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  • March 2014

    FOOD ENGINEERING VOLUME - I

    By Pranav Kaushik

    Food Sciences Blog Publications

  • About Page

    Food Engineering Volume - I Ebook stands as 3rd Ebook in Food Sciences Blog Ebook Series, after Food Product Development and Introduction To High Pressure Processing Of Foods ebook publications.

    I dedicate this ebook to every researcher working in the field of Food Science & Technology.

    This ebook can be used as an introductory material to learn food engineering concepts.

    This book covers Basic concepts and scope of food engineering. Roles are a food engineer are briefly explained here. This ebook mainly discusses the principles of food engineering.

    Different categories of food properties; unit operations and unit processes; mass, momentum and energy balances; importance of transport phenomena and calculus; design and optimization are covered in this ebook.

    Future volumes of food engineering will cover the topics Transport Phenomena, Food Processing Plant Design, Engineering Properties of Food and Application of Food Engineering.

    Thanks for your support

    Pranav Kaushik

  • Contents

    01. Introduction ......... 03

    02. Variations & Definitions ......... 03

    03. Scope of Food Engineering ......... 06

    04. Roles of a Food Engineer ......... 08

    05. Principles of Food Engineering ......... 09

    06. Food Properties ......... 10

    07. Unit Operations & Unit Processes ......... 13

    08. Mass, Energy & Momentum Balances ......... 15

    09. Importance of Transport Phenomena ......... 17

    10. Advanced Engineering Mathematics ......... 18

    11. Design & Optimization ......... 19

    12. Conclusion ......... 20

    13. References ......... 20

  • Introduction

    The term Food Engineering gives us a clear idea that it involves food and engineering concepts.

    A branch of food science and technology which involves in agriculture, food science, microbiology, chemistry, physics and engineering.

    Food Engineering is an inter-disciplinary research area based on physical, chemical and mathematical fundamental principles (microbiology and biochemistry are also considered).

    Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering are like ancestors of Food Engineering as the later area what we see today emerged only due to the advanced research done in former areas during the last 100 years.

    Variations & DefinitionsFood Engineering is also called as Food Process Engineering as this area involves lot of processes/processing which convert raw food materials into food products.

    Although the word Process holds significance in the term Food Process Engineering as conversion of food from native form into a market-available final product involves 80-100% processing; food process engineering and food engineering are same.

    People use general terms like Food Process Engineering, Food Product Engineering and Food Product Development think that all these notations are same but when we zoom into each of these areas, they are different.

    Product Engineering Designing, stabilizing, transforming and creating ingredients and/or products using Unit Operations.

    Process Engineering - Science, Technology and Engineering used to standardize Unit Processes and Unit Operations in order to produce new products.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_engineeringhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_engineering

  • Product Development Complete process of bringing a new product into the market; right from analyzing the scope till the final step-marketing.

    Processing - Set of interrelated tasks that transform inputs into outputs.

    When it comes to Food Science and Technology, incorporating Food into above statements;

    Food Product Engineering Product Engineering of Food:Designing, stabilizing, transforming and creating food ingredients, edible micro-structures and products using Unit Operations.

    Food Process Engineering Process Engineering of Food:Food Science, Technology and Engineering used to standardize Unit Processes and Unit Operations in order to produce new food products.

    Food Product Development Product Development of Food:Complete process of bringing a new food product into the market; right from analyzing the scope till the final step-marketing.

    Food Processing Processing of Food:Transformation of raw food ingredients/materials into final food products.

    Arent they different ???

    Yes, they are.

    In fact, they are related to each other. In few cases, one is sub-set of other etc.,

    Ex: Food Process Engineering deals only with engineering aspects of Food Processing. There are other aspects like Biology concepts, Harvesting/Post-Harvesting Processes, etc., too which are considered during Food Processing.

    Thus, we can say Food Process Engineering is a sub-set of Food Processing.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_(engineering)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_product_development

  • Chemical Engineering Vs Mechanical Engineering Food Process Industry

    Food Process engineering is an integration of Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.

    I often wondered that the principles used in Food Process Engineering are different from Mechanical Engineering or from Chemical Engineering.

    Basic fundamentals are same. Applications differ in both fields.

    Mechanical Engineering and Chemical Engineering both overlap with Food Process Engineering.

    Only the names are different. Below are the areas common in both fields.

    Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics | Mechanical Thermodynamics

    Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics | Mechanical Fluid Mechanics

    Chemical Engineering Transport Phenomena | Mechanical Transport Phenomena

    Chemical Engineering Design | Mechanical Engineering Design

    Chemical Engineering Heat Transfer | Mechanical Engineering Heat Transfer

    The principles related to Fluid Mechanics or Heat or Mass Transfer; they are all same in all these 3 fields chemical, mechanical and food engineering.

    Final Outputs Efficiency and Yield are important for both mechanical and chemical processes.

    Mechanical Industries and Chemical Companies operate the Unit Operations similarly.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanical_engineeringhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_engineeringhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_engineering

  • Only one difference exists, when mechanical and chemical processes are compared.

    Chemical processes are involved in the preparation of Pharmaceuticals, Proteins, Food Ingredients, Food Micro-structures, New Food Products etc.,

    All these final products should be pure and safe for consumer use.

    Product Quality is a very very critical parameter to be considered by Chemical Industries.

    A small trace of contamination or harmful toxin or impurity can be fatal to consumers.

    Chemical processes should be strictly monitored in Pharmaceutical industries, Food industries and Chemical Industries.

    Doesnt mean that end products of mechanical industries should contain impurities, but pharma or food products are more crucial than mechanical products.

    There is No doubt that Mechanical processes give maximum yield and very efficient. Also, accuracy is required.

    Hope you understood the difference in both the fields.

    Scope of Food EngineeringFood (Process) Engineering primarily involves various unit operations and chemical reaction processes which convert raw materials into final food products.

    This area of food science and technology involves basic biological, physical and chemical principles and advanced engineering mathematical principles.

  • The whole stuff is to produce end products which are

    1. Safe and best in quality

    2. Convenient and ready to eat

    3. Nutritious and healthy

    4. Affordable and available in plenty

    Food Engineering also deals with design of food-processing equipment for maximum product yield as well as for sanitation/cleaning purposes.

    Sanitation also plays a crucial role because chemical, physical and microbiological hazards can be harmful to consumers.

    Area-wise Scope:

    1. Food Processing Technology

    2. Food Machinery and Equipment

    3. Food Packaging Technology

    4. Food Ingredient Technology

    5. Food Manufacturing Processes

    6. Instrumentation Control

    7. Food Product Development

    8. Food Quality control

    All the above areas are linked with Food Engineering principles. Food engineers can work in one or combination of more than one areas.

  • Industrial Sectors:

    The below sectors of Food industry utilize engineering principles for the preparation of food products.

    1. Bakery Bread, Snack, flour-related

    2. Confectionery C

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