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  • Improving timing of sprays for codling moth

    Jerry Cross

  • Codling moth

    Crepuscular > 15 C

  • Underside of upper wing of male Codling moth

    Distinctive rectangular patch underneath upper wing. Not present in the female. Use a pencil or needle to open wing onto sticky base.

    Base of wing, where attached to body.

  • Damage

  • Deploy post blossom (early May) Monitor weekly Renew lures 4-6 weeks Threshold: 5/week for 2 weeks not necessarily successive Ovicides straight away, egg hatch sprays 7-10

    days later Insecticides give 2 wks cover, 3 wks Coragen

    Previous methods of timing codling sprays: Sex pheromone traps

  • Why pheromone-based-trapping needs to be improved?

    Only males are caught, males dont cause fruit damage

    Proterandry: males flight starts in advance Flight activity by males occurs at lower

    temp than egg laying by females Long-distance activity - pheromone trap

    attracts moths from outside the orchard Heavy insecticide use directed by

    pheromone trap monitoring not leading to long term reduction in populations

  • Bi-Sex lure (Pear ester lure;

    DA2313 lure) Ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate

    Major odour of ripe pear fruit (not leaves). Minor in apple

    Attracts males and females Sexing required (not difficult) Competition with crop Crop effect: Apple > Pear Cultivar Effect:

    Late vars > Early vars Looses attractancy through

    season

  • Combo and Triple codling moth lures

    Combo = sex pheromone + DA2313 Attracts males and females used for monitoring the success of sex pheromone MD Triple lure = sex pheromone + DA2313+ Acetic acid As Combo, but supposed to increase catch of females and decrease catch of males

  • Temperature sum phenological model predicts emergence and flight Dusk (21:00-24:00 hr) temps >15 C used to determine periods of egg

    laying risk

    Current methods of timing codling sprays: RIMpro-Cydia model

  • No resistant varieties Only individuals completing 1st generation development and

    laying eggs before end of July can complete a 2nd generation unlikely in UK

    2nd generation larvae damage fruit before harvest, even though dont contribute to next year populations

    Large % of 1st generation larvae diapause Mature fruits much more susceptible early vars more susceptible 2nd generation more damaging Control ineffective once larvae inside fruit Insecticides dont last so long in hot conditions (

  • Relationship between trap catches and damage very variable and erratic. Regular, direct counting of eggs on fruitlets only reliable way to time/direct sprays Time consuming, diligence, good eye sight, not difficult Weekly: 600 fruitlets/orchard for threshold 0.5% infested fruit

    But agronomists and growers consider egg monitoring impractical

    Optimum treatment timing to reduce overwintering codling moth

    (HDC project TF189; 2009-10)

  • Determine better practical methods for timing sprays of insecticides so reducing overwintering populations and achieving better long term control

    Improving codling moth spray timing HDC project TF204 1 April 2012-31 March 2015

    Method 1: Pheromone trap Method 2: Rimpro-Cydia Method 3: Rimpro-Cydia + pheromone trap

  • Plot 101 Trap

    Plot 103 Rimpro

    Plot 102 Rimpro+trap

    Codling sex pheromone trap Codling combo trap Summer fruit tortrix sex pheromone trap Fruit tree tortrix sex pheromone trap

    Site 1: Amsbury Farm; MM106 Bramley; 1 ha; 666 trees/ha

  • Plot 202 Trap Plot 203

    Rimpro+trap

    Codling sex pheromone trap Codling combo trap Summer fruit tortrix sex pheromone trap Fruit tree tortrix sex pheromone trap

    Plot 201 Rimpro

    Site 2: W. Pike Fish Fm; M9 Jonagold; 2.7 ha; 2500 trees/ha

  • Plot 303 Trap

    Plot 302 Rimpro

    Plot 301 Rimpro+trap

    Codling sex pheromone trap Codling combo trap Summer fruit tortrix sex pheromone trap Fruit tree tortrix sex pheromone trap

    Site 3: Wenderton Farm; M9 Kanzi; 7 ha; 2500 trees/ha

  • Pheromone trap catches 2012

  • RIMpro predictions 2012

  • Sprays 2012

    Trap RIMpro Trap+RIMpro Amsbury 6 Jun Runner 6 Jun Runner 6 Jun Runner 27 Jun Insegar 3 Aug Coragen W Pike Fish 21 Jun Insegar 28 Jun Insegar 12 Jul Coragen 3 Aug Steward Wenderton 19 Jun Insegar 27 Jun Insegar 4 Jul Steward

  • % fruit damage 2012

    Trap RIMpro Trap+RIMpro Amsbury 16.6 3.6 10.7 W Pike Fish 0.7 0.1 0.5 Wenderton 3.7 0.7 0.6

  • Just below threshold trap catches caused bad damage, especially in Aug Sep. Condition of 5/trap in two weeks, not necessarily successive, not quite met

    Pheromone trap threshold too high and complex Simplify to single value and reduce for 2nd generation May July: 5/week Aug Sep: 3/week Adjusted threshold adopted in 2013-14

    2012 Conclusions trap threshold

  • Using RIMpro-cydia model alone will result in large numbers of sprays in warm year

    In 2012, RIMpro-cydia model failed to predict early August attack and bad damage resulted at Amsbury. Feed through from 1st into 2nd generation incorrect.

    Parameters adjusted by model provider (Bio Fruit Advies, NL) for 2013

    2012 Conclusions RIMpro-cydia

  • Pheromone trap catches 2013

  • RIMpro predictions 2013

  • Sprays 2013

    Trap RIMpro Trap+RIMpro Amsbury 28 Jun Coragen 28 Jun Coragen 28 Jun Coragen 23 Jul Coragen 23 Jul Coragen 23 Jul Coragen W Pike Fish 19 Jun Coragen 25 Jun Coragen 25 Jun Coragen 9 Jul Steward 16 Jul Steward 16 Jul Steward 2 Aug Coragen Wenderton 19 Jun chlorpfos 19 Jun chlorpfos 19 Jun chlorpfos 3 Jul Coragen 3 Jul Coragen 3 Jul Coragen 18 Jul Steward 18 Jul Steward 18 Jul Steward 2 Aug Coragen

  • % fruit damage 2013

    Trap RIMpro Trap+RIMpro Amsbury 2.7 3.0 3.5 W Pike Fish 1.0 1.9 1.5 Wenderton 0.1 0.3 0.2

  • Simplified lower threshold satisfactory: Single value May July: 5/week Aug Sep: 3/week High level of damage at Amsbury suggested

    interval between sprays (cover period) should be reduced where bad damage previous year

    2013 Conclusions trap threshold

  • No second generation correctly forecast by model

    Model alone resulted in one more insecticide being applied at two sites, with no obvious benefit

    Model upgraded to online version by Bio Fruit Advies

    2013 Conclusions RIMpro-cydia

  • Pheromone trap catches 2014

  • RIMpro predictions 2014

  • Sprays 2014

    Trap RIMpro Trap+RIMpro Amsbury 31 May Coragen 10 Jun Coragen 19 Jun Steward 19 Jun Steward 25 Jun Steward 10 Jul Coragen 10 Jul Coragen 16 Jul Coragen 25 Jul Steward 25 Jul Steward 15 Aug Steward W Pike Fish 5 Jun Coragen 16 Jun Coragen 16 Jun Coragen 26 Jun Steward 3 Jul Explicit 28 Aug Steward 16 Jul Coragen 13 Aug Explicit 28 Aug Steward Wenderton 18 Jun Coragen 18 Jun Coragen 18 Jun Coragen 4 Jul Steward 21 Jul Coragen 15 Aug Explicit 30 Aug Steward

  • % fruit damage 2014

    Trap RIMpro Trap+RIMpro Amsbury 4.1 3.5 4.7 W Pike Fish 1.2 0.8 1.8 Wenderton 1.1 0.8 1.4

  • Simplified lower threshold satisfactory: Single value May July: 5/week Aug Sep: 3/week High level of damage at Amsbury stregnthened

    evidence that interval between sprays (cover period) should be reduced where bad damage previous year

    2014 Conclusions trap threshold

  • Model performed very differently in 2014 Scale altered, sensitivity significantly increased Model forecast near continuous egg laying risks

    resulting in large numbers of sprays on RIMpro only plot

    Model forecast strong second generation but no evidence from traps or damage that this occurred. Growers gave up spraying!

    Bio Fruit Advies confirmed that model had altered due to reprogramming for online version

    2014 Conclusions RIMpro-cydia

  • Total no. codling sprays 2011-14

    Trap RIMpro Trap+RIMpro Amsbury 7 9 6 W Pike Fish 5 11 4 Wenderton 3 11 5 Average no./season 1.8

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