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Italian Renaissance. Rebirth of classical civilization and birth of the modern world. The Renaissance. Greek Culture. Renaissance = REBIRTH A REBIRTH of WHAT? Classical Culture The Renaissance took place between 1350 CE and 1600 CE. Roman Culture. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Italian Renaissance

Rebirth of classical civilization and birth of the modern worldItalian RenaissanceRenaissance = REBIRTHA REBIRTH of WHAT?Classical Culture

The Renaissance took place between 1350 CE and 1600 CE

The Renaissance

Greek CultureRoman CultureWhy did the Renaissance begin in the Italian city-states?TRADETrade and the RenaissanceItalian city states prospered from trade due to their to the Byzantine Empire.

From AsiaOttoman EmpireItalian City StatesproximityTrade and the RenaissanceByzantine Empire (and, later, the Ottoman Empire) kept alive the culture and art of the Greeks and Romans during the Dark AgesItalian City States proximity to the Ottoman Empire resulted in trade, prosperity AND Cultural DiffusionWhat is Humanism?New way of thinking which emphasized: Secular ThemesPut worldly and human pleasures ahead of salvation or the afterlifeIndividualismEmphasis on the DIGNITY and WORTH of the INDIVIDUALRebirth of HumanismWarning! Famous Humanist

Petrarch(1304 CE 1374 CE)Introduced the sonnet wrote about love and emotion (and Laura!)Showed the HUMAN side of peopleLifelikeSecularHumanistREVOLUTIONARY!Moved away from flat, symbolic style used during the Middle AgesCharacteristics of Renaissance Art

Created Perspective to give their painting depthMore realistic

Renaissance Painting

Vanishing Point

Da Vincis The Last SupperReturned to the Classical style of the Greeks and RomansRenaissance Architecture

Leonardo Da Vincis sketch of the Church of the Santo Spirito (Florence)The Actual Church!(check out the perspective!!!)

Returned to Classical styleMore lifelike and intricateFree-standingShowed human form in all its glory. Example

Renaissance SculptureMichelangelos DavidWarning!!! Renaissance Architect!

Filippo Brunelleschi Best known for his the dome on the Cathedral of Florence

The Reformation

(and the minor cases of Constitutionalism)Absolutism

The Scientists of the Scientific RevolutionAnd their death defying feats of intellect.Nicolaus CopernicusIntroduced the heliocentric theory (Earth revolves around the Sun)

Tycho BraheSet up an observatory to study heavenly bodiesAccumulated data on planetary motion

Johannes KeplerSought mathematical proof for Copernicus hypotheses (theories)Planetary Motion planets travel in ellipses around the Sun

Galileo GalileiDeveloped a telescope to prove Planetary MotionForced by the Catholic Church to recant, then worked in secret

William HarveyDiscovered circulation of

BLOODScientific PhilosophersFrancis BaconHelped to develop the Scientific Method

Ren DescartesAnalytical GeometryAll Truth came from Reason I think, therefore I am.

Isaac NewtonDefined Laws of GravityDeveloped Calculus

(also known as The Age of Reason)The EnlightenmentThomas HobbesArgued that mankind is driven by two things:1. Fear of Death2. Desire for PowerLeviathanThe state must have central authority to manage behavior and prevent chaos.

John LockeReaction against Absolute MonarchyTwo Treatises on GovernmentPeople are sovereign (or are able to make their own decisions); monarchs are not chosen by God. Influence on Jefferson: Declaration of Independence

MontesquieuThe Spirit of LawsThe best form of government includes a separation of powers. Influence on the US Government three branches of government

Jean-Jacques RousseauThe Social ContractGovernment is a contract between rulers and the people. Also a contract between the majority and the minority in society (majority rule)Rousseau thought people should use reason, but not forget about love, emotion, and feelings.

VoltaireWrote satire (makes fun of real-life issues)Wrote CandideReligious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state; freedom of speech

Thomas JeffersonInspired by other Enlightenment thinkers to advocate for American independence from Great BritainMain author of the US Declaration of IndependenceBelieved in the EQUALITY of all men (however, slavery was still in practice in the new United States)

EFFECTS on Politics/SocietyIncrease in public discussion of politics and societySALONS gatherings of writers, artists, and educated people to discuss the philosophies of the day in the homes of wealthy peopleOrganized and ran by upper class women (EX: Madame de Pompadour mistress to Louis XV and French noblewoman)Spread ideas of the EnlightmentParis = intellectual center of the Enlightenment