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DIOXINS, TRACE ELEMENTS, BIOINDICATORS AND BIODIVERSITY
IN SOILSRoberto M. Cenci and Fabrizio Sena
EUR 23935 EN - 2009
The mission of the JRC-IES is to provide scientific-technical support to the European Unions policies for the protection and sustainable development of the European and global environment. European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Environment and Sustainability Contact information Address: R. M. Cenci - TP 280 - European Commission - DG JRC Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Land Management and Natural Hazards Unit, Building 28, T.P. 280, I-21027 Ispra (VA) Italy E-mail: email@example.com Tel.: +39 0332 789771 Fax: +39 0332 786394 http://eusoils.jrc.it/index.html Address: F. Sena European Commission - DG JRC Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Rural, Water and Ecosystem Resources Unit, Building 30, T.P. 300, I-21027 Ispra (VA) Italy E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.: +39 0332 785399 Fax: +39 0332 789352 http://ies.jrc.ec.europa.eu/rural-water-and-ecosystem-resources-unit http://www.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ http://ies.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ Legal Notice Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of this publication.
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A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server http://europa.eu/ EUR 23935 EN ISBN 978-92-79-12793-9 ISSN 1018-5593 DOI 10.2788/2351 Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities Translation: Luca Umidi European Communities, 2009 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged Printed in Italy
DIOXINS, TRACE ELEMENTS, BIOINDICATORS AND BIODIVERSITY
R. M. Cenci and F. Sena
Institute for Environment and Sustainability
TABLE OF CONTENTS CREDITS 7 AIM OF THE PROJECT 11 SUMMARY 11
Description of the project 11 Results 12
INTRODUCTION 13 Scientific Committee 13
THE PROVINCE OF PAVIA 14 Population 14 Economy 14 Agriculture 14 Industry 15 Transports 16 Tourism 16 SAMPLING METHODS AND RESULTS 17 Method selection SOIL 18
Sampling campaign AM1 18 Georeferentiation 19 Sampling strategy 19
Sampling 19 Sampling campaign AM2 and AM3 21 Sampling strategy 21
Preparation and treatment of soil samples 22 Materials and methods; quality control 22 Analytical methods 22 Bulk density and water retention 22 Quality of the analytical data 23
Discussion of results for soil 23 AM1 (pH, Ca) 23 AM1 (Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si and Ti) 23 AM1 and AM2 (total carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen) 23 AM1, AM2 (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) 24 Tertiary points AM3 (total carbon, organic carbon, 25 Al, N, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) Geostatistical analysis 25 Polluted area 31 Principal component analysis (PCA) 32
Dioxins 33 Materials and methods 33 Results 33
Bacteria 36 Preface 36 Analytical methods 36
Monitoring Action 1 (AM1) results 37 Monitoring Action 2 (AM2) results 37 Monitoring Action 3 (AM3) results 37 Results processing for the three Monitoring Actions 37 Final considerations 39
Pedological survey 40 Description and identification of pedological types 40 Pedological correlation 41 Pedological representativeness of the monitoring network 43
Geographical elaborations and functional representativeness 44 of the monitoring sites
Data origin 44 Geographical model 44
Confidence level 45 Cartography 45 pH chart 45
Texture chart 46 Organic carbon chart 48 Functional representativeness of the monitoring sites 49 Pedological correlation of soil of the level II network 50 MOSS 51
Sampling 51 Preparation and treatment of samples for trace 51 elements analysis Digestion of samples 51 As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn content 51 Concentration spatial distribution 51 Concentration spatial distribution in Tertiary Points 54 Platinum and Rhodium 59 Deposition rate 59 Enrichment factor 60
SAMA (Sewage sludges Sub-Monitoring Action) 62 Geographical coordinates 62
Sampling strategy 62 Result and discussion 62
Pedological profile 62 Granulometry and water content 64 Trace elements 65 Dioxins 65
Bacteria 66 Results 67
Considerations 69 SEDIMENT 71
Area description 71 Sampling 72
Results and discussion 79 Dioxins and Furans 84
Conclusions 85 SANITARY RISK 86 Conclusions 87 FINAL CONCLUSIONS 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY 90 TABLES 97 APPENDIX A 137 B 140
C 142 D 146 E 147 F 154 PARTS NOT INCLUDED IN THIS REPORT
Descriptive sheets concerning the 150 sampling points for the two Monitoring Actions AM2 and AM3. 150 pages S. Brenna, N. Filippi. (2005). Studio della biodiversit e bio-indicazione. Rilievi podologici preliminari. S. Brenna, S. Solaro, M. Sciaccaluga, V. M. Sale. (2005). ERSAF. Relazione tecnica finale. Contratto n. 38515. F. Bo, E. Sobiecka, L. Roncari, B. M. Gawlik. (2005). Internal report. Characterization of soil and sediment samples for CHN in the context of the Pavia Project. SWCT Report n. 01-08-2005. 26 pp. F. Sena, G. Locoro, B. M. Gawlik (2004). Sampling Planning. Project Pavia, Sampling campaign AM1. SWCT Report 05-10-2004. 17 pp. Universit Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza. Istituto di Chimica Agraria ed Ambientale. Relazione tecnica. Contratto n. 22438-2004-10 FISC ISP IT. Raccolta, trattamento e analisi di elementi in tracce in campioni di suolo e muschio. A. Benedetti, L. Pompili, C. Meconi, B. DAngelo, L. Nisini. (2005). Report on the
activity carried out within the project Biodiversit e Bioindicazione nella Provincia di Pavia CRA - Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Roma.
We would like to personally thank the numerous colleagues who participated in the realisation of this vast project. A particular and personal thanks goes to our colleague Franco Bo, who departed prematurely; thank you Franco. We would also like to thank our colleagues and friends Abbenante Claudia, Alessio Annalisa, Benedetti Anna, Beone Gian Maria, Bidoglio Giovanni, Bouraoui Faycal, Braghieri Roberto, Brangi Anna, Brenna Stefano, Carlon Claudio, Casale Monica, Christoph Eugen H, DAngelo Barbara, Filippi Nicola, Gaulio Walter, Ghiani Michela, Ghisetti Giovanna, Lodigiani Gustavo, Lodigiani Paolo, Mariani Giulio, Meconi Claudia, Montanarella Luca, Musmeci Loredana, Nisini Luigi, Pompili Letizia, Privitera Marisa, Puglisi Marta, Roncari Luigi, Rusco Ezio, Sale Vanna Maria, Sciaccaluga Marco, Skejo Helle, Solaro Silvia, Trincherini Pier, Umlauf Gunther, Guardie Ecologiche della Provincia di Pavia, Vigili del Fuoco di Milano. Some of the aforementioned colleagues were co-authors of the following two volumes:
Il suolo della Provincia di Pavia. Valutazione della concentrazione di composti organici e inorganici persistenti attraverso lo sviluppo di una monitoring network del suolo. (2006). EUR 22132 IT. ISBN 10-92-894-8619-8. 128 pp.
Il suolo della Provincia di Pavia (Parte due). (2007) EUR 22132 IT/2. ISBN 92-79-03877-x. 238 pp.
PROVINCE OF PAVIA
PREFACE Soil holds a primary strategic importance for the life of all living beings. Soil offers the support for our houses, roads and recreation. It is the filter for rainwater, and is the base for trees, plants and daily life produce growing in the soil. It offers us a countless and evident number of gifts. Our task as citizens consists in respecting soil as a source of life and a living entity, taking care not to damage it. It takes hundreds of years to form soil, but just few moments to destroy damage, contaminate or kill it. Contrived by Professor Cenci of the Joint Research Centre of European Commission, the Pavia Project heads in the right direction. It is an informative tool which precisely captures the quality of surface and deep soil of the Province of Pavia under all aspects, chemical, physical and biological. The information contained in this project are and will be an essential tool for the proper planning of all the activities carried out on the soil of Pavia. In this zone agriculture has always held a cultural and social importance, besides the economical role. Agriculture is a historical connective tissue linking the lives of hundreds of thousands of people, thus the protection of its quality is of vital importance. Every common citizen, and above all the Pavia governors, must know how to manage this heritage taking care of le