informational (expository/persuasive/argumentative) toolboxforteachers.s3. students read...
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Standard K-2 The student will read and comprehend a variety of informational texts in print and nonprint formats.
Kindergarten students read informational
(expository/persuasive/argumentative) texts of the following types:
informational trade books and magazine articles. They also read directions, graphs, and recipes embedded in informational texts.
Indicator K-2.3 Exemplify facts in texts read aloud.
Definition of Revised Blooms Verb Exemplify: Finding a specific example or illustration of a concept or principle
Explanation of Indicator
A fact is what is actually real. It can be proven it to be true. For example, a turtle has a shell. To prove this statement to be true, students can see the shell on a turtle to confirm that it does have a shell.
Instructional Progression of Indicator
The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some areas of focus for facts differ at each grade level.
What do students need to know before they can understand facts in text read aloud?
Kindergarten students should be able to listen to stories read aloud. However, some students may have more experience with
print than others. Kindergarten students should understand the difference
between fictional text and nonfiction text. However, some
students may have more experience with text types than others.
Kindergarten students vary in beginning reading skills that support comprehension such as vocabulary, fluency, phonemic awareness, and phonics.
Within facts, what have students been taught and what will
they be taught in the future? Because the Academic Standards for English language arts begin at grade K, there are not any previous indicators. A kindergarten
classroom may be very diverse; students may have had various levels of exposure to print.
The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade. K-2.3 Exemplify facts in texts read aloud. 1-2.3 Understand the difference between facts and opinions.
2-2.3 Distinguish between facts and opinions in informational texts.
3-2.3 Distinguish between facts and opinions in informational texts.
4-2.3 Analyze informational texts to locate and identify facts and opinions.
5-2.3 Analyze a given text to detect author bias by locating indicators such as unsupported opinions.
6-2.3 Understand indicators of an authors bias such as the omission of relevant facts and statements of unsupported opinions.
When teaching facts, what connections, links, or ties can be
made to other indicators and/or content areas? K-2.1 Summarize the central idea and details from informational
texts read aloud.
K-2.2 Analyze texts during classroom discussions to make inferences.
K-2.3 Exemplify facts in texts read aloud. K-2.4 Create responses to informational texts through a variety of
methods such as drawings, written works, and oral
presentations. K-2.5 Carry out independent reading to gain information.
K-2.6 Understand that headings and print styles (e.g., italics, bold, larger type) provide information to the reader.
K-2.7 Understand graphic features such as illustrations and graphs. K-2.8 Recognize tables of contents. K-2.9 Conclude the cause of an event described in a text read aloud.
K-5.1 Use drawings, letters, or words to create written communications such as notes, messages, and lists to inform a
specific audience. K-5.2 Use drawings, letters, or words to create narratives such as
stories and journal entries about people, places, or things.
K-5.3 Use drawings, letters, or words to create descriptions of personal experiences, people, places, or things.
K-6.1 Generate how and why questions about a topic of interest. K-6.2 Understand that information can be found in print sources
such as books, pictures, simple graphs, and charts and
nonprint media such as videos, television, films, radio, and the Internet.
K-6.3 Classify information by constructing categories such as living and nonliving things.
K-6.4 Use complete sentences when orally communicating with
others. K-6.5 Understand and follow one- and two-step oral directions.
Classroom Assessment Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. For example, in this
indicator, the verb is exemplify. Students should be challenged to provide examples. When it is time for assessment, students should be asked to show what
they have learned in the same way they were taught, using cold text (text the students have not previously experienced). For example, during a discussion about
spiders, students can orally give facts about spiders, such as, Spiders have eight legs. Or, Spiders have many eyes. A teachable moment may arise if a student
mentions something that is an opinion, for example, Spiders are scary!
Students understanding of facts may also be assessed within their writing. Kindergarten students can create a variety of works containing facts with teacher assistance. For example, students may be asked to respond to a text or discussions
about spiders with a drawing. The teacher may ask students to state one fact about spiders. The teacher or students may then write the factual statement on
their drawings. Other assessment ideas for kindergarten are teacher observations/questions, writing and illustrating a factual sentence, and
making factual books.
Suggested Instructional Resources Professional Texts Harvey, Stephanie, and Anne Goudvis. Strategies That Work. Portland, ME:
Portalupi, Joann and Ralph Fletcher. Nonfiction Craft Lessons. New York:
For additional Internet sources, use the following search terms: fact and opinion teaching fact and opinion
how do you teach fact and opinion?
Standard K-1 The student will begin to read and comprehend a variety of literary texts in print and nonprint formats.
Students in kindergarten read four major types of literary texts: fiction, literary
nonfiction, poetry, and drama. In the category of fiction, they read the following
specific types of texts: picture books and fantasy. In the category of literary nonfiction, autobiographical and biographical sketches are read aloud to students. In the category of poetry, they read nursery and counting rhymes, songs,
narrative poems, lyrical poems, humorous poems, and free verse.
The teacher should continue to address earlier indicators as they apply to more difficult texts.
Indicator K-1.5 Understand how the authors choice of words affects the
meaning of the text. Definition of Revised Blooms Verb
Understand: Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic communication
Explanation of Indicator
Authors craft refers to the specific techniques that an author chooses to relay an intended message (e.g., figurative language, flashback, imagery, irony, word choice, and dialogue). Authors craft is best taught in the context of guided
literature conversations, shared-reading discussions, and reading aloud time. Example: After reading aloud The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle, the
literature conversation can focus on the descriptive words and repetitive lines that were used throughout the book.
Instructional Progression of Indicator The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some
areas of focus for the authors craft differ at each grade level. What do students need to know before they can understand
authors craft? Students need to know that pictures are sources of information
that give us clues to words. Students need to know that the meaning of a story and the text
will make sense and have structure (sounds right).
Students need to understand that print conveys meaning. Students need to know that pictures usually support the text
and that activating their schema to a storyline will give clues to the meaning of words. (e.g., when listening to a story about cats, children should have the expectation that it will contain
words associated with cats, such as tail, purr, and whiskers. Students need to know that authors use a certain craft to make
their reading and writing more interesting.
Within context clues, what have students been taught and what will they be taught in the future?
The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade. K-1.5 Understand how the authors choice of words affects the
meaning of the text. 1-1.5 Understand how elements of the authors craft such as word
choice affect the meaning of a given literary text.
2-1.5 Understand the effect of the authors craft, such as word choice and the use of repetition, on the meaning of a given
literary text. 3-1.5 Understand the effect of the authors craft, such as word
choice and sentence structure, on the meaning of a given
literary text. 4-1.5 Understand the effect of an authors craftsuch as word
choice, sentence structure, the use of figurative language, and the use of dialogueon the meaning of literary texts.
5-1.5 Understand the effect of an authors craftsuch as tone and
the use of figurative language, dialogue, and imageryon the meaning of literary texts.
When teaching authors craft, what connections, links, or ties
can be made to other indicators and/or content areas? K-1.1 Use pictur