grade 8 natural sciences fungi 67 68 curing disease 68 pasteurisation 68 vaccines 69 antibiotics 69

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  • GRADE 8 NATURAL SCIENCES

    WORKBOOK

    MODULE 1: LIFE AND LIVING

  • LIFE AND LIVING

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    Ta bl

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    s Graphs

    Introduction

    Analysing graphs

    Line graph

    Line graph

    Bar graphs (charts) and histograms

    Pie graph

    Assignment 1: graph exercises

    Line graph

    Bar graph

    Pie graph

    Photosynthesis and respiration

    Introduction

    Photosynthesis

    The sun is the ultimate source of energy

    The process of photosynthesis

    Plants convert glucose into other compounds

    Respiration

    Respiration releases energy from food

    Respiration and photosynthesis cycle

    Conducting investigations

    Observation and research question

    Introduction

    Aim

    Hypothesis

    Materials

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    References

    Assignment 2: conducting investigation

    Interaction and interdependence within the environment

    Introduction

    Ecology

    Interactions between living things

    Ecosystems

    Biotic and abiotic factors

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    Ta bl

    e of

    c on

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    s The size of an ecosystem

    Survival in an ecosystem

    Feeding relationships

    Producers

    Consumers

    Decomposers

    Food chains, food webs and energy pyramids

    Food chains

    Food webs

    Energy pyramids

    Balance in an ecosystem

    Human factors that disrupt ecosystem balance

    Adaptations

    Defining adaptation

    Assignment 3: adaptation

    Changing environmental conditions and adaptations

    Lack of adaptation causes extinction

    Adaptations of plants

    Camouflage and mimicry

    Symbiosis

    Conservation of the ecosystem

    Why conserve species?

    Sustainable use of resources

    How environmentalists conserve ecosystems

    How can I contribute to conservation?

    Microorganisms

    Introduction

    Types of microorganisms

    Viruses

    Bacteria

    Protists

    Fungi

    Preventing infection with microorganisms

    Curing disease

    Pasteurisation

    Vaccines

    Antibiotics

    Micrographs and scales

    Homework 1

  • GRADE 8 TERM 1 NATURAL SCIENCES MODULE 1 LIFE AND LIVING

    e-classroom www.e-classroom.co.za ©

    1

    What does this graph show us? You may be asked to DESCRIBE the graph or to EXPLAIN the graph.

    When you are asked to describe the graph, you need to clarify what is happening on the graph.

    So, describe the graph above:

    GRAPHS

    Introduction We are going to learn how to analyse and draw four different types of graphs: line graphs, bar graphs, histograms and pie graphs. Graphs are an important tool in maths, science and biology to communicate information.

    Analysing graphs

    Line graph 1

    Line graph of Jill’s maths scores from grade 7-12

    http://www.e-classroom.co.za

  • GRADE 8 TERM 1 NATURAL SCIENCES MODULE 1 LIFE AND LIVING

    e-classroom www.e-classroom.co.za ©

    2

    In some instances, it will also be important to EXPLAIN the graph. When you are asked to explain the graph, you need to say WHY it is happening. This is not really relevant to the graph above, but we will look at another example below where it is relevant.

    In every graph that is drawn with an x-axis and a y-axis there is an independent variable and a dependent variable. The x-axis is horizontal and depicts the independent variable. The y-axis is vertical and depicts the dependent variable.

    The independent variable is the variable that the graph is showing that does not depend on anything

    else. The dependent variable is the variable that the graph is showing that depends on the independent variable. In the example above, what is the independent variable and what is the dependent variable?

    The maths score DEPENDS on the grade, therefore it is the dependent variable. The grade that the learners are in DOES NOT DEPEND on the maths score, therefore it is the independent variable.

    In a graph that shows plant height over time in days, what is the independent variable and what is the dependent variable?

    This is because time does not depend on the plants growing, and plant height will change with time, so it depends on time.

    In a graph that shows how the density of water changes with temperature, what is the independent variable and what is the dependent variable?

    This is because temperature does not depend on the density of the water, and the water density will change with temperature, so it depends on temperature.

    X-as

    Y- as

    http://www.e-classroom.co.za

  • GRADE 8 TERM 1 NATURAL SCIENCES MODULE 1 LIFE AND LIVING

    e-classroom www.e-classroom.co.za ©

    3

    Line graph 2

    Mr Smith recorded the temperature outside his classroom every hour during one school day. His results are listed in the following table:

    Time 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

    Temperature (OC) 8 9 11 12 12 13 10 9

    He decided to plot a line graph to represent the data. Line graphs are useful for showing how things change over time.

    Line graph showing the temperature outside Mr Smith’s class in a day

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