Edmund W. Gilbert and the development of historical geography

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Journal C$ Historical Geography, 6, 4 (1980) 409419 Edmund W. GiIbert and the development of historical geography with a bibliography of his work Guy Robinson and John Patten The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, to examine the work of E. W. Gilbert as an historical geographer.[ll Second, and following directly from the above, to consider some aspects of the early development of the subject in England. The two aims are naturally and easily interlinked, for Gilbert was one of the leaders of the inter-war geographical community, and an early exponent of the study of historical geography as we know it to have developed from the late 1920s. Any evaluation of the contribution to scholarship of one so lately dead-he suffered an eventually fatal stroke at the high table of Hertford College, Oxford one evening in 1973-is a difficult task, whether by those who knew him or those who know him only by his writings. Equally, evaluation of the early development of what is now such an important branch of the subject with which he was con- cerned is fraught with difficulties. Some pioneers have, with Gilbert, passed on, leaving a completed corpus of work behind them, while others are happily not only still alive but still publishing work in historical geography. Despite these difficulties, Gilberts work in historical geography needs to be evaluated both in its own terms, and for its influence on the growth of the subject. All the more so that one major survey of historical geography in the United Kingdom fails to mention Gilberts work at a11.[21 His early academic career gives an important background to his development as an historical geographer. For whatever his other interests-he wrote and lectured extensively on urban geography, was a pioneer of recreational geography and had an abiding interest in medical geography-historical geography was the core of his scholarly interest from his earliest days. Edmund William Gilbert was the son of a Yorkshire clergyman (Gilbert, 1977) and became an Exhibitioner of both St Peters School, York and Hertford College, Oxford. As an undergraduate there he was a contemporary of Evelyn Waugh. He had entered Hertford at the age of 19 to read for the Honour School of Modern History. This study of history un- doubtedly influenced his later important work in the field of historical geography. Indeed, something called historical geography was taught in the History School. An earlier form of the art, it was concerned with battles and boundaries, but maps did figure in it. He thus developed an interest in geography whilst reading History, and won the Herbertson Prize for Geography. Indeed, both he and Barbara Flux [ 1 ] Citations to Gilberts own work are given here with references in the text to the bibliography at the end of this article [2] A. R. H. Baker (Ed.), Progress in historical geography (Newton Abbot 1972) chs. 1 and 5 0305-7488/80/040409 + 12 $02.00/O 409 Q 1980 Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd. 410 G. ROBINSON AND J. PATTEN Dundas, later to become his wife, were founder members of the Oxford University Geographical Society, the Herbertson Society, in 1923. In 1924 Gilbert was awarded the Oxford Diploma in Geography with a distinction. This examination was the predecessor of the Honour School in Geography. His first appointment. too, was as a geographer when he became Junior Lecturer in Geography at Bedford College, London in 1923. Something of a polymath, his work in London was not confined to geography; at the same time he became a member of the Middle Temple and in the Bar exams obtained a first class in criminal law and procedure. His career was to be in academic geography, however. In 1926 he moved from Bedford College to become Lecturer in Human Geography at Reading University with an independent Lectureship in Geography in the Faculty of Letters. Reading as a University College had been established under that other Oxford geographer, Halford Mackinder, its first Principal. Here Gilbert founded and organized a new honour school of geography, was soon effectively head of department, and began to publish the first fruits of his research. Gilberts first article appeared in Geographical Teacher in 1925. This study, arising out of his early interest in his native Yorkshire on which he had written an undergraduate dissertation at Oxford, dealt with the position and site of Pontefract, a place he felt deserved more study from historical geographers than had been undertaken previously (Gilbert, 1925). Some of Gilberts developing ideas concerning the nature of what was the then new historical geography became apparent in this article. For example, he referred to the influence of physical or geographical factors upon the early development of the town as well as giving an historical account of economic growth. But his main interest in the late 1920s was upon the exploration of western America in the early 19th century. His first work on this subject was in the form of his unpublished B. Litt. awarded by Oxford University in 1928. His first published work from this research was South Pass: A study in the historical geography of the United States. This appeared in 1929 in the Scottish Geographical Magazine (Gilbert, 1929). In this article Gilbert dealt with the discovery of the Pass and its ensuing importance as an avenue of communication. He concentrated especially upon the first descriptions of the Pass and also included a geographical analysis covering the major physical considerations with regard to exploration of the area and utilization of the Pass by migrants to the American west coast. Gilberts interest in historical geography was stimulated further by a discussion held at the London School of Economics on January 6th, 1932 entitled What is Historical Geography i ?.[ll This was arranged between representatives of the Historical Association and of the Geographical Association under the chairman- ship of Professor J. L. Myers. The principal contributors were J. E. Morris, C. B. Fawcett, A. S. Martin, E. G. R. Taylor and Gilbert himself. In his contribution to the discussion,t21 Gilbert gave a summary of what became his major article on historical geography which was published later that year (Gilbert, 1932). He stressed that historical geography should analyse the geography of a region as it was at any given past period. This regional connotation was supported by both H. J. Wood and J. N. L. Baker and was amplified by E. G. R. Taylor, who wrotet3J [l] Published in Geography 17 (1932) 39-45 [2] op. cit. 43 [3] Geography (1932) 42 Figure I. E. W. Gilbert, from the drawing in the possession of The School of Geography, Oxford. EDMUND W. GILBERT 411 The application of the adjective Historical to the noun Geography strictly speaking merely carries the geographers studies back into the past: his subject matter remains the same. To avoid confusion, however, let us introduce the term Retrospective Geography. This embraces the non- controversial History of Geography and History of Geographical Discovery with in addition the reconstruction of the General and Regional Geography (physical and human) of successive periods. A formal statement concerning the nature of historical geography had been made in 1930 by P. M. Roxby,tll Historical geography is essentially human geography in its evolutionary aspects. It is concerned with the evolution of the relations of human groups to their physical environment and with the development of inter-regional relations as conditioned by geographical circumstances. The prime objective is not to explain historical events as determined by geographical conditions. It is the criticai study of an interaction and adjustment whether exhibited in the history of settlements, land utilization, commercial and cultural relations or in the evolution and relationship of administrative units and states. As such it is to human geography what history in the accepted sense is to politics or, as it is often called, contemporary history, an explanation, so far as it can be given, of how the existing position has been reached, the demonstration of the present as a phase in the whole process of becoming. It was two years later that Gilbert produced his own paper dealing specifically with the nature of historical geography. His work was addressed to the question of What is historical geography?. Arguing that there was no definite existing meaning of this term, he attempted to outline the subjects included in historical geography and to formulate a satisfactory definition. To this end he set out four existing concepts that had been put forward as the essence of historical geography. These concepts included the history of geographical discovery and exploration, the influence of the geographical environment upon the course of history, the history of geography as a science, and the change in political frontiers. Taken separately, Gilbert felt that each fell some way short of providing an adequate definition of historical geography. None met his ideal of historical geography as the reconstruction of the regional geography of the past (Gilbert, 1932: 132). Thus he agreed with Roxby that the subject should not endeavour to make the explanation of historical events its main objective. Con- sequently he was more in sympathy with the possibilistic ideas of Febvre than with the determinism of Ratzel and Semple. He felt historical geography should combine methods of regional geography with those of historical criticism and that its practitioners should be trained in methods of historical as well as geo- graphical research. On these terms Gilbert himself was well equipped to be an historical geographer. He recognized that the ideas he propounded did not give rise to an entirely new conception. The work of the two earlier pioneers of geographical thinking at Oxford, Mackinder and Herbertson, was clearly acknowledged as well as that of their pupil, Roxby. The latter appears to have been instrumental in Gilberts decision to remain in geography rather than adopting law as a profession. He [l] P. M. Roxby, The scope and aims of human geography Scottish. Geographical, Magazine. 46 C 1930) 276-90 412 G. ROBINSON AND J. PATTEN attended a branch meeting of the Geographical Association in London and such was Roxbys eloquence when speaking about China that Gilbert abandoned all ideas of the law as a profession (Gilbert, 1972: 223). Roxbys own ideas on the nature of historical geography were also conditioned by the influence of Mackinder and Herbertson. In particular, he had attended Mackinders lectures on the historical geography of the British Isles whilst he was an Oxford undergraduate. The legacy bequeathed by Mackinder to both Gilbert and Roxby was that termed by Gilbert (1972: 165) as the first foundation stone of Mackinders teaching, namely the region. This influence is clearly evident in their definitions of historical geography. Mackinder, however, regarded historical geography as a specialism rather than as part of a unified geography. Thus he asserted that in the geography of today are undoubtedly a number of remnants of. . . past geographies, but these should not alter the whole perspective of the main subject. To him historical geography meant a study of the historical present,[ll in other words, relict features in the present landscape. Gilbert was obviously influenced by the strong tradition of regional geography established at Oxford by Herbertson and Mackinder, and quoted statements made about historical geography by both. The words of Herbertson were evidently taken to heart (Gilbert, 1932: 132), Historical Geography describes and interprets human distributions at any past period, and the successive changes of human distributions, economic, political and racial in the widest sense, within a defined area through historical time. It can be clearly seen that Gilberts interpretation of the subject was thus closely allied to his conception of regional geography. He felt the physical setting of the past should be considered and then the human geography could be reconstructed at a stated point or points in time. This idea was the embodiment of the so-called cross-sectional approach to historical geography; in effect, the geography of a country or region at a particular point in time. Gilbert himself provided an example of the application of such an approach, by referring to the historical geography of Great Britain (Gilbert, 1932: 133-4). He felt no adequate coverage of this subject existed in 1932 but suggested a suitable start could be made by initially considering Roman Britain. After a geography of this period, essentially a cross-section, had been constructed the next step would be the similar process for the time of the formulation of the Domesday Book. This basic theme was to come to fruition very quickly four years later in the hands of H. C. Darbys editorship of An historical geography of England before 1800. Gilberts own contribution to this volume was the chapter on Roman Britain. At this time W. G. East121 was also developing similar views to those held by Gilbert on the adoption of the regional method in historical geography. One year after Gilberts pioneering article East looked further than the theoretical discussions of the content and purpose of historical geography to the practical problems of study and teaching. He stated that the geographer,[31 [l] H. J. Mackinder, Discussion on S. W. Wooldridge and D. J. Smetham, The glacial drifts of Essex and Hertfordshire, and their bearing upon the agricultural and historical geography of the region Geographical Journal 78 (193 1) 268-9 [2] W. G. East, A note on historical geography Geography 18 (1933) 282-92 [3] Op. cit. 284 EDMUND W, GILBERT 413 . * . will select, with an eye to their distinctive human phenomena, subregions which may not necessarily express physical differences; he will consider whether political, economic, or administrative units may not sometimes afford the best subregions; and finally, he will make analysis subservient to synthesis, so that the life of the whole region, geographically interpreted, stands out in sharp silhouette, illuminated and not overclouded by the local life of its constituent parts. So, in effect, he was in favour of a regional approach, with a focus upon distinctive culture periods taken from the manner in which historians divided historical time. He specifically referred to the word cross-sections[ll when dealing with the methodological approach of the subject. The close similarity of the two mens views of historical geography can be seen from Easts closing remarks,tl Geography in the future may well exploit fuller scientific and educational opportunities by studying the earths surface as a space-time continuum: it will then envisage not just the present-day geography of regions, but rather a whole series of past geographies which culminate in present-day geography, itself destined to disappear. The use of both cross-sections and the vertical theme were taken up independently at this time in America by J. 0. M. Broek in his now well-known book The Santa Clara Valley, California in which four cross-sectional views were linked by three intervening chapters dealing with the influence of social and economic forces over time. Gilbert was one of several historical geographers producing pioneering studies that were to influence the future development of the subject; he was distinguished from the others, however, by virtue of being the first to attempt a comprehensive definition of the emerging discipline. The framework of historical geography as portrayed in Gilberts pioneering article was one concentrating upon a cross-sectional approach. As illustrations the works of reconstruction by Zimmern131 and Claphamr*1 were referred to. However, Gilbert did not neglect the idea of vertical development in his own research. His major work, The exploration of western America, 180040 was published one year after his outline of the nature of historical geography. It dealt with more than just the history of geographical discovery and exploration. This was an element of historical geography he felt to be important because of the mass of descriptive material it provided and also because it could illustrate the influence of geographical facts upon human movement. The book demonstrated several aspects of Gilberts view of the nature of historical geography. It was the practical laboratory of his ideas on this subject, as is evident from the statement (Gilbert, 1933: xi), The western America of a hundred years ago has passed away; the Africa of Livingstone exists no more. The systematic reconstruction of such geo- graphical scenes, as they existed at given past periods of history, is the true function of historical geography. His approach to the study of the exploration of western America began with an [l] Ibid. 290 [2] Ibid. 292 [3] A. E. Zimmern, The Greek Commonwealth (2nd edn, London 191.5) [4] J. H. Clapham, An economic history of modern Britain, the early railway age, 1820-50 (London 1926) 414 G. ROBINSON AND J. PATTEN historical introduction outlining the situation up to the end of the eighteenth century. The region of western America was then described geographically in terms of physiography, climate, drainage, flora and fauna with the latter including the Indian inhabitants. These separate portrayals of history and geography were then merged in the main body of his work. He did not attempt an exhaustive description of the exploration of the region but selected the more important narratives . . . to show the gradual development of a geographical knowledge of the area (Gilbert, 1932: 103). In effect, he was demonstrating the geogra- phical factor behind history referred to by Darby[ll in 1962 as being one of the four approaches to the study of historical geography. Hence Gilberts (1932 : 204) statement that, The historical order of the discoveries was, in a sense, determined by geographical factors. Finally, Gilberts book made a further significant, and as yet little appreciated, contribution to the nascent subject of historical geography. It employed the con- cept of the critical appreciation of the perceptions of the past. Prince,t21 when evaluating the progress of historical geography in the late 1960s remarked that, Perhaps the greatest advance in historical geography in recent years has been achieved by viewing the past through the eyes of contemporary observers and by rediscovering the evaluations they made of the objects they observed. This was effected by Gilbert by means of incorporating in his work the appraisal of the North American environment made by the explorers and pioneers.[31 In particular the last chapter of the book, entitled The representation of western America on maps published between 1800 and 1850, dealt with the current perception of the region. He demonstrated convincingly that the series of discover- ies made during the half-century were translated into not only a changed knowledge of the area but also a changed perception that would have consequences for the development of settlement and the utilization of natural resources. Thus vast differences existed between the map of the Territory of the United States from the Mississippi to the Pacific drawn by G. K. Warren in 1854 and those by W. W. Winterbotham in 1795 and John Cary in 1806. The detailed nature of Warrens map led Gilbert to conclude that by 1850 the age of exploration was at an end and the age of detailed survey was at hand. Four years after the publication of Gilberts book, H. C. Darby, in his edited An historical geography of England before 1800, not surprisingly reflected to some extent something of the views on historical geography that had been expressed by Gilbert, Roxby, East and others. He used E. R. G. Taylors words, stating that historical geography strictly speaking merely carries the geographers studies into the past: the subject-matter remains the same. La1 The same sort of framework as outlined by Gilbert was cited by Darby,t51 [I] H. C. Darby, Historical geography, pp. 111-56 of H. P. R. Finberg (Ed.), Approaches to history (London 1962) [2] H. C. Prince, Progress in historical geography, pp. 1 l&22 of R. U. Cooke and J. H. Johnson (Eds), Trends in geography (Oxford 1969) [3] H. C. Prince, Real, imagined and abstract worlds of the past Progress in Geography 3 (1971) 30 [4] H. C. Darby (Ed.), An historicalgeography of England before 1800 (Cambridge 1936) preface vii [5] Op. cit. EDMUND W. GILBERT 415 . . . this subject-matter is concerned with the reconstruction of past geographies, and aims to provide a sequence of cross-sections taken at successive periods in the development of a region. We can thus begin to set in context Gilberts contribution to the development of historical geography. It can be recognized as being of significance in four respects. First, for his early and definitive statement on the nature of the subject: secondly, for his development of a methodological framework in terms of a cross-sectional approach; thirdly, the practical contribution of his own research in which the importance of the geographical factor in history was apparent; and fourthly, again from his own research, the recognition that the way in which people per- ceived the environment or even the unknown environment conditioned their responses, attitudes and its utilization. His work in historical geography slackened after the Second World War: he made no further major definitive statement on the nature of the subject or its methodologies, though he continued to pursue research in historical geography. Also Gilberts return to Oxford in 1936, a Readership from 1943, and election to the Chair of Geography in 1953 together with a pro- fessorial fellowship at his own college, Hertford, did not deflect him from his early held views on the subject. In his inaugural lecture after being elected Professor of Geography at Oxford, Gilbert (1955) expressed a desire for the expansion of geography. He selected four lines of development, each connected with regional geography; one not surprisingly related specifically to historical geography. The twenty-two years following his article on the nature of historical geography had not brought any change in Gilberts basic ideas of the subject as being about the reconstruction of the regional geography of the past. He was critical of the fact that in Britain the subject was rapidly becoming a narrow specialism with its fundamental unity with regional geography being forgotten (Gilbert, 1955: 14). The work of Ralph H. Brown on The historical geography of the United States was cited as a good example of how historical geography could be woven into the fabric of regional geography. At this time, too, Gilbert expressed with characteristic foresight a view that too much effort was being expended by British geographers upon the earlier periods of history. He was one of very few geographers at this time expressing such an opinion, but felt that more attention should be paid to the historical geography of the recent past. In particular, he drew attention to the wealth of material available from which a reconstruction of the geography of nineteenth-century England could be made (Gilbert, 1955: 15). He complained that for the nineteenth century there were, no adequate maps of types of housing, nor of the distribution of the great epidemics of cholera; there is no modern cartographic picture of the physical conditions which were slowly improved by Victorian social legislation. In addition, . . . no atlas of the distribution of the population at each decennial census has yet been made. There is no atlas of the growth of the larger towns during the century. There is no substantial geographical account of the railways as a force in altering the face of the country. 416 G. ROBINSON AND J. PATTEN Of course, he himself was actively engaged in the study of the nineteenth century, whether in the growth of the seaside town (Gilbert, 1939u, 1949a, 1954~) or disease mortality in Oxford (Gilbert, 1958a). It was in his studies of the nineteenth century that Gilbert again revealed his ability as a skilled professional historian. His full use of maps, literary sources and documentary material were evidence of a master of his craft. There is no better example of this than his work on Brighton (Gilbert, 1949a, 19540, 1956, 1960~). In seeking to elucidate the causes of the towns growth he made the fullest use of maps, aerial photographs, photographs, paintings and documentary evidence. These sources enabled him to chart the full development of the town. To this he added detailed explanation citing specifically the influence of the medical profession who used Brighton as a health resort for their patients, royal patronage, and the coming of the railway. Two elements of the work on Brighton were pursued further by Gilbert. These concerned the growth of seaside resorts in Victorian England (Gilbert, 1939cr, 1958c, 19650) and the study of medical geography (Gilbert, 1958~). The latter, in particular, was important as it represented work on health and disease at a time when medical geography was only just becoming a recognized part of the discipline. Gilbert put the words of his inaugural lecture into action by focussing his attention upon nineteenth-century maps of cholera and other diseases in British towns. He noted that the great outbreaks of cholera in the early nineteenth century had stimulated the mapping of the distribution of diseases at a time when the mapping of population was also becoming more popular. Gilbert followed Robinsons[lJ theme of the period from 1835 to 1855 as a golden age of the development of geographic cartography and referred to maps of health and disease produced for Exeter, London and Oxford amongst others. Amongst the maps reproduced by Gilbert were ones for Oxford prepared in 1856 by H. W. Acland. This focus on mid-nineteenth-century Oxford was just part of a broader interest in the city, both town and gown, which was pursued further in several of Gilberts later writings. His studies of the growth of Oxford (Gilbert, 1947, 19546, 1964) were accompanied by a concern for the preservation not only of the character of the city but also the general protection of the cultural landscape (Gilbert, 1946). His study of Vaughan Cornish for the Oxford Preservation Trust, of which he was a trustee, was one expression of his concern. Another was his opposition to the building of the proposed third London airport at Cublington. He had much sympathy for Cornishs ideas about the retention of attractive scenery in both town and country (Gilbert, 19653). In Gilberts own words (Gilbert, 1972: 251)~ I want to emphasize the special need for work on our historic towns large and small as well as on the countryside. Both townscape and landscape need more effective protection, based on research. Gilberts 1932 paper on the nature of historical geography had indicated his belief that the history of geography was an integral part of the discipline. From the early 1950s his concern for this aspect of the subject became manifest in a series of biographical works. His attention was focused primarily upon the two pioneers of the School of Geography at Oxford, Sir Halford Mackinder (Gilbert, 1951a, [l] A. H. Robinson, The 1837 maps of Henry Drury Harness Geographical Journal 121 (1955) 440 EDMUND W. GILBERT 417 1959, 1961a,b, 1968; Gilbert and Parker, 1969) and Andrew Herbertson (Gilbert, 1965c,d). He wrote several articles about Mackinder whom he held in high esteem as a man with great fertility of mind and a pioneer both of university geography and of several branches of the discipline. The similarity between the two mens careers in both holding appointments at the universities of Oxford, Reading and London generated a particular affection by Gilbert for Mackinder and his ideas. It is not surprising therefore that several of the foundation stones of Mackinders geographical teaching were highly regarded by Gilbert. In particular, the two men agreed that maps were of tremendous value as historical records and they both emphasized the region as a focal point within geography. They regarded the study of regions as being to the forefront of geographical work with Gilbert (19396, 1942, 1948a, 1949b, 195lb, 1952~) recognizing the need for regionalization of administration and government planning. Gilberts biographical work culminated in the publication of his last book. British pioneers in geography, which gave him much pleasure to edit and produce. It consisted of previously published material primarily on geographers associated with Oxford-from the days of Gerald of Wales in the twelfth century to Mackinder, Herbertson and Roxby. In the preface to this book, David Hooson, one of Gilberts former pupils at Oxford and now Professor of Geography at the Uni- versity of California, provided a succinct outline of the qualities of Gilberts work His emphasis on good writing, in the common tongue, and rigorously avoid- ing needless jargon, should be taken to heart . . . This high quality of Gilberts writing plus his craftsmanship when dealing with historical sources and evidence are also particularly evident in his studies of Brighton and the health and disease studies. His work upon the development of geography at Oxford accompanied the concern for the urban environment of the city itself. Here his interest again was extended beyond the traditional study of the growth of Oxford to a comparison with other university towns (Gilbert, 1961, 1962~). In particular he compared Oxford and Cambridge with the German university towns of Marburg, Heidelberg, Glittingen and Tubingen. He examined the evolution of these towns through time making comparisons between all six. This concentration upon a group of similar urban settlements repeated what Gilbert had attempted for the Victorian seaside resorts. It was primarily for this work plus his singular studies of Oxford, Reading and Brighton that the collection of essays in his honour, edited by his colleagues J. M. Houston and R. P. Beckinsale,[ll was based upon urbanization and its problems. Similarly, his receipt of the Royal Geographical Societys Murchison Grant in 1967 was for work in urban geography and the history of geography, The distressing illness that affected Gilbert during the last year and a half of his life cut short the fulfilment of tasks he had set himself for his retirement. However, he has left a valuable record of work in historical geography and in other aspects of the subject. His initial pioneering studies on the definition of historical geo- graphy and the exploration of western North America have perhaps been somewhat overlooked in recent years. But Gilberts contributions to the foundation of the subject as we know it today and to some of its later developments are fundamental. His later work, too, on nineteenth-century towns and medical geography have been [I] J. M. Houston and R. P. Beckinsale (Eds), Urbanization and its problems: essays in horrour of E. W. Gilbert (Oxford 1968) 418 G. ROBINSON AND J. PATTEN followed by a much greater attention being given by geographers to this period and the wealth of material he spoke about. If historical geography today has developed in some ways that Gilbert would hardly recognize, his contribution has been valuable and should not be neglected. Universities of Edinburgh and Oxford E. W. Gilbert-Bibliography 1925 The position and site of Pontefract Geogr. Teacher 13 130-5 Place names Observation 1 168-73 1929 Geographical influence on the exploration of America west of the Mississippi, 1800-50, unpbl. B.Litt. thesis, Uni. of Oxford South Pass: a study in the historical geography of the United States Scott. Geogr. Mug. 45 144-54 1931 Animal life and the exploration of western America Scott. Geogr. Msg. 47 19-28 1932 What is historical geography? Scott. Geogr. Msg. 48 129-36 1933 The exploration of western America, 1800-50 (Cambridge, U.P.) 1934 The human geography of Mallorca Scott. Geogr. Msg. 50 129-47 Reading: its position and growth Trans. S.E. Union of ScientiJic Societiesfbr 1934 81-90 1936 The human geography of Roman Britain, pp. 30-87 of H. C. Darby (Ed.), An historical geography of England before 1800 (Cambridge, U.P.) Influences of the British occupation on the human geography of Menorca Scott. Geogr. Mug. 52 375-90 1938 Geography, ch. 1 in A survey of the social services in the Oxford District, Yol. 1: Economics and Government of a changing area (London) 1939a The growth of inland and seaside health resorts in England Scott. Geogr. Mug. 55 16-35 1939b Practical regionalism in England and Wales Geographical Journal 94 29-44 1940 How the map has changed, 1938-40 (London) 1942 Contribution to Discussion on geographical aspects of regional planning Geographical Journal 99 7680 (Naval Intelligence Division) Geographical Handbook Series: Spain and Portugal, Vol. ZZ, Portugal B.R.502A 1944 (with J. N. L. Baker) The doctrine of an axial belt of industry in England Geographical Journal 103 49-72 (Naval Intelligence Division) Geographical Handbook Series: Spain and Portugal, Vol. Z, The Peninsula B.R. 502 (Naval Intelligence Division) Geographical Handbook Series: Spain and Portugal, Vol. ZZZ, Spain B.R. 502B 1945 (Naval Intelligence Division) Geographical Handbook Series: Spain and Portugal: Vol. ZV, The Atlantic Islands B.R. 502C Richard Ford and his Hand-book for fravellers in Spain. Geographical Journal 106 144-51 reprinted with some additions in Book handbook 6 (1948) 349-68 (with R. W. Steel) Social geography and its place in colonial studies Geographical Journal 106 118-31 1946 The City of Oxford. Inroads of modern industry and traffic, special article in The Times 15 May 1948a The boundaries of local government areas Geographical Journal 111 172-206 19486 Geography and factory location Far and Wide January, 44-7 1949a The growth of Brighton Geographical Journal 114 30-52 19496 Areas of regional organisation Public Administrator 27 21 l-13 195la Seven lamps of geography: an appreciation of the teaching of Sir Halford J. Mackinder, with a bibliography of his printed works Geography 36 21-43 19516 Geography and regionalism, pp. 345-71 of G. Taylor (Ed.), Geography in the twentieth century (New York) 1951c Note on The Report of the Schuster Committee on qualifications of planners (cmd. 8059, 1950) Geographical Journal 117 248-9 EDMUND W. GILBERT 419 1952a Gebiete regionaler organisation in England and Wales Berichte zur Deutschen Landeskunde Stuttgart, Band II, Heft I, 150-3 19526 English conurbations in the 1951 Census Geographical Journal 118 64-8 1954a Brighton, old oceans bauble (London) 1954b The growth of the city of Oxford, pp. 165-73 of A. F. Martin and R. W. Steel (Eds), The Oxford region (Oxford) 1955 Geography as a humane study, an inaugural lecture (Oxford, Clarendon Press) 1956 Brighton British Medical Journal 5 May 1957a Geography at Oxford and Cambridge Oxford Magazine 14 February 19576 University News: University of Oxford, Geographical Journal 123 118-20 1958a Pioneer maps of health and disease in England Geographical Journal 124 172-83 1958b The English seaside town Times Educational Supplement 2271, 28 November, p. 1718 1958~ Geography at Hertford College Hertford College Magazine May 1959 Sir Halford John Mackinder, pp. 556-7 Dictionary of national biography, 1941-1950 (Oxford) 1960a Brighton W.E.A. News March, pp. l-2 1960b The idea of the region Geography 45 157-75 196la The Right Honourable Sir Halford J. Mackinder, P.C., 1861-1947 Geographical Journal 127 27-9 1961 h Sir Halford Mackinder, 1861-1947 an appreciation of his life and work, a lecture (London, School of Economics and political science) 1961~ The university town in England and West Germany: Marburg, GGttingen, Heidelberg and Tiibingen, viewed comparatively with Oxford and Cambridge Univ. of Chicago, Dept. of Geogr., Research Papers 71 1962a University towns, a lecture Univ. of Sussex, Occas. Papers 1 1962/, Geography is better than divinity Geographical Journal 128 494-7 1963 (with D. I. Scargill) University News: University of Oxford Geographical Journal 129 556-8 1964 The City of Oxford, pp. 97-100 of K. M. Clayton (Ed.), Guide to London excursions, Twentieth International Geographical Congress (London) 1965a The holiday industry and seaside towns in England and Wales, pp. 237-47 of Festschrijt Leopold G. Scheidl zum 60 Geburtstag 1965h Vaughan Cornish, 1862-1948, and the advancement of knowledge relating to the beauty of scenery in town and country, a lecture (Oxford Preservation Trust) 1965~ Andrew John Herbertson: 1865-1915. An appreciation of his life and work Geography 50 313-31 1965d Andrew John Herbertson, 1865-1915 Geographical Journal 131 516-19 1965e Oxford: Venice of the north! a review article on The Oxford district. Relief map on scale of 1 : 25,000, Oxford University Press (1964) Geographical Journal 131 530-2 1968 Halford Mackinder, pp. 515-17 of International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences (New York) 1969 Sir H. J. Mackinder, The scope and methods of geography and the geographical pivot of history, papers, reprinted with an introduction by E. W. Gilbert (London, Royal Geo- graphical Society) (with W. H. Parker) Mackinders Demographic ideals and reality after fifty years Geographical Journal 135 228-3 1 1970 English regional novels and geography Abhandlungen des Geographischen Znstituts der Freien Universitdt (Berlin) 13 47-54 1971 The R.G.S. and geographical education in 1871 Geographical Journal 137 200-2 (with A. S. Goudie) Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, Bart, KCB Geographical Journal 137 505-I 1 1972 British pioneers in geography (Newton Abbot) 1977 Childhood in a Yorkshire rectory The Dalesman February, recollections edited by A. Patmore

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