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  • 1. Janet Bowstead November 2010 1

2. PHD RESEARCH PROJECT (ESRC-FUNDED) The research project (2009-2012) will be: mapping and analysing the relocation journeys of women experiencing domestic violence to services throughout England 18,812 women in 2008-09 53.9% had children with them, 67.4% were of White British ethnic origin, 8.2% were disabled. interviewing a sample of women about their experiences of relocation and resettlement. working creatively with women and domestic violence services to explore a re- conceptualisation of womens journeys 2 3. USING CONCEPTUAL TOOL BOXES All my books are little tool boxes. If people want to open them, to use a particular sentence, a particular idea, a particular analysis like a screwdriver or spanner ... so much the better! Foucault, Michel 1995 Dits et ecrits 1954-88 vol. 2 ed. D. Defert and F. Ewald, Paris: Gallimard. (1995:p720) 3 4. MICHEL FOUCAULT ON PANOPTICISM Surveiller et Punir - Discipline and Punish (Foucault 1991) Jeremy Benthams late eighteenth century Panoptican prison plan 4 5. 5 6. 6 7. PANOPTICAN a structured system whereby space becomes specified and functional enabling the easy and effective exercise of disciplinary power surveillance is permanent in its effects, even if it is discontinuous in its action because inmates internalise the gaze and regulate their own conduct each individual is isolated, unable to communicate, an object of hierarchical observation from the centre; able to be seen but not to see. 7 8. 8 9. POWER AND CONTROL WHEEL DOMESTIC ABUSE INTERVENTION PROJECT (DULUTH) abusive behaviours can be conceived as the spokes of a wheel, with physical and sexual violence holding it all together as the rim segments of the wheel parallel the cells of the Panoptican - representing aspects of a womans life and autonomy home, confidence, work, study, relationships, children, family the abusive man is able to exercise surveillance over each aspect simultaneously, because of the positioning of his power and control at the centre. 9 10. INTERNALISING THE SURVEILLANCE many women experiencing domestic violence internalise their partners demands to act, dress, organise the household, work, and bring up children in a particular way Holland et al 1998 characterise this as the male- in-the-head, arguing that both men and women live under the normalising male gaze: We take the male-in-the-head to indicate the surveillance power of this male-dominated and institutionalised heterosexuality. (p11) 10 11. GILLES DELEUZE AND FLIX GUATTARI ON RHIZOME (DELEUZE & GUATTARI 1988) contrast with dendriform concepts and actions open adventurous network forming ceaseless and unpredictable new connections in contrast to the linearity and inflexibility of roots, travelling along predictable routes tree roots or branches grow out from a centre, rhizomes grow opportunistically in all directions, starting up again after a rupture, and achieving deterritorialisation along lines of flight to connect with other multiplicities 11 12. RHIZOMIC JOURNEYS LINES OF FLIGHT womens journeys to flee domestic violence - if she can travel unpredictably in space, to unanticipated locations, she is less likely to be able to be followed escaping a regime of disciplinary power an abuser who knows her contacts - so power does not simply weaken as a function of distance making new connections, for example by using the network of womens refuges, a woman is more able to escape the operation of power over space 12 13. MARC AUG ON NON-PLACES (AUG 2008) a space which cannot be defined as relational, historical, or concerned with identity will be a non-place (p63) he associates non-places with certain ends, such as transport, commerce and leisure, rather than a concern with location for example holiday-makers may be largely indifferent as to whether they travel from Gatwick, Heathrow or Stansted, and therefore airports become non-places. 13 14. REFUGES AS NON-PLACES a woman fleeing domestic violence may be initially indifferent as to where she goes for refuge, so long as it is a place her partner does not know she may formally or informally change her identity she may sever contacts with friends and family she can only disclose her address as a Post Office Box number the building will have the functions of a house, but barely feels like a place of residence, let alone a home 14 15. MAKING PLACES refuges can attempt to counteract their tendency to be non-places and instead contribute to a sense of belonging and place through considerations of structural positioning challenging discrimination physical space designing to feel less institutional emotional space bringing women together collectively for support and to reduce isolation (Burman & Chantler 2004) 15 16. USING CONCEPTUAL TOOL BOXES FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES Providing insights to analyse womens spatial strategies in fleeing domestic violence. sensitising concepts to assist in identifying patterns and processes within the empirical data contextualising concepts to assist in analysing these patterns and generalising from the individual narratives of womens journeys 16 17. Foucault on the spatiality of surveillance Space as constraint useful in understanding what women are overcoming to leave abusive relationships Deleuze and Guattari on escape along rhizomic lines of flight Space as resource useful in understanding the journeys themselves Aug on un-location and non-places Space as place useful in understanding what needs to be counteracted to create new homes and belonging 17 18. REFERENCES Aug, M., 2008. Non-places: An Introduction to Supermodernity 2nd English- language edition, London and New York: Verso. Burman, E. & Chantler, K., 2004. There's No-Place Like Home: emotional geographies of researching 'race' and refuge provision in Britain. Gender, Place & Culture, 11(3), 375-397. Deleuze, G. & Guattari, F., 1988. Rhizome. In A thousand plateaus. London: Athlone Press, pp. 3-25. Domestic Abuse Intervention Project, Power and Control Wheel. Available at: http://www.theduluthmodel.org/wheelgallery.php. Foucault, M., 1991. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Surveiller et Punir 1975 trans. Alan Sheridan 1977), London: Penguin. Foucault, M. 1995 Dits et ecrits 1954-88 vol. 2 ed. D. Defert and F. Ewald, Paris: Gallimard. Holland, J. et al., 1998. The Male in the Head: young people, heterosexuality and power, London: The Tufnell Press. 18 19. Janet Bowstead - Research Student Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit London Metropolitan University e-mail: j.bowstead@londonmet.ac.uk tel: 020 7133 5014 19