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  • Fermentationversuscomposting

    Researchby:

    FeedInnovationServicesBV,

    Wageningen,

    TheNetherlands

    For:

    EMAgritonBV,

    Noordwolde(Friesland),

    TheNetherlands

    2013

  • Fermentationversuscomposting

    FeedInnovationServicesBV

    Authors:

    AnkeHitmanBSc

    KlaasBosPhD

    MarlouBoschPhD

    ArjanvanderKolkMSc

    GeneraalFoulkesweg72

    6703BWWageningen

    T:0317465570

    F:0317410773

    info@feedinnovation.com

    www.feedinnovation.com

    BTW:NL0071.53.582.B.01

    KVK:17086023

    Bankgegevens

    INGBank,Helmond

    Rek.nr.66.21.43.310

    BIC:INGBNL2A

    Iban:NL89INGB0662143310

  • Fermentationversuscomposting

    3

    Contents

    1Introduction....................................................................................................................................................4

    2Materialsandmethods..................................................................................................................................5

    3Results..........................................................................................................................................................11

    3.1Temperature..........................................................................................................................................11

    3.2Weight...................................................................................................................................................11

    3.3Composition...........................................................................................................................................12

    3.3.1Analyticalresults............................................................................................................................12

    3.3.2Minerals..........................................................................................................................................15

    3.4CO2footprint........................................................................................................................................17

    4Discussion.....................................................................................................................................................18

    5Conclusions...................................................................................................................................................19

    Literature.........................................................................................................................................................20

    AppendixI:Logbook

    AppendixII:CO2footprintcalculation

  • Fermentationversuscomposting

    4

    1IntroductionComposting of organic (waste) materials has already been applied for many years in the agro andhorticulture.Duringcomposting,thematerial isaeratedbyregularlyturning thewindrowwithagrinder.This strongly stimulates the growth ofmicroorganisms. Thesemicroorganisms break down the organicmatter.Thiswillheatupthewindrowandaconsiderablepartoftheorganicmatterwillgetlostduringthisprocess.

    Anotheroptionisfermentationoftheorganic(waste)materials.Thisprocesstakesplacewithoutaerationandwithoutanyextraprocessing.Seashell lime,ClaymineralsandMicroferm (EffectiveMicroorganisms)areaddedtothewindrowwhenthewindrowispreparedforfermentation.Afterthisthewindrowwillbeclosed by putting a plastic foil tightly stretched over thewindrow.After a period of 6 to 8weeks thewindrowisfermented.ThisiscalledBokashi;fermentatedorganicmatter.

    Thegoalofthisexperimentwastocomparetheeffectof fermentationoforganic (waste)materialswiththe commonwayof composting. Itwasexpected that through anaerobic conversion (fermentation)oforganicmaterialmorenutrientswillberetainedintheproduct.

    Thisreportdescribesfirstthematerialsandmethods.Inchapter3theresultsaregiven.Afterthisfollowsadiscussion.Theconclusionsaregiveninchapter5.

  • Fermentationversuscomposting

    5

    2MaterialsandmethodsThefollowingmaterialswereusedfortheexperiment:

    26,800kgroadsidecuttingmaterial 29literMicroferm 293literwellwater 300kgEdasilclayminerals 300kgOstreaseashelllime 200litertank 2x12literbuckets 2x10literwateringcans Weighbridge Tractorwithdumper Tractorwithgrinder

    Wheelloader(withaclosedbucket) Temperatureindicator Silageplasticofminimal4by20m Gravelbags Sand Protectioncoverofminimal3by19m,

    forprotectingthesilageplastic Airtightbags Waterproofmarker Scalesforupto5kg

    TheexperimentwascarriedoutatVandenHengelfarmcompostinginAchterveld(TheNetherlands).Twowindrowsweremadeinabarnwithaconcretefloor:

    1. Bokashi:madebytheBokashimethodofAgriton;2. CommonCompost:madebythetraditionalcompostingmethod.

    Table1showstheexperimentaldesignperwindrow.

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    Table1:Experimentaldesignofbothwindrows.

    Windrow 1:BokashiWindrow2:CommonCompost

    1.Organic(waste)material 26,800kgroadsidecuttingmaterialfromtheRomeinenbaaninWijkbijDuurstede(TheNetherlands)2.Determinem3ofthematerial 29,700kgis + 65m3,so 26,800kgis+58.7m33.Determinethetemperature 39.1 C

    4.Makeahomogeneousmixture Allthematerialwasputdowninonewindrowandhasbeenmixedoncewiththegrinder5.Takesamples 6samplesweretakenon equallydividedplaces6.Divideintotwowindrows,whichareasidenticalaspossible 13,400kg,so+29.3m3 13.400kg,so+29.3m3

    7.Buildupwindrowswithsimilarwidthandlength Layerwise2.9mx18.6m0.5mhigh

    2.9mx16.5m.1.1mhighinthemiddle

    Duringbuildingupwindrows:add1literMicroferm/m3,10kgEdasilclayminerals/m3and10kgOstreaseashelllime/m3

    Aftereachlayerapartoftheadditionsisadded.Thetotaladditionsare:29literMicrofermsolvedin293literwellwaterwitha200litertank,12literbucketsandwateringcans.300kgEdasilclaymineralswithawheelloaderwithaclosedbucket300kgOstreaseashelllimewithawheelloaderwithaclosedbucket

    n.a.

    8.Mixingafterbuildingupawindrow Oncewiththegrinder n.a.9.Presswithawheelloader Yes n.a.10.Measurethetemperature At3placesinthewindrow At3placesinthewindrow11.Closeupwithsilageplastic,protectioncoverandstrengthenwithgravelbagsandsand Yes n.a.

    Turnthewindrowonceaweek n.a. SeeappendixIWeeklymeasurementofthetemperatureofthewindrowsandoftheenvironment

    Seeappendix I.At3placesinthewindrow(closeupholesintheplasticwithtape)

    SeeappendixI.At3placesinthewindrow

    Takesamples(threeperwindrow) SeeappendixI. After3and6weeksSeeappendixI.Eachweek

    Weighthewholewindrowafter6weeks SeeappendixI SeeappendixI

    The added additions to the Bokashi windrow comprised Microferm solved in well water, Edasil claymineralsandOstreaseashelllime.Microfermcontainsseveralmicroorganismsfrom5differentgroups,10differentfamiliesand80species.Table2showsthegroupsandfamilies.

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    Table2:CompositionofMicrofermGroups FamiliesLacticacidbacteria StreptomycesalbusalbusPhotosyntheticbacteria RhodopseudomonassphaeroidesYeast LactobacillusplantarumActinomyces PropionibacteriumfreudenreichiiMoulds Streptococcuslactis Streptococcusfaecalis Aspergillusoryzae Mucorhiemalis Saccharomycescerevisiae Candidautilis

    Table3showsthecompositionofwellwater.

    Table2:CompositionofwellwaterParameter AmountEscherichiacoli(cfu/ml)

  • Fermentationversuscomposting

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    Table4:CompositionEdasilclaymineralsParameter AmountMontmorillonitelevel(%) 7080Specificsurface(m2/g) 600800Ionexchangecapacity(mvol/100g) 7085Wateruptakecapacity(%) 135Waterlevel(%) 68pHvalue 78Alkalinefunction(%) 4Density(g/cm3) 2.6Siliconoxide(%) 56Ironoxide(%) 0.4Aluminiumoxide(%) 16.0Calciumoxide(%) 4.0Magnesiumoxide(%) 4.0Potassiumoxide(%) 2.0Sodiumoxide(%) 0.4Boron(ppm) 1.000Cobalt(ppm) 35Copper(ppm) 20Manganese(ppm) 300Molybdenum(ppm) 20Nickel(ppm) 50Zinc(ppm) 90

    Table5showsthecompositionofOstreaseashelllime.

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    Table5:CompositionOstreaseashelllimeParameter AmountDrymatter(%) 99.5Ash(%) 97.5Phosphorous(%) 0.05Calcium(%) 37.7Carbonate(%) 96.1Sodium(%) 0.4Potassium(%)

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    ThesesampleswereanalyzedbyAgrarischLaboratoriumNoordNederland inFerwerd (TheNetherlands).Theusedanalyticalmethodsandmeasureuncertaintyareshownintable6.

    Table6:Usedanalyticalmethodsandmeasureuncertainty(AgrarischeLaboratoriumNoordNederland)Parameter Analyticalmethod MeasureuncertaintyMoisture gravimetric 1.34%Drymatter gravimetric 3.10%NTotal continuousflowanalyzer 2.56%NMineral continuousflowanalyzer 6.50%NOrganic continuousflowanalyzer 4%

    Crudeash gravimetric 2.41%Crudeprotein continuousflowanalyzer 0.49%Crudefiber gravimetric 3.20%Fat afterhydrolysing 6%PH pHindicator 0.15%Sugar luffschoorlmethod 6.80%NDF vanSoestmethod 13.0%ADF vanSoestmethod 13.0%ADL vanSoestmethod 13.0%

    Potassium ICP 3.64%Sodium ICP 5.30%Calcium ICP 4.67%Magnesium ICP 3.35%Phosphorous ICP 5.95%Manganese ICP 7.62%Iron ICP 8.68%Zinc ICP 5.30%Cobalt ICP 16%Molybdenum ICP 3.36%Sulfur ICP 2.10%Selenium ICPMS 15.60%Chlorine continuousflowanalyzer 7.44%

    Hemicelluloseswascalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:

    Hemicelluloses=NDFADF

    Cellulosewascalculatedaccordingtothefollowingformula:

    Cellulose=ADFADL(Spiller,1992)

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    3Results

    3.1Temperature

    The temperature of bothwindrows aswell as the environmental temperatureweremeasuredweekly.Figure3shows the results.The roadsidecuttingmaterialhadanaverage temperatureof39.1 Cat thestartoftheexperiment.TheCommonCompostincreasedinaweektoanaveragetemperatureof73.3C,while the Bokashi decreased to an average temperature of 15.5 C. Bokashi decreased to an averagetemperatureof13.7Cduring6weeks.ThetemperatureoftheBokashiwassimilartotheenvironmentaltemperature.Th