Introduction to Environmental Science Chapter 1. Environmental Science  Interdisciplinary science –ecology, geology, chemistry,  environmental studies

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Introduction to Environmental Science Chapter 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Environmental Science Interdisciplinary science ecology, geology, chemistry, environmental studies focuses on politics, engineering, economics, and ethics Connections and interactions between humans and the rest of nature Validity of data questioned many variables (hard to perform controlled experiments) </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Environmental Science environment: everything around us including the living and non-living things with which we interact Goals of environmental science learn how nature works understand how we interact with the environment find ways to deal with environmental problems and live more sustainably </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Environmental Issues Population growth Increasing resource use Destruction and degradation of habitat Premature extinction (loss of biodiversity) Poverty Pollution Our top three: Climate Change/Global warming; Radioactive wastes; and increase in human population </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Tragedy of the Commons- Garrett Hardin Over use of common property (exploiting common resources) if I dont use this resource someone else will I dont take enough to matter the amount I pollute is not enough to cause a problem its a renewable resource...it will come back Clean air, open ocean and its fish, wildlife species, publicly owned land, gases of lower atmosphere, space How do we manage these resources on a global level? Who is responsible for enforcing compliance? </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Sustainability Ability of a specified system to survive and function over a period of time Sustainable living: Meeting present needs without preventing future generations from meeting theirs </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Sustainability Three principles of sustainability..how can we live more wisely and understand how the earth has sustained itself? Reliance on solar energy drives energy cycling in ecosystems (photosynthesis and cell respiration) Biodiversity ability to adapt to changes and provide natural services Chemical (nutrient cycling) movement and renewal of chemicals in an ecosystem </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Ecosystem Services Ecosystems provide services that arent easy to quantify reasons for protecting and preserving our natural resources purifying air and water, pollination, providing oxygen, providing food </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Sustainability Components of Sustainability natural capital, natural resources and natural services work together in ecosystems to provide us with the resources we need to survive being sustainable and managing our resources allow us to ensure these services for future generations and indefinitely Sustainable yield: how much we can take without depleting the resource for the future </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Ecological footprint or environmental impact Amount of land needed to produce the resources needed by an average person in a country </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Ecological Footprint The area of land and ocean required to support your consumption of food, goods, services, housing, and energy and assimilate your wastes. Your ecological footprint is expressed in "global hectares" (gha) or "global acres" (ga), which are standardized units that take into account the differences in biological productivity of various ecosystems impacted by your consumption activities. Your footprint is broken down into four consumption categories: carbon (home energy use and transportation), food, housing, and goods and services. Your footprint is also broken down into four ecosystem types or biomes: cropland, pastureland, forestland, and marine fisheries. www.myfootprint.org </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Global AveragesEcological Footprint There are only 15.71 acres available per person (renewable basis). We are overshooting the biological capacity by almost 50%!! </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> myfootprint.org Click on Go Dont enter email address. When finished..let me know and well print results. Complete Pledge Card (see example) </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Living in the environment </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Cultural changes Hunter gatherers 12,000 years ago Agricultural revolution 10,000-12,000- Industrial revolution-275 years ago Technological revolution 50 years ago </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Advanced Industrial societies (1914 --- Present) increase in agricultural products lower infant mortality improved health increase in longevity net population increase Environmental impacts globalize </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Countries Differ in Levels of Unsustainability Economic growth: increase in output of a nations goods and services Gross domestic product (GDP): annual market value of all goods and services produced by all businesses, foreign and domestic, operating within a country Per capita GDP: one measure of economic development (GDP divided by population at midyear) Economic development: using economic growth to raise living standards </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Countries Differ in Levels of Unsustainability More-developed countries: North America, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, most of Europe High income. 19% of the worlds population (1.2 billion people). Use 88% of the worlds resources and produce 75% of the worlds pollution and waste. Less-developed countries: most countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America Lower income. 81% of the worlds population. 15% of the worlds wealth, use 12% of the worlds resources. Divided into moderately developing (China, India, Brazil, Turkey) and least-developed (Congo, Haiti, Nicaragua, Nigeria) </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Measuring Our Impact Ecological Footprints: the amount of biologically productive land and water needed to provide the people in a particular country or area with an indefinite supply of renewable resources and to absorb and recycle the wastes and pollution produced by such resource use. IPAT model: shows how population size (P), Resource consumption per person (A) and the beneficial and harmful environmental effects of technologies (T) help to determine the environmental impact (I)) of human activities. I = P x A x T Impact= Population x Resource Use x Technology Reducing one of these areas reduces overall impact. Or implementing technologies that reduce environmental impact (pollution control and prevention, wind turbines, solar cells, fuel-efficient cars) </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Fig. 1-14, p. 17 Less-Developed Countries Consumption per person (affluence, A) Population (P) Technological impact per unit of consumption (T) Environmental impact of population (I) More-Developed Countries </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 24 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 25 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Why do we have environmental problems? 1. Population growth 2. Wasteful and unsustainable resource use (affluence) 3. Poverty 4. Failure to include the harmful environmental costs of goods and services in market prices </li> </ul>