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Compilation work on Sarpagandha(Rauwolfia serpentina)

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<p>COMPILATION WORK ON SARPAGADH SUBMITTED BY NAME : RINSIYA.P.E ROLL NUMBER : MANNAM AYURVEDA CO-OPERATIVE MEDICAL COLLEGE PANDALAM, PATHANAMTHITTA MANNAM AYURVEDA CO-OPERATIVE MEDICAL COLLEGE PANDALAM, PATHANAMTHITTA CERTIFICATE Certified that this is the bona fide compilation work on Sarpagadh done in Dravyaguna Vijnana during the year 2008-09 by the candidate Rinsiya .P.E Register Number In charge H.O.D Int. Examiner Ext. Examiner DATE: SARPAGADH INDEX PART 1 INTRODUCTION 1. DRAVYA GUNA : 5 2. INTRODUCTION TO AYURVEDA : 6 3. SARPAGADH INTRODUCTION : 9 PART 2 PHARMACOGNOSY 4. BOTANICAL NAME : 13 5. FAMILY : 13 6. VERNACULAR NAMES : 13 7. SYNONYMS : 13 8. MEANING OF TERMS : 14 9. DIFFERENT VARIETIES : 15 10. DISTRIBUTION &amp; HABITAT : 16 11. HABIT AND GENERAL FEATURES : 17 12. MORPHOLOGY : 19 13. EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY : 20 a. BARK : 20 b. LEAVES : 21 c. FLOWERS d. FRUITS : e. COROLLA : f. CALYX : g. SEGMENTS : h. TUBE : i. LOBES : j. DISK : k. DRUPES : l. INFLORESCENCE : m. BRACTS : n. PEDICELS : o. PEDUNCLES : p. PETIOLES : q. SEEDS : 14. MACROSCOPICAL DESCRIPTIONS : 23 15. MICROSCOPICAL DESCRIPTIONS : 24 16. HISTOLOGY : 25 17. PARTS USED : 27 PART 3 PHARMACOLOGY 18. PROPERTIES : 29 19. ACTION &amp; USES : 29 20. SPECIFIC FORMULATIONS &amp; PREPARATIONS : 31 21. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS : 32 22. DOSAGE : 34 23. THERAPEUTIC USES : 35 24. INDICATIONS : 37 25. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES : 38 26. IDENTITY,PURITY &amp; STRENGTH : 39 27. T.L.C : 39 PART 4 28. RESEARCH WORKS : 41 29. REFERENCE : 42 30. CONCLUSION : 48 31. BIBLIOGRAPHY : 49 PART 1 INTRODUCTION DRAVYA GUNA Dravya guna is the basic subject of Ayurveda though not enumerated in Astnga Ayurveda. That is the eight broad branched one. Dravya guna may be called the Materia Medica of Ayurveda which includes pharmacology, pharmaco-therapeutics and pharmacognosy.The subject was taught in Guru-Sisya parampara, totally as a practical one and hence it was not discussed as a separate subject in the pre-historical age. Later many books were written and the latest classical book is Bhavaprakasa Nigendu of 16th century A.D in Sanskrit. Many translation and commentaries of it are available in Hindi as well as in other Indian languages, some of which are of very high standard INTRODUCTION Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Folk (tribal) medicines are the major systems of indigenous medicines. Among these systems, Ayurveda is the most developed and widely practiced in India. Ayurveda, dating back to 1500-800 BC has been an integral part of Indian culture. The term comes from the Sanskrit root || and | || (life) and | (knowledge). As the name implies it is not the science of treatment of the ill but covers the whole gamut of happy human life involving the physical, metaphysical and the spiritual aspects. Ayurveda recognizes that beside a balance of body elements, one has to have an enlightened state of consciousness, sense organs and mind has to be perfectly healthy. Ayurveda by and large is an experience with nature and unlike in western medicine, many of the concepts elude scientific explanation. Ayurveda is gaining prominence as the natural system of health care all over the world Today this system of medicine is being practiced in countries like Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan while the traditional system of medicines in other countries like Tibet,Mangolia and Thailand appear to be derived from Ayurveda. Phytomedicines are also being used increasingly in Western Europe. Recently the U.S. government has established the Office of alternate medicine at the national institute of health at Bethesda and its support to alternate medicine include basic and applied research in traditional systems of medicines such as Chinese, Ayurveda etc with a view to access the possible integration of effective treatment with modern medicine. The Ayurvedic system of Medicine is prevalent in India since the Vedic period and as early as the dawn of human civilization. Though Ayurveda has undergone many changes in the course of its long history it still remains as the mainstay of medical relief to a large section of the population of nation. Due to urbanization dwindling of forest, the Vaidya by and large is no longer a self contained unit collecting and preparing his own medicines as before. He has now to depend on the newly developed agencies like one collecting and supplying the crude drugs and the other undertaking mass production of medicines in the Ayurvedic pharmaceutical units run on the commercial scale. India, due to its unique variety of geographical and climatic factors, has had a rich and variety flora of medicinal plants since the Vedic period. No wonder that out of a total number of over 15000 plant species in India about 2000 are known to have medicinal properties and some of them are even used as home remedies in the rural and remotest parts of the country. The vastness of the country with its inadequate means of communication and facilities for transport of drugs coupled with diverse regional languages resulted into a multitude of synonyms i.e., names in regional languages. Further, Ayurveda being a science put into professional practice on umpteen occasi ons to try newer drugs locally available led to the successful use of several other drugs with therapeutic value similar to those drugs which are originally equated with the classical Ayurvedic drugs, but later assumed the name of the very same classical drug and continued to be locally collected, sold and used in that name since the main classical drug was famous yet locally unavailable and substitution was a necessity. Later in the first half of the century, while scientifically identifying the drugs in vogue in different regions, the scientist found that there were more than one species, belonging even to different families of plants, claiming the same classical name of the Ayurvedic drug. Brahmi would be a great example to be cited. This created a sensation that there existed a great controversy about the identity of Ayurvedic drugs and that there were more than one independent drug claiming the classical name of the drug and one drug therefore having different scientific identities. This innocent impression of scientists was further exaggerated during the alien rule to run down the claim of Ayurveda as a cultural heritage of India out of patriotism. All such drugs with a multiple claim on the classical name in different provinces were stamped as controversial drugs without going into their genesis basically as therapeutic equivalents. Ayurveda had never been static. Its practitioner had been innovative and dynamic in the therapeutic practice and carried on clinical trials out of the local flora and discovered newer medicines with same therapeutic practice and carried on as the classical drug which might have been then either locally unavailable or perhaps demanding heavy prices. These newer drugs have been accepted by the practicing profession as substitutes. In fact on study of Ayurvedic literature on comes across several references of permitting the use of substitute drug when the classical drug is not available. This is based on the therapeutic equivalence and clinical efficiency. SARPAGADH INTRODUCTION Sarpagandha is considered to be a later entry into Indian Materia Medica. Sarpasugandha of Vedic literature is considered to be Sankhapuspi but not Rauwolfia. Though Naakuli is described in Jaimini Brahman, its identity is also doubtful. Thakurji quoted that Sarpagandha/Sarpasugandha is mentioned by Susruta and Vagbhata only. (Susruta Samhita Kalpasthan 5/84;7/29; Uttarasthan 60/48;Astanga Hrdayam Chikitsa 14/106; Astanga Hrdaya Uttarasthan 5/3). The identity of Sarpagandha is controversial from the beginning. Susruta quoted Sarpagandha among Aparajitha gana in the context of Manasa rogas. Dalhana commented |||-| 7||||| In this context which indicates more about a mushroom. Majority of scholars are of the opinion that Naakuli described in the nighantus is the real Sarpagandha Bapalaji reported that according to Bengali Kavirajas, Rauwolfia Serpentina is one of the three types of Raasna i.e, Mula Raasna. However this plant is famous as Sarpagandha today. The roots are considered to be useful in treatment of hypertension and insanity. Many consider this to be Naakuli on Gandha Naakuli and so it is supposed to be the Raasna. It is also noticed that Rauwolfia canescens is used as Sarpagandha in some places. Caraka described Nakuli Dvaya (Nakuli and Gandha Nakuli)[Charaka Samhita Chikiltsa Sthan 5/52). Thus Thakunji quotes that the age of synonyms like sugandha etc, is common to more than one plant appears to be the reason behind such controversies. Sugandha appears to be accepted as the synonym of Rasna, Sariva and Gandha Nakuli. Nakuli might be denoted with synonyms like Sarpagandha and Sarpasugandha. Therefore it is suggested that Rauwolfia Serpentina and Aristolochia indica may be Nakuli and Gandha Nakuli respectively. Similarly Mukta which is a synonym of Nakuli or Sarpagandha may be Rauwolfia which may also be used as a substitute for real Rasna. In fact Mukta is the only corect name that indicates Rauwolfia Serpentina due to its pearl-like red berries(Mukta). Sarpagandha is mainly indicated in the Ayurvedic texts in Vata rogas,Apasmara and Unmada. Its indication is basically the contribution of Dr.K.C.Bose and Dr.Sen who have studied the effect of Sarpagandha on hypertension but did not report or publish it from London which is needed to get the authentic recognition among the medical fraternity. Dr.Rustumjal Vakil who published about the hypertensive property of Rauwolfia serpentine root is now given the honor of discovery. PART 2 PHARMACOGNOSY BOTANICAL NAME : Rauwolfia serpentina (Linn) Benth Ex Kurz (Ophioxylon serpentinum Linn) FAMILY : Apocynaceae MORPHOLOGICAL : 1.VERNACULAR NAMES : Sanskrit : Naakuli,Candrika,Chandramarah Bengali : Chaandar English : Rauwolfia root, Serpentina root Gujrati : Amelpodee Hindi : Chhota chand, Dhaval barua Kannada : Sutranabhu, Patalagaruda, Sutranabhi Malayalam: Amalpori, Cuvanna amalpori Marathi : Adkai, Chandra Oriya : Dhanbarua. Sanochado Tamil : Sarppagandhi, Sivan amalpodi Telugu : Sarpagandhi, Palalagandhi 2.SYNONYMS Chandramarah Dhavala Vitapa Naakuli Sarpasugandha Sugandha Mukta Nakulesta Meaning of Terms Chandramarah : A tree having pearl like red berries Dhavala : As being possessed with white flowers Vitapa : As flowers and seeds are found in clusters Nakuli : Favorite of mongoose Sarpagandha : Which emits the smell of snakes Sarpasugandha : Which emits the odor of snakes Sugandha : Possessed with smell Mukta : Having pearl like red berries Nakulesta : Favorite of mongoose DIFFERENT VARIETIES At present another species of Rauwolfia i.e ,Rauwolfia tetraphylla is being widely supplied as Sarpagandha. About seven species of Rauwolfia are uninvestigated. Eight other species are mentioned. They are 1. Rauwolfia canescens 2. Rauwolfia micrantha 3. Rauwolfia densiflora 4. Rauwolfia perakensis 5. Rauwolfia vomitoria Afz 6. Rauwolfia caffra Sond 7. Rauwolfia natalensis Sond 8. Rauwolfia nitide Jacq DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT Rauwolfia is found throughout India, as forest undergrowth. It grows in waste places and shady forests in India. It is now considered as an endangered species in many parts of India HABITAT AND GENERAL FEATURES Sarpagandha is a perennial under shrub widely distributed in India in the Sub-Himalayan tracts upto 1000m as well as in the lower ranges of the eastern and Western Ghats and in the Andamans. It is found usually in moist deciduous forests at altitudes ranging from sea- level to 1200m. It is seldom found in evergreen forests except at their very edges and is absent in open country. The plants are more frequent at the shade of Shorea, Ficus, Terminalia, Holarrhena, Cassia, Dalbergia, Mangifera and Adina sps. Sometimes they are found growing between clumps of Calamus. In the Deccan they are found associated predominantly with bamboo forests, particularly in freshly deforested areas. Although the range of distribution of Rauwolfia is very wide its occurrence is sporadic. The plants usually grow scattered, very seldom close to each other. It is noteworthy that wherever plants of Rauwolfia serpentine have been found, they are growing in close proximity to the beaten tracts or to sites of habitation whether ancient or recently abandoned. An erect evergreen perennating undershrub,15-45 cm (rarely 90 cm) high glabrous or rarely pubescent. Leaves 3 to 4 natally whorled, rarely opposite, the main nerves slender and usually arched, flowers in coreymbose umbellate cymes, peduncles alternate with terminal leaves or axillary, calyx 5 lobed, corolla tube cylindrical, dialated opposite the stamens, the mouth constricted, the throat usually 5, overlapping to the left, stamens 5, included on the corolla tube, filaments very short, anther small, acute ,the cells rounded at the base ,Disk cup shaped or annular, ovary of 2 distinct or connate carpels, ovules 2 in each carpel, collateral style, filiform, stigma calyptriform at the base, the tip bifid. Fruit of 2 connate or distinct drupes, each with a crustaceous 1 seeded pyrene, seeds ovoid...</p>