introduction to humanities computing spring 1999 lecture four

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  • Introduction to Humanities ComputingSpring 1999Lecture Four

  • Important distinctionsAlgorithm

    integrated circuit


    plastic rodent





  • Know your generations1st vacuum tubes2ndtransistors3rdchips4thmicroprocessors

  • ChangesHow do computers change communication?

    What do computers not change?

  • Change?How we communicateInternet, E-mail, WWW, Chat, MUDs, IRCWhat we communicateMultimedia, Procedures, AgentsWhere we communicateHome Office, Virtual SpacesWhen we communicateAsynchronous Communication, ChatPace of communication

  • PaceMore ways = Faster?howwherewhenwhatMore places = Faster?More times = Faster?More types = Faster?

  • CostMore ways = cheaper?howwherewhenwhatMore places = cheaper?More times = cheaper?More types = cheaper?

  • Theorummost content-relatedglitches incomputer-mediated communication result fromthe confusion ofone-to-many communication with one-to-one communicationit is impossible to know your audienceonce and for allsothe big innovation wrought bycomputer-mediated communicationincrease in feedback * response * follow-upexpectations

  • Network VarietiesAlluqure Rosanne StoneThe War of Desire and Technology at theClose of the Mechanical Age (1995)

    See Chapter Five Agency and Proximityfor an engaging history of the CommuniTree BBS

    Pay close attention to how Stone portrays the link between the physical and virtual.

  • Communication networksSemaphores Postal Service Rail networkTelegraphPhone networkCouriersTV NetworksInternet

  • LayersSome of the layers involved in connecting computing machines :Physical Layer - Cables, Routers, NIC (Cards)Software Layer - Protocols and PacketsService Layer -WWW, E-mail, Gopher

  • LANsLocal Area NetworkNetwork CardsCableNetworked DevicesFile ServerNet PrinterShared DevicesPersonal Computers

  • WANsWide Area NetworkCAnet (Canada Wide)Onet (Ontario Wide)McMaster BackboneInternet (US nets)Togo Salmon LANOther BuildingsOther Universities

  • Movement of InformationPackets1. Your file is divided into lots of small packets.2. The packets are addressed.3. The packets are sent out.4. Packets are reassembled into a fileIP = From: and To: TCP = How many packets, orderInformation

  • Shapes of ConnectionDaisy ChainStarRingRemember the selection from Alluqure Rosanne Stone.What kinds of mental spaces do these formations evoke?

  • TopologiesDaisy-Chain



  • StarModemsMainframe

  • Daisy Chain

  • Ring

  • ModemOperates via telephone line connection Modem changes digital bits into analog signaland vice versaSee demo on Computer Confluence CD

  • What can you do with network?Share a Mainframe - TerminalsShare a File ServerSwap Files (FTP)Send Electronic MailJoin Discussion GroupsPublish and Read Information (Gopher, WWW)Application ServerFile ServerE-mail ServerWWW ServerList Server (Listserv)

  • How do you connect?Direct Connection (You have an IP address)

    Through an Access System (muss)TerminalMainframe (Access System)muss.cis.mcmaster.caInternetInternet MachineInternet

  • Stretch...What is the impact of Moores law on bandwidth?Moores LawIn 1965, Gordon Moore, Chairman of Intelpredicted the power of a silicon chip of the same price would double about every eighteenmonths for at least two decades. Bandwidth Basicsphysical medianetwork trafficsoftware protocolsnetwork connection

    Bandwidth & Processing Speedthe third element in network growthisStorage Space

    Which of these depends uponprocessor speed ?

  • Endsimple concepts when connectedappear to become complex

    Quick Q&A Have they done evening classes before?Spring Session?Group work?


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