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  • IndigenousTreesasHedgerowsSpeciesonSlopingAcidUpland

    Agroforestry System

    AgustinR.Mercado,Jr.,PhDDonImmanuelA.Edralin

    WorldAgroforestry Centre(ICRAF)

  • Outlineofpresentation

    UplandareasandSmallholder Hedgerowsystemdevelopment Agroforestry complementarity Indigenoustreespeciesintegratedonfarm Promisingvegetablesgrownwithtrees

  • UplandareasandSmallholdersPhilippines More than 7,000 islands Population is 92 M people Land area is 30 M has. 10 M has sloping acid upland soils 5 M has are less productive upland

    areas due to degradation

  • AtypicalfarmandfarminghouseholdinthePhilippineuplands:Poor,isolated,disenfranchised,andvulnerablebuttheiractionsonfarmhaveimpactslocallyandbeyondtheirfarmboundaries.

    Claveria representsthebiophysicalandsocioeconomicenvironments(>20Mpeople;30%ofPhilippineslandarea)

  • UplandareasandSmallholdersProblemandsolution

    Practices slash and burn systemOccupies about 1-2 has and Subsistence farming practicesChoice of incorporating trees depends on their perceived influences to cropsEffective sector in restoring forest ecosystems or driving towards near forest ecosystemsInappropriate farming practices Soils are acidic and inherently poorDeclining productivity Deforestation in upper watersheds Poverty and malnutrition

    Communities in many forest and vegetable producing watersheds in the Philippines are suffering from forest, soil and water resources degradation, and poverty

  • Treesshould: notcompromisefoodproductionandthelivelihoodofuplandfarmers.Itshouldinsteadcomplementincomegenerationandpromotefoodsecurityoffarmers

    whenintegratedwithvegetableproductionpromotepositiveinteraction,increasedproductivity,economicprofitability,improvefertilizeruseefficiencyandenhanceecosystemfunctions

  • UplandareasandSmallholders Soillossha1 yr1

    Traditionalfarming=350Mgor14,000bagsofsoil

    Contourfarming =40Mgor1,600bagsofsoil

    Tolerablesoilloss=12Mgor480bagsofsoil

  • AgroforestryA land use system in which woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos) are deliberately used in the same land management unit as agricultural crops (woody or not), animals or both, either in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence Lungren and Raintree (1982)

    DomesticationofindigenoustreeswithinAFmayreducepressuresonnaturalforests

    Cannotreallybeasbiodiverse asforestsbutcanbebetterthanconvensional agricl system

  • Hedgerow intercropping or alleycropping system1970-1990:

    Pruned hedgerow1990-2000: NVS 2000- present:

    commercial trees for fruit and

    timber

    PositiveControl soil erosionProvide organic fertilizerFodder for animalNegativeLabor intensiveCompetes with crops:space and growth resources

    PositiveVery cheap to establishControl soil erosion effectivelyNegativeNo economic benefits

    Potentials:Productivity/ProfitabilitySustainabilityEnvironmental services:

    - Diversity- Carbon stocks

  • UplandareasandSmallholders

    Treehedgrow system=6.5Mgor260bagsofsoil

    Tolerablesoilloss=12Mgor480bagsofsoil

    Grasshedgerowsystem=2.2Mgor88sacksofsoil

  • UplandareasandSmallholders

    Effectofdifferenthedgerowtypesonsoilloss

    ===============================Hedgerowsystems Soilloss(Mgha1)Grasses 2.20cForagelegumes 9.80cShrubs 5.70cTrees 6.50cContourcultivation 40.0bTraditionalcultivation 350.0a

    (up&downtheslope)

    Tolerablerate 12.0=============================================Rainfall:3000mmannually

    The greatest immediate impact of timber hedgerow system is reduction of soil loss which is about 55 times than traditional up and down the slope cultivation thus making soil nutrients particularly N become available to the food crops.

  • Understanding agroforestry biophysical processes leads to greater economic returns: Enhancing landscapes functions, livelihood

    opportunities and sustainability

  • Treevegetableinteraction

  • Agroforestry system

  • 4Ways ofImprovingEconomicBenefitofAgroforestry System

    1. Increase the value of trees (T)

    2. Increase the value of complementarity (Y2)

    3. Decrease or eliminate competition value (Y1)

    4. Decrease or eliminate the value of crop displacement area (D)

  • IncreasingthevalueofT(Trees)(1)

    Chooseindigenoustimbertreeswithpremiumtimberquality

    Optimizeverticaluseofabovegroundresources(spaceandlight)byusingmulticanopieshedgerowsystems(e.g.trees+banana+grasses)

    Optimizeuseofverticalandhorizontalbelowgroundresources(space,waterandnutrients)byusingdeeprootedindigenoustrees)

    OptimizeuseofinertresourcessuchasairandCO2 byusingN2fixingtrees(e.g.Narra Pterocarpus indicus andfastgrowingtreese.g lauan fortimberandcarbonsequestration)

  • IncreasingthevalueofY2(2)(complementarityzone)throughtheuseof:

    Optimumtreeline/hedgespacing

    Responsivealleycropstomicroclimateimprovement

    Deeprootedhedgerowspecies Optimumtreepruningregime(silviculture) Appropriatetreespeciesorotherhedgerowspecies(lesscompetitive)

  • DecreasingthevalueofY1 (3)(competitionzone)throughtheuseof:

    Adaptedalleycrops (cassavavs maize) Appropriatetreespecies

    Mediumtonarrowandlightcanopies Deeprooted N2fixing(ifpossible) Appropriatetreepruningregime

    Appropriatetreepruningregime(canopyremovalandtiming) Supplementalwaterandnutrientapplicationatcompetition

    zone(e.g.skewingtheapplicationofprunnings andfertilizer,applicationofdripirrigation)

    Orientthetreerowsparalleltothedirectionofthesun(eastwestifpossible)

  • DecreasingoreliminatingthevalueofD(cropdisplacementarea) (4)

    EnsurethatthevalueofTisgreaterthanopportunitycostofD UsesimilarapproachasemployedinincreasingthevalueofT Useofearlymaturinghedgesincombinationwithindigenous

    trees(clonallypropagatedtrees:rubber,coffee,timberandfruittrees(marcotting vs grafting;useofrootinghormones(IBA,ANAA,etc);foragegrassesandlegumes

    Reducethedisplacementareabyhavingfewerhedges(e.g.20metersinsteadof56metersapart)thusenhancingAFcomplementarity effect

  • Indigenoustreesonfarm

    kalumpit

    molave

    saplungan

    lauan

    apitong

    tindalo

  • Indigenoustreespeciesusedashedge

    Local Name Scientific Name Family

    Almon Shorea almon Dipterocarpaceae

    Apitong Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Dipterocarpaceae

    Dao Dracontomelon dao Anacardiaceae

    Kalumpit Terminalia microcarpa Combretaceae

    Molave Vitex parviflora Verbenaceae

    Narra Pterocarpus indicus Fabaceae

    Tindalo Afzelia rhomboidea Fabaceae

    White lauan Shorea contorta Dipterocarpaceae

    Yakal-saplungan Hopea plagata Dipterocarpaceae

  • Indigenoustreesonfarm

  • Indigenoustreesonfarm

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    Lowerelevation Middleelevation Higherelevation

    Percen

    tage

    Indigenoustreespecies

    Harvested(%)

    Mortality(%)

    Survival(%)

  • Indigenoustreesonfarm

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    Lowerelevations(457476masl)

    Middleelevation(519529masl) Higherelevation(788953masl)

    Percen

    tage

    Indigenoustreespecies

    110cm

    1020cm

    2030cm

    3040cm

    Diameterclass

  • Performanceassessmentoftree,leafy,vegetables,fruit,rootandclimbingvegetables

  • Treevegetableinteraction

  • Growthofvegetablesundertrees

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    0 5 10 15 20

    Bea

    ns (g

    /plt)

    Distance from the tree

    Competition zone Complementarity zone Nuetral zone Averageyield

    YieldislessthanWithouttrees

    Yieldisgreaterthanwithouttrees

    Yieldsameaswithouttrees

  • Schematicdiagramoftreevegetableagroforestry farm

  • D

    Tree tomatointeractionunderboundaryplantingsystem

    Yieldsameaswithouttrees

    Yieldisgreaterthanwithouttrees

    YieldislessthanWithouttrees

    ComplementarityCompetition Neutral

  • Relationship between tree height (m) and net complementarity

    y = 0.3034x + 12.696R2 = 0.14

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    18

    20

    (10.00) (5.00) - 5.00 10.00

    Net complementarity

    Tree

    hei

    ght (

    m)

  • Relationship between canopy width and net complementarity

    y = -14.254x + 560.37R2 = 0.08

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    800

    900

    (10.00) (5.00) - 5.00 10.00

    Net complementarity

    Can

    opy

    wid

    th (c

    m)

  • Promisingvegetablesatcompetitionzone(4.5(1.2)mfromtreehedge)

    Type Species Scientific name VarietyLeafy Amaranthus (5) Amaranthus caudatus TOT 2272 0.80 a

    Jute (4) Corchorus olitorius TOT 4721 0.53 cCabbage Brassica oleracea Resest crown 0.73 abChinese cabbage Brassica rapa Blues 0.63 b

    Fruit Eggplant (3) Solanum melongena S00- 633 0.67 bBellpepper Capsicum annuum 9950-5197 0.80 aOkra Abelmoschos esculentus 0.60 bTomato Lycopersicon esculentum WVCT-1 0.73 ab

    Climbing Alugbati (3) Basella alba TOT 5274 0.73 abYardlong bean (3) Vigna unguiculata TVO 2074 0.40 d

    Tree (4) Malunggay Moringa oleifera local 0.57 bcChinese malunggay Sauropus androgynous local 0.80 a

    Root Carrots Daucus carota local 0.80 a

    In a column, means having a common letters are not significantly different by

    by Tukey's test at 5% level

    Adaptability index

    Adaptabilityindex=Yieldatcompetitionzone(Y1)/yieldatneutralzone(Y0)

    Where:1=adapted

  • Pr

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