Conflict Management.ppt

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  • Conflict DefinedA process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares aboutThat point in an ongoing activity when an interaction crosses over to become an interparty conflictEncompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizationsIncompatibility of goalsDifferences over interpretations of factsDisagreements based on behavioral expectations15-*

  • Transitions in Conflict ThoughtTraditional View of ConflictThe belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoidedPrevalent view in the 1930s-1940s

    Conflict resulted from:Poor communicationLack of opennessFailure to respond to employee needs 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.15-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Continued Transitions in Conflict ThoughtHuman Relations View of ConflictThe belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any groupPrevalent from the late 1940s through mid-1970sInteractionist View of ConflictThe belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectivelyCurrent view 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.15-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Forms of Interactionist Conflict 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.15-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Types of Interactionist ConflictTask ConflictConflicts over content and goals of the workLow-to-moderate levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL

    Relationship ConflictConflict based on interpersonal relationshipsAlmost always DYSFUNCTIONAL

    Process ConflictConflict over how work gets doneLow levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.15-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Sources of Conflict

  • Sources of ConflictDifferent goals and time horizons: different groups have differing goals.Production focuses on efficiency; Marketing on sales.Overlapping authority: two or more managers claim authority for the same activities.Leads to conflict between the managers and workers.Task Interdependencies: one member of a group fails to finish a task that another depends on.This makes the worker that is waiting fall behind.

  • Incompatible Evaluation or reward system: workers are evaluated for one thing, but are told to do something different.Groups rewarded for low cost but firm needs higher service.Scarce Resources: managers can conflict over allocation of resources.When all resources are scarce, managers can fight over allocations.Status inconsistencies: some groups have higher status than others.Leads to managers feeling others are favored.

  • CONDITIONS LEADING TO CONFLICT SITUATIONS IN ORGANIZATIONS Ambiguous jurisdictionsConflict of interestCommunication barriersDependence on one partyDifferentiation in organizationAssociation of the partiesBehaviour regulationPerformance expectationsCompetition for limited resourcesLack of cooperationUnresolved prior conflicts

  • The Conflict ProcessWe will focus on each step in a moment15-*

  • Stage I: Potential Opposition or IncompatibilityCommunicationSemantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and noiseStructureSize and specialization of jobsJurisdictional clarity/ambiguityMember/goal incompatibilityLeadership styles (close or participative)Reward systems (win-lose)Dependence/interdependence of groupsPersonal VariablesDiffering individual value systemsPersonality types

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.15-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Stage II: Cognition and PersonalizationImportant stage for two reasons:Conflict is defined Perceived ConflictAwareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise

    Emotions are expressed that have a strong impact on the eventual outcomeFelt ConflictEmotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility

    15-*

  • Stage III: IntentionsIntentionsDecisions to act in a given wayNote: behavior does not always accurate reflect intentDimensions of conflict-handling intentions:CooperativenessAttempting to satisfy the other partysconcernsAssertivenessAttempting to satisfy ones own concerns

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.15-*E X H I B I T 15-2

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • CONFLICT MANAGEMENTIt refers to interventions that alter the level and form of conflict in ways that maximize its benefits and minimize its dysfunctional consequences.Depending on peoples intentions in a given situation, the behaviour of conflicting parties can range from full cooperation to complete confrontation. Two intentions determining the type of conflict-handling behaviour are assertiveness and cooperation. Assertiveness refers to an attempt to confront the other party and Co-operation refers to an attempt to find an agreeable solution.

  • Conflict Management Styles

    (Motivation to satisfy ones own interest)

    Concern for Self Concern for Others(motivation to satisfyOther partysInterest)Low CooperationHigh CooperationLow AssertivenessHigh Assertiveness

  • Conflict Management Strategies

  • Conflict Management Strategies

    There is a menu of strategies we can choose from when in conflict situations: Competing/Forcing Forcing tries to win the conflict at the others expense. People use formal authority or other power to satisfy their concerns without regard to the concerns of the party that they are in conflict with. (WIN-LOSE)Accommodating It involves giving in completely to the other sides wishes, or at least cooperating with little or no attention to their own interest. (LOSE-WIN)This style involves making unilateral concessions and unconditional promises, as well as offering help with no expectation of reciprocal help.

  • Avoiding - Not paying attention to the conflict and not taking any action to resolve it. It represents a low concern for both self and the other party; in other words, avoiders try to suppress thinking about the conflict. (LOSE-LOSE)Collaborating Cooperating with the other party to understand their concerns and expressing their own concerns in an effort to find a mutually and completely satisfactory solution.Information sharing is an important feature of this style because for both parties collaborate to identify common ground and potential solutions that satisfy both (or all) of them. (WIN-WIN). Compromising - Attempting to resolve a conflict by identifying a solution that is partially satisfactory to both parties, but completely satisfactory to neither. (WINSOME-LOSESOME).

  • Conflict Resolution TechniquesProblem solvingSuperordinate goalsExpansion of resourcesAvoidanceSmoothingCompromiseAuthoritative commandAltering the human variableAltering the structural variablesCommunication

    Bringing in outsidersRestructuring the organizationAppointing a devils advocate 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.15-*E X H I B I T 15-4

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Stage V: OutcomesFunctionalIncreased group performanceImproved quality of decisionsStimulation of creativity and innovationEncouragement of interest and curiosityProvision of a medium for problem-solvingCreation of an environment for self-evaluation and changeDysfunctionalDevelopment of discontentReduced group effectivenessRetarded communicationReduced group cohesivenessInfighting among group members overcomes group goalsCreating Functional ConflictReward dissent and punish conflict avoiders 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.15-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Global ImplicationsConflict and CultureJapanese and U.S. managers view conflict differentlyU.S. managers more likely to use competing tactics while Japanese managers are likely to use compromise and avoidance15-* 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.