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    EU fisheries policy – latest developments

    and future challenges

    Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies Directorate-General for Internal Policies

    PE 629.202 − November 2019

    EN

    STUDY Requested by the PECH committee

  • RESEARCH FOR PECH COMMITTEE

    EU fisheries policy – latest developments

    and future challenges

    Abstract

    This study examines the latest developments of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) in the fields of fisheries management, Common Market Organisation (CMO) and its external dimension. It also discusses the potential challenges that the EU fisheries policy might be facing in the near future. The present research contains ten case studies and concludes with possible solutions and recommendations to address some of the sector’s forthcoming challenges.

  • This document was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on Fisheries.

    AUTHORS

    AZTI: Martín ARANDA, Raúl PRELLEZO, Marina SANTURTÚN DTU Aqua: Clara ULRICH Université de Brest: Bertrand LE GALLIC FishFix: Lisa BORGES SAKANA Consultants: Sébastien METZ

    Research manager: Marcus BREUER Project and publication assistance: Mariana VACLAVOVA Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies, European Parliament

    LINGUISTIC VERSIONS

    Original: EN

    ABOUT THE PUBLISHER

    To contact the Policy Department or to subscribe to updates on our work for the PECH Committee please write to: Poldep-cohesion@ep.europa.eu

    Manuscript completed in September 2019, rev. edition November 2019 © European Union, 2019

    This document is available on the internet in summary with option to download the full text at: http://bit.ly/2k6rVSX

    This document is available on the internet at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document.html?reference=IPOL_STU(2019)629202

    Further information on research for PECH by the Policy Department is available at: https://research4committees.blog/PECH/ Follow us on Twitter: @PolicyPECH

    Please use the following reference to cite this study: Aranda, M., Ulrich, C., Le Gallic, B., Borges, L., Metz, S., Prellezo, R., Santurtún, M. (2019) Research for PECH Committee — EU fisheries policy – latest developments and future challenges, European Parliament, Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies, Brussels Please use the following reference for in-text citations: Aranda, Ulrich, Le Gallic et al. (2019).

    DISCLAIMER

    The opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament. Reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes are authorized, provided the source is acknowledged and the publisher is given prior notice and sent a copy.

  • EU fisheries policy - latest developments and future challenges

    3

    CONTENTS

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 6

    LIST OF BOXES 8

    LIST OF FIGURES 8

    LIST OF TABLES 9

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11

    BACKGROUND AND SCOPE 15

    INTRODUCTION 17

    1.1. Overview of the fisheries sector 17

    1.2. Regulatory framework 20

    1.3. Institutional flow 21

    FISHERIES MANAGEMENT 23

    2.1. Background 23

    2.2. Latest developments 24

    2.2.1. Slowly improving status of European fisheries 24

    2.2.2. A controversial policy: the landing obligation 26

    2.2.3. Achievement of the MSY objective and Multi-Annual management Plans 27

    2.3. Future challenges 28

    2.3.1. Policy challenges 28

    2.3.2. New monitoring technologies 33

    2.3.3. Biological and ecological challenges 34

    2.4. Case study 1: Cod in the Baltic Sea 37

    2.4.1. Situation 37

    2.4.2. Forthcoming scenarios 39

    2.4.3. Identification of gaps 40

    2.5. Case study 2: Anchovy and sardine in the Adriatic Sea 41

    2.5.1. Situation 41

    2.5.2. Forthcoming scenarios 44

    2.5.3. Identification of gaps 45

    2.6. Case study 3: Mixed fisheries in the Celtic Sea 46

    2.6.1. Situation 46

    2.6.2. Forthcoming scenarios 47

    2.6.3. Identification of gaps 48

    2.7. Conclusions 49

  • IPOL | Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies

    4

    2.8. Recommendations 49

    COMMON MARKET ORGANISATION 51

    3.1. Background 51

    3.2. Latest developments 54

    3.3. Future challenges 56

    3.4. Case study 4: Seabass & seabream aquaculture in the Mediterranean Sea 57

    3.4.1. Situation 58

    3.4.2. Forthcoming scenarios 61

    3.4.3. Identification of gaps 62

    3.5. Case study 5: Northern EU market 62

    3.5.1. Situation 63

    3.5.2. Forthcoming scenarios 66

    3.5.3. Identification of gaps 67

    3.6. Case study 6: Western waters (including channel fisheries) 67

    3.6.1. Situation 68

    3.6.2. Forthcoming scenarios 73

    3.6.3. Identification of gaps 74

    3.7. Conclusions 75

    3.8. Recommendations 76

    EXTERNAL DIMENSION 77

    4.1. Background 77

    4.2. Latest developments 78

    4.3. Future challenges 81

    4.4. Case study 7: The SFPAs with Mauritania, Senegal and Guinea-Bissau 83

    4.4.1. Situation 83

    4.4.2. Forthcoming scenarios 86

    4.4.3. Identification of gaps 88

    4.5. Case study 8: The EU and fisheries governance in tuna RFMOs 88

    4.5.1. Situation 88

    4.5.2. Forthcoming scenarios 93

    4.5.3. Identification of gaps 94

    4.6. Case study 9: The EU and its cooperation in international fisheries governance 95

    4.6.1. Situation 95

    4.6.2. Forthcoming scenarios 99

    4.6.3. Identification of gaps 99

  • EU fisheries policy − latest developments and future challenges

    5

    4.7. Case study 10: The Brexit and fisheries 101

    4.7.1. Situation 101

    4.7.2. Forthcoming scenarios 106

    4.7.3. Identification of gaps 107

    4.8. Conclusions 108

    4.9. Recommendations 108

    CONCLUDING REMARKS 111

    REFERENCES 113

  • IPOL | Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies

    6

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

    AC Advisory Council

    ABNJ Areas Beyond National Jurisdictions

    BSAC Baltic Sea Advisory Council

    CAP Common Agriculture Policy

    CCP Cooperating and Contracting Party

    CCSAMLR Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

    CCSBT Commision for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna

    CECAF Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic Fishery

    CFP Common Fisheries Policy

    CMM Conservation and Management Measures

    CMO Common Market Organisation

    DCF Data Collection Framework

    DWFN Distant Water Fishing Nation

    EBFM Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management

    EC European Commission

    EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone

    EFCA European Fisheries Control Agency

    EFJ Extended Fisheries Jurisdiction

    EM Electronic Monitoring

    EMFF European Marine and Fisheries Fund

    EP European Parliament

    EU European Union

    EUFA European Union Fisheries Association

    FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations

    FMSY Maximum Sustainable Yield exploitation rate

    FTA Free Trade Agreements

    GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

    GDP Gross Domestic Product

    GFCM General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean Sea

    GVA Gross Value Added

    IATTC Inter American Tropical Tuna Commission

    ICCAT International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas

  • EU fisheries policy − latest developments and future challenges

    7

    ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

    ILO International Labour Organisation

    IOTC Indian Ocean Tuna Commission

    IUU Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (fishing)

    JR Joint Recommendation

    JRC Joint Research Center

    kW kilowatts

    LDAC Long Distant Advisory Council

    MAP Multi-Annual management Plan

    MCS Monitoring, Control and Surveillance

    MSY Maximum Sustainable Yield

    NAFO North Atlantic Fisheries Organization

    NASCO North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization

    NEAFC North Atlantic Fisheries Commision

    NGOs Non Governmental Organisations

    PDO Protected Designation of Origin

    PECH European Parliament’s Committee on Fisheries

    PET Protected Endangered and Threatened Species

    PGI Protected Geographical Indication

    PMP Production and Marketing Plan

    RFMO Regional Fisheries Management Organisations

    STECF Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries

    SFPA Sustianable Partnership Fisheries Agreements

    TAC Total Allowable Catch

    UNCLOS United Nations Convention of the Law of the Seas

    UNFSA United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement

    UNGA United Nations General Agreement

    UK United Kingdom

    WCPFC Western and Central Fisheries Commission

    WTO World Trade Organisation

  • IPOL | Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies

    8

    LIST OF BOXES Box 1: Selected extracts of Article 2 of the CFP Basic Regulation 52

    Box 2: Selected extract from the Chapeau of GATT Article XX 55

    Box 3: Recital (4) of the CMO Regulation 57

    Box 4: Recital (6) of the CMO Regulation 63

    Box 5: Article 17 of the CFP Basic Regulation 74

    LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: The ten largest fish producers in

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