Environmental science priyanka

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<ul><li> 1. Role of individual in preservingnatural resources for theirequitable maintenance</li></ul> <p> 2. Natural resources Resources that occur naturally and meet the desires of the entire living beings are known as natural resources. They resources are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. A commodity is generally considered a natural resource when the primary activities associated with it are extraction and purification, as opposed to creation. All the natural resources come from environment. some of them are essential for our survival while most of them are essential for satisfying our wants. A countrys economic standing and independence are base on long-term sales of its natural resources, also known as commodities, to other nations. Today, population explosion and incresase in mans greedy nature have become the main causes for exploitation of natural resources. 3. Classification of natural resourcesNatural resouces are classified into twoTypes basing on their origin.They are: BIOTIC:These are also known as theliving resources.These are the renewableresources and include the plants andanimals. Examples of biotic resourcesare forests, plants, animals, birds, fish,and marine organisms. Mineral fuelscan be, but not always are, regarded asbiotic resources since they are derivedfrom or products formed from decayedorganic matter. ABIOTIC:Abiotic resources are resourcesthat are nonliving. These resources fallinto the larger category of natural resources, which occur naturally inthe environment and are not created or produced by humans or humanactivity.examples are minerals,water,land,energy resources etc 4. Basing on their availability natural resources are classified into two types.They are:1. Renewable resources2. Non-renewable resources 5. Renewable resources: A renewable resource is a natural resource with the ability to reproduce through biological or natural processes and replenished with the passage of time. Renewable resources are part of our natural environment and form our ecosystem Renewable resources are those whose supply becomes available for use at different time intervals and in which present use does not diminish future supply. Tree and plant biomass, water and wildlife are a few renewable natural resources. Renewable sources have low carbon emissions, therefore they are considered as green and environment friendly. 6. Non-renewable resources: A non-renewable resource is a naturalresource which cannot be reproduced, grown,generated, or used on a scale which cansustain its consumption rate, once depletedthere is no more available for future needs. Non-renewable sources are not environmental friendly and can have serious affect on our health. Non-renewable sources will expire some day and we have to us our endangered resources to create more non-renewable sources of energy. Non-renewable sources release toxic gases in the air when burnt which are the major cause for global warming. Examples for non renewable resources are fossil fuels, natural gas, oil and coal. 7. Types of natural resourcesDifferent types of naturalresources are:Forest resourcesWater resourcesMineral resourcesFood resourcesLand resourcesEnergy resources 8. Forest resourcesForests are classified into : Tropical forests Temperate forests Coniferous forestsThreats to forest resources:Deforestation: process of cutting doun the trees in arid, semi arid, moist regions is know as deforestation.causes for deforestation are timber extraction,dam construction,cultivation,mining,pollution..etc 9. Measures to controldeforestation Implement afforestationprogrammesOvergrazing of cattle should be reduced Control the usage of paperForest conservation act should bestrictly implemented Recycle and buy recycled products. When a tree is cut,one plant should be grown in order to maintain balance. Educate people on ecological valueof tree, reduce use of timber, plant Provide alternate fuel to the forest fringe poor people to reduce pressure on firewood for daily need. 10. Water resources Threats to water resources: Dumping industrial waste Dumping pesticides andorganic waste Eutrophication Bio magnification Thermal pollution Oil spills 11. Measures to conserve water resourcesRain water harvesting must be done. Sewage treatment should be implemented. Use drip irrigation for shrubs andtrees to apply water directly to theroots where its needed. Use a water-efficient showerhead. Theyre inexpensive, easy to install, and can save you up to 750 gallons per month. Look for products bearingthe EPA WaterSense Labelfor items that been certifiedto save 20% or more withoutsacrificing performance. Water-saving steamsterilizers, for use inhospitals and health care facilities.Improved water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial use of water. 12. Mineral resourcesA Mineral Resource is a concentration or occurrence of material ofintrinsic economic interest in or on the earths crust in such form, qualityand quantity that there are reasonable prospects for eventual economicextractionMineral resources are classifies into metallic and non metallic: Metallic:examples are iron,alluminium, copper,gold.etc.. non-metallic: examples are coal,gypsum,silica ,limestone.etc..Threats of mining:Disturbance to mantle layerEarthquakesTsunamiDrowning of landDeforestationAcid mine drainage 13. Conservation methodsImplementation of bio-mining/leachingtechnology.Enhanced oil recovery (eor).Usage of bio fuels.Surface mining control and reclamation act should be strictly implemented.Mining activities should me done understrict supervision of authoritiesThe mined out areas have to be back filled and then rehablitated for development of vegetation. 14. Food resourcesFood is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for thebody. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essentialnutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals.The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by theorganisms cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, orstimulate growth. 15. Conservation of food resourcesImplement the following methods to get chemical free food.:Organic farming:it is a process in which both modern and traditional methods of farming are utilized.Mulching:process of adding or layering dry leavesComposting:conversion of complex materials into simpler ones with the help of micro organisms.Usage of Green manure. 16. land occupies nearly20 percent of the earthsurface. It coversaround 13000 millionhectares of the area.The houses, roads andfactories occupy nearlyone third of the land.The forests occupyanother one third of theland. The rest of land isused for ploughing andfor meadows andpastures. The soilforms the surface layerof land which coversmore than the 80percent of land. 17. Conservation of land resources Measures to overcome soil erosion1. Biological control:adapting of some living systems to improve fertility.they areA. MulchingB. PolycultureC. Crop rotation2. Mechanical control:A. Contour ploughing is a measure to conserve our land. By this method, the fields are ploughed, harrowed and sown along the natural contour of the hills.B. By terracing method: A series of wide steps are made along the slop following the contours. This method is very common in rice growing regions.3. By educating, informing and sensitizing all landholders about various aspects of this precious resources and their sustainable use4. Under the afforestation and reforestation programmes, planting of trees, bushes and grass help to check the soil erosion. 18. 5. Strict actions are taken to check reckless felling of trees andovergrazing.6. Shelter belts (rows of trees) are planted on the margins of desert areasto check the fury of wind.7. Construction of dams and gully-trap inculcate the water-harvesting. 19. Energy resourcesEnergy is the capacity to do work and is required for life processes. Anenergy resource is something that can produce heat, power life, moveobjects, or produce electricity.Matter that stores energy is called a fuel. Energy resources areClassified into two types.They are:Renewable:solar energy, wind energy,tidal energy, geothermal energy etc..Non renewable energy: coal,petrol,diesel.etc.. 20. Conservation of energy resources CFLs use 60% less energy than a regular bulb. This simple switchwill save about 300 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. Change your travel behaviour, think more in terms of publictransportation, if possible, walk or ride your bicycle instead of takingthe car. Turn off lights and appliances when you are not using them, useenergy-saving light bulbs. Use a microwave instead of a stove to reheat food. Use rechargeable batteries instead of disposable batteries. Install skylights in the roof or walls to reduce the need for artificiallighting. Plant shade trees and paint your house a light color if you live in awarm climate, or a dark color if you live in a cold climate.Reductions in energy use resulting from shade trees andappropriate painting can save up to 2.4 tons of CO2 emissions peryear. (Each tree also directly absorbs about 25 pounds of CO2 from the air annually.) Dont overload refrigerators; they operate more efficiently when air circulation is not restricted. 21. Thank You</p>