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GRADE 8 NATURAL SCIENCES

WORKBOOK

MODULE 1: LIFE AND LIVING

LIFE AND LIVING

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Ta bl

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s Graphs

Introduction

Analysing graphs

Line graph

Line graph

Bar graphs (charts) and histograms

Pie graph

Assignment 1: graph exercises

Line graph

Bar graph

Pie graph

Photosynthesis and respiration

Introduction

Photosynthesis

The sun is the ultimate source of energy

The process of photosynthesis

Plants convert glucose into other compounds

Respiration

Respiration releases energy from food

Respiration and photosynthesis cycle

Conducting investigations

Observation and research question

Introduction

Aim

Hypothesis

Materials

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Assignment 2: conducting investigation

Interaction and interdependence within the environment

Introduction

Ecology

Interactions between living things

Ecosystems

Biotic and abiotic factors

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Ta bl

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s The size of an ecosystem

Survival in an ecosystem

Feeding relationships

Producers

Consumers

Decomposers

Food chains, food webs and energy pyramids

Food chains

Food webs

Energy pyramids

Balance in an ecosystem

Human factors that disrupt ecosystem balance

Adaptations

Defining adaptation

Assignment 3: adaptation

Changing environmental conditions and adaptations

Lack of adaptation causes extinction

Adaptations of plants

Camouflage and mimicry

Symbiosis

Conservation of the ecosystem

Why conserve species?

Sustainable use of resources

How environmentalists conserve ecosystems

How can I contribute to conservation?

Microorganisms

Introduction

Types of microorganisms

Viruses

Bacteria

Protists

Fungi

Preventing infection with microorganisms

Curing disease

Pasteurisation

Vaccines

Antibiotics

Micrographs and scales

Homework 1

GRADE 8 TERM 1 NATURAL SCIENCES MODULE 1 LIFE AND LIVING

e-classroom www.e-classroom.co.za ©

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What does this graph show us? You may be asked to DESCRIBE the graph or to EXPLAIN the graph.

When you are asked to describe the graph, you need to clarify what is happening on the graph.

So, describe the graph above:

GRAPHS

Introduction We are going to learn how to analyse and draw four different types of graphs: line graphs, bar graphs, histograms and pie graphs. Graphs are an important tool in maths, science and biology to communicate information.

Analysing graphs

Line graph 1

Line graph of Jill’s maths scores from grade 7-12

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GRADE 8 TERM 1 NATURAL SCIENCES MODULE 1 LIFE AND LIVING

e-classroom www.e-classroom.co.za ©

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In some instances, it will also be important to EXPLAIN the graph. When you are asked to explain the graph, you need to say WHY it is happening. This is not really relevant to the graph above, but we will look at another example below where it is relevant.

In every graph that is drawn with an x-axis and a y-axis there is an independent variable and a dependent variable. The x-axis is horizontal and depicts the independent variable. The y-axis is vertical and depicts the dependent variable.

The independent variable is the variable that the graph is showing that does not depend on anything

else. The dependent variable is the variable that the graph is showing that depends on the independent variable. In the example above, what is the independent variable and what is the dependent variable?

The maths score DEPENDS on the grade, therefore it is the dependent variable. The grade that the learners are in DOES NOT DEPEND on the maths score, therefore it is the independent variable.

In a graph that shows plant height over time in days, what is the independent variable and what is the dependent variable?

This is because time does not depend on the plants growing, and plant height will change with time, so it depends on time.

In a graph that shows how the density of water changes with temperature, what is the independent variable and what is the dependent variable?

This is because temperature does not depend on the density of the water, and the water density will change with temperature, so it depends on temperature.

X-as

Y- as

http://www.e-classroom.co.za

GRADE 8 TERM 1 NATURAL SCIENCES MODULE 1 LIFE AND LIVING

e-classroom www.e-classroom.co.za ©

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Line graph 2

Mr Smith recorded the temperature outside his classroom every hour during one school day. His results are listed in the following table:

Time 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

Temperature (OC) 8 9 11 12 12 13 10 9

He decided to plot a line graph to represent the data. Line graphs are useful for showing how things change over time.

Line graph showing the temperature outside Mr Smith’s class in a day

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