruptions and tsunamis?</p><p>9. How do these natural hazards affect</p><p>the lives of human beings?</p><p>10. What has been done to reduce the</p><p>impact of these natural hazards?</p><p> Effects of earthquakes</p><p>(primary and secondary</p><p>effects), volcanic eruptions</p><p>and tsunamis on human</p><p>beings and the environment</p><p> Measures used to reduce</p><p>the effects of earthquakes,</p><p>volcanic eruptions and</p><p>tsunamis (e.g. monitoring,</p><p>predicting and warning</p><p>systems for natural hazards,</p><p>various disaster mitigation</p><p>and preparation strategies,</p><p>land use zoning)</p><p> Effectiveness of the above</p><p>measures</p><p> Natural hazards</p><p> People-environment</p><p>interrelationship</p><p> Impact of</p><p>technology</p><p> Limitation of</p><p>technology</p><p>11. Why are less developed areas</p><p>more vulnerable to these natural</p><p>hazards than more developed areas?</p><p>12. Should people move away from</p><p>hazard-prone areas?13. Why do some people still live in</p><p>hazard-prone areas?</p><p>14. Is their choice rational?</p><p> The reasons for less</p><p>developed areas being more</p><p>vulnerable to natural</p><p>hazards than more</p><p>developed areas (e.g.literacy level and awareness</p><p>of the people, and socio-</p><p>economic and technological</p><p>gaps)</p><p> The advantages and</p><p>disadvantages of people</p><p>living in hazard-prone areas</p><p> Natural hazard</p><p> Region</p><p> Degree of damage</p><p>and level of</p><p>development People-environment</p><p>interrelationship</p><p>6</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 7/12</p><p>When using the case of Tohoku Earthquake-Tsunami 2011 in teaching the above issues,</p><p>teachers may guide their students to discuss the following geographical questions about this</p><p>disaster:</p><p>Plate Tectonics and Tectonic Hazards Earthquakes, tsunamis and</p><p>volcanic activities:</p><p>1. What kinds of tectonic hazards had happened in Japan on 11</p><p>March 2011 and the days after?</p><p>2. Which parts of Japan are frequently affected by earthquakes,</p><p>volcanic eruptions and tsunamis? What are their spatial</p><p>distributional patterns in Japan? Why are there such patterns?</p><p>Figure 2 The distribution of some major active volcanoes and earthquakes in Japan.</p><p>3. Which parts of Japan were seriously hit by the Tohoku</p><p>Earthquake and Tsunami 2011?</p><p>4. Where are Mt. Fuji and Volcano Shinmoedake?</p><p>7</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 8/12</p><p>5. What are the relationships between the Tohoku Earthquake-</p><p>Tsunami and plate movements?</p><p>6. Which major plates are involved in this destructiveEarthquake-Tsunami in Japan? Where are they?</p><p>7. What are the primary and secondary effects of the Tohoku</p><p>Earthquake 2011?</p><p>8. How did the Tohoku Earthquake 2011 affect the lives of</p><p>Japanese and people in other parts of the world?</p><p>9. What have been done by the Japan government to reduce the</p><p>damages caused by earthquakes and tsunamis? To what</p><p>extent are these measures effective in alleviating the impact</p><p>of the Tohoku Earthquake?</p><p>10. Comparing with the earthquake and tsunami in South Asia</p><p>(2004), do you think less developed areas are more vulnerable</p><p>to earthquakes and tsunamis than the more developed areas?</p><p>11. Should Japanese move away from the northeast coast of</p><p>Honshu? Why do many people still choose to stay there after</p><p>the 2011 disaster? Is their choice rational?</p><p>Nuclear Power and the Choice of Power:</p><p>12. How many nuclear power plants can be found in Japan in</p><p>2011? Where are they?</p><p>13. What is the distribution pattern of the Japanese nuclear power</p><p>8</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 9/12</p><p>plants? What are the factors affecting the location of these</p><p>plants?</p><p>14. Why did Japan still develop so many nuclear power plants even</p><p>though the whole country lies within the most active volcanic</p><p>and seismic belt in the world?</p><p>15. What are the pros and cons of using nuclear power for</p><p>generating electricity?</p><p>16. Is nuclear power a possible way out for Japan to solve its</p><p>energy problems? Why?</p><p>17. A week after the Tohoku Earthquake 2011, the Japanese</p><p>government announced that the Fukushima I Nuclear Power</p><p>Plant would be closed permanently. Many other countries in</p><p>the world also re-consider the role of nuclear power in their</p><p>countries.</p><p>If you were a Japanese official, what other types of energy</p><p>resources would you suggest to replace the widespread use of</p><p>nuclear power in Japan? Explain your choice.</p><p>18. What are the advantages and disadvantages of these</p><p>alternatives?</p><p>9</p><p>Through studying this case study, students should be able to:</p><p>appreciate the interdependence between human beings and the naturalenvironment; and show concern for those affected by natural hazards.</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 10/12</p><p>The case of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami 2011 provides an opportunity for</p><p>geography teachers to incorporate geographic information system (GIS) in the learning and</p><p>teaching of the subject. For details about how GIS can be used in the learning and teaching of</p><p>plate tectonics, earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions, teachers may refer to the</p><p>following two educational packages developed by the Education Bureau:</p><p>No Title Cover Dissemination</p><p>details</p><p>1 A Teachers Guide to GIS Operations: Using</p><p>Geographic Information System (GIS) for</p><p>implementing enquiry learning in Geography</p><p>Disseminated to</p><p>schools in August</p><p>2009</p><p>2 Curriculum Support Materials for Senior Secondary</p><p>Geography (S4-6): Part 2 Using information</p><p>technology in learning and teaching()</p><p>[Two extra CD-ROMs/DVDs about tsunami are</p><p>reproduced in this educational package which are</p><p>very good resources for teachers to teach concepts</p><p>about tsunami:</p><p>a) Save Your Lives from Tsunami!(developed by Japan Meteorological Agency</p><p>in 2004)</p><p>b) Tsunami Teacher</p><p>(developed by the International Tsunami</p><p>Information Center (ITIC),</p><p>Intergovernmental Oceanographic</p><p>Commission (IOC) of UNESCO in 2006)</p><p>Disseminated to</p><p>schools in April</p><p>2009</p><p>10</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 Japan (Tohoku) Earthquake 2011 Guide Eng 30Mar2011</p><p> 11/12</p><p>Teachers may also use ready-made GIS programs and data on the Internet to facilitate</p><p>geography students to study the Tohoku Earthquake-Tsunami 2011.</p><p>GIS LoungeSendai (Japan) Earthquake and Tsunami Mapping</p><p>Response[http://gislounge.com/sendai-japan-earthquake-and-</p><p>tsunami-mapping-response/]</p><p>At the website of GIS Lounge, choose the following links to view various maps in GIS format</p><p>and conduct simple study about this Japan disaster.</p><p>1) Click the link Japan Earthquake Map Viewer on the website. The Texas TechUniversity (TTU) Japan Earthquake Viewer will then be shown. This GIS site provides</p><p>the following GIS functions and information:</p><p> Earthquake layers: These layers show the location of the Tohoku Earthquake 2011</p><p>and its aftershocks. Students can zoom in and out, and pan the maps;</p><p> Layers showing the impacts of the Tohoku Earthquake (e.g. fire and nuclear power</p><p>crisis).</p><p> Timeline of historic earthquakes</p><p> Street view, aerial view and topographic maps of Japan</p><p> Simple draw and measure functions: Teachers may ask their students to draw</p><p>some straight lines from the epicenter of the Tohoku Earthquake to different</p><p>locations at the northeast coast of Honshu, Japan. Then, students may measure the</p><p>length of the lines (i.e. distance) with this GIS program and evaluate the</p><p>relationship between distance from the coast and the destructive power of the</p><p>tsunami.</p><p> Identify function: Students can use this function to identify the information on</p><p>the maps....</p></li></ul>