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    CHAPTER- XI . ,i .r- 215


    Li ke many ot her r el i gi ous precept s, t he pr ecept s of

    Buddha were handed down oral l y f or a number of year s. The

    Buddhi st monks used t o keep t he t eachi ngs of Buddha on t heSoTa.



    The samgha therefore thought that it was time to assemble

    for the purpose of recitation, verification and collection of

    the Buddhas teachings. Consequently, three councils were held.

    The first council was held at Rajagijha in 483 B. C. (Four months

    after the Mahaparinibbana of the Buddha); the second at Yaisali

    in 383 B. C. and the third at Pataliputra in 247 B. C. The

    first one was presided over by the elder Mahakassapa$ the second

    by thevelder Revata? and the third, by Moggaliputta Tissa.

    When the third council was held, Asoka was the ruler.

    In his kingdom, there were many heretics (tirthikas), i. e.

    teachers of other faiths, who sought honour and patronage by

    entering the Buddhist order, but they were so far denied this

    privilege. The result was that they now claimed their own

    heresies to be the real doctrines and teachings of the Buddha.

    In order to weed out these heretics, A.loka convened a meeting

    and sending for each group in turn asked what really the

    doctrine of the Enlightened one was. Since each of these

    groups held its own doctrine to be that of the Buddha, Asoka,

    with the help of Tissa Moggalioutta (who was the president

    of this Council), threw these heretics out of the order.

    Only the FibhaJ^avadins were found to be the real followers

    of the Buddha. When this task was over, Elder Tissa, Moggalis

    1. cf. The History of Buddhist Thought, pp. 27-37.

    By Edward J. Thomas



    son, composed the Kathavatthu, In which * five hundred theses,

    put forward by various schools, in opposition to the doctrine

    of the Pitakas, are set out and refuted.

    The canonical texts of the Buddhists, are known as

    Pi|akas. In the first and second Councils, they were only

    recited. It was in the third Council that they were actually

    compiled. It may, nevertheless, be noted that the whole

    KatHffvatthu, In i t . present f o, is not the sae as itoriginally was because many later additions appear to have

    been made therein.

    The Buddhist Canon gives a detailed account of the

    religious doctrines and the disciplinary rules of the Buddhists.

    In the Canon, we find at places, an exposition of the views

    of rival schools, possibly meant for the better appreciation

    and understanding of the Buddha*s own views. An exposition

    thereof is given here, as it might help us in understanding

    the Pravaduka-dystis, discussed in the Nyaya-Sutras. 4.1.11-43.

    Before we proceed to examine the presentation and refu

    tation of such ? heresies, we may first give a brief account

    of the sacred texts of the Buddhists.

    The Buddhist canon Is classified In three main divisions

    known as Pitakas. They are s

    1. cf. ** Buddhism *% p, 226 by T. . Rhys Davids.



    (A) Vinaya Pitaka;

    (B) Sutta Pitaka;

    (C) Abhidhamma Pitaka.

    (A) The lnaya Pitaka comprises

    (i) Sutta Yibhaiiga,

    (ii) The Khandhakas which consist of the Mahavagga

    and the Culavagga, .

    (iii) Parivara.

    (B) The Sutta Pitaka comprises five Nikayas s

    (i) Digha Nikaya,

    (ii) Majjhima Nikaya,

    (iii) Samyutta Nikaya,

    (iv) Anguttara Nikaya,

    (v) Khuddaka Nikaya.

    The Khuddaka Nikaya, in its turn,

    minor works which are as under :

    (1) Khuddaka Patha,

    (2) D hammapada,

    (3) lid ana,

    (4) Itivuttaka,

    (5) Sutta pfiLpata,

    (6) imanavatthu,

    (?) Petaratthu,

    (8) Ther^gatha,

    consists of some



    ' (9) Therigatha,

    (10) Jitaka,

    (11) Niddesa,

    (12) Patisambhidamagga,

    (13) Apadana,

    (14) Buddhavamsa,

    (15) Cariyipitaka.

    (C) In the Abhidhamma Pitaka, we find seven Independent

    works x

    (1) Dhammasangani,

    (2) Vibhanga,

    (3) Dhatukatha,

    (4) Puggalapannatti,

    (5) Kathavatthu,

    (6) Yamaka,

    (7) PatthSna.

    sKenMIt m e t be noted that this is the Abhidhamma of the


    Theravadins and the Sarvastivadins have an Abhidhannapitaka

    in Sanskrit; the books of which, even though also seven in

    number, differ entirely from those of the Pali Abhidhamma


    l.See A History of Indian Literature,1 p. 173

    by M. Wlnternitz;

    also f* The History of Buddhist Thought,'* pp. 274-275

    by B. J. Thomas



    I l l t h i s c o n c e r n s t h e c a n o n i c a l t e x t s o f t h e B u d d h i s t s

    B u d d h i s t t h o u g h t w a s l a t e r d i v i d e d i n s e v e r a l s c h o o l s a m o n g

    w h i c h f o u r a r e p r e m i n e n t . T h e s e a r e :

    d( 1 ) B a h y a p r a t y a k s a v a d i n s o r V a i b h a s i k a B a u d d h a s ( D i r e d t R e a l i s t s ) #

    R.( 2 ) B a h y a n u m e y a v a d i n s o r S a u t r a n t i k a b a u d d h a s ( C r i t i c a l R e a l i s t s ) ,

    ( 4 ) T h e S u n y a v a d i n s o r M a d h y n u k a B a u d d h a s ( N i h i l i s t s ) .

    W e n e e d n o t e n t e r i n t o a n y d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g t h e s e v i e w s .

    W e s h a l l o n l y r e f e r t o a f e w o f t h e t r e a t i s e s o f t h e s e s c h o o l s

    w h i c h a r e a s u n d e r :

    ( a n d f l o u r i s h e d a t a b o u t t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t o f t h e s e c o n d

    a n d t h i r d c e n t u r y A . D . )

    ( 3 ) Y o g a e a r a b h u m i o f A s a n g a ( w h o l i v e d i n t h e f o u r t h C e n t u r y A . D .)

    ( 4 ) J a t a k a m a l a o f A r y a s u r a ( 4 t h C e n t u r y A . D . ) ;

    ( 5 ) L a r i k a v a t a r a S u t r a k n o w n a s S a d d h a r m a - L a n k a v a t a r a s u t r a a l s o

    ( o f t h e 4 t h C e n t u r y A . D . I t s f i r s t C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n

    i s o f 4 4 3 A . D . ) ,

    1 . T h e d a t e s o f t h e s e w o r k s a r e a c c o r d i n g t o w i n t e r n i t z * s

    vol-X-'*& H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n L i t e r a t u r e p p . 3 4 2 , 3 5 0 , 3 5 5 ,

    2 7 6 a n d 3 3 7 r e s p e c t i v e l y .

    ( 3 ) V l j n a n a v a d i n s o r Y o g a c a r a B a u d d h a s

    ( 1 ) T h e M l d h y a m a k a S a s t r a o f N a g a r j u n a ( 2 n d C e n t u r y A . D . ) ;

    ( 2 ) S a t a s a s t r a o f A r y a d e v a w h o w a s t h e d i s c i p l e o f N a g a r j u n a



    ' i,

    (6) Upayahrdayam - this is a book of which the original Sanskrit

    text is lost.^ It is a very ancient work according to

    Giuseppe Tucci, who has translated it from the Chinese

    l into Sanskrit again. This book is ascribed to Nagarjuna,

    but no such name is found in the list of books generally

    regarded as composed by NSgarjuna; and as Tucci observes,2

    it must be the work of some other Nagarjuna.

    Besides the buddhist canonical texts, a non canonical

    3treatise namely Milindapanho (first cdntury A. D.) and the

    books noted above which are of quite an early date, refer to

    several heretical views of their time; which were traditionally

    handed down. We cannot pronounce any opinion whether some of

    them as actually presented were prior to the Nyaya Sutras but

    we are confident that their exposition will help us in under

    standing the Pravaduka drstis in the Nyaya Sutras.

    We shall first discuss the main heretical doctrines,

    found in the Canonical buddhist texts. These views are as

    under s

    1. cf. Pre-Dinnaga Buddhist texts of logic from Chinese

    Sources,by Tucci, Introduction, page XI.

    2. cf. Ibid, p. XII.

    3. cf. A. History of Indian Literature JL

    p. 175, by Winternitz



    * (1) Akriyavada

    (2) Ahetuka Suddhivada,(3) tJ cchedavada,

    (4) Sa/vatavada,

    (6) Akrtavada,

    ( 6) Anis cayavada,

    (7) Theory of eight ineaplicable problems,

    (8) Sasvata - asasvatav'ada,

    (9) Santa-anantavada,

    (10) Isvaravada.

    (1) AKRTYAVAPA s

    An exposition of th is theory is found a t length

    in the Samannaphala su tta of the Digha Nikaya. Prince AJatasatru

    approaches Buddha in order to know the immediate f ru it which the

    li fe of a recluse can y ie ld , such a f ru it as is visib le in thi s

    very world. Buddha asks him whether he, (A jatasatru), had put

    the same question to other teachers as w ell. And AJatas'atru,

    admitting that he had put the question to some others, relates

    the answer which Purana Kassapa had given to him as under t -

    '* To him, who acts, 0 king, or causes another to act,

    to him who mutilates or causes another to mutilate,to him who

    punishes or causes another to punish, to him who causes grief

    or torment, to him who trembles or