chinese revolution & mao
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- 1.Revolution in China and Communist China (How does this compare with the Russian Revolution and Stalins Soviet Union) This presentation relies heavily on a power point created by Dan McDowell. Teaching Point, 2003
2. Revolution in China Where are the sources? History is interpretation! 3. Background
- The Qing Dynasty maintained limited power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan at the beginning of the 20 thcentury.
- Rural & urban workers, nationalists, communists, and intellectuals challenged the government.
- The dynasty fell in 1911 and a weak provisional government took its place.
- Between 1925 1937 the NATIONALISTS led byChiang Kai-shekand the COMMUNISTS led byMao Zedongfought for control of China with regional warlords.
5. Nationalists vs Communists
- Chiang used brutal tactics against his rivals and violently attacked communists leaders and worker groups.
- Organized crime and Western powers supported Chiang.
6. 7. Chiang Kai-shek
- Encouraged continued western investment in China and worked closely with foreign investors.
- He failed to consolidate power, improve the economy (especially the peasants), or modernize China
8. The Long March
- In 1934 Chiang Kai-shek attacked the communist strong-hold in Hunan province.
9. The Long March
- 100,000 men retreated 6000 miles over 370 days to a new communist base in Northern China.
- 30,000 soldiers remained
10. Mao Zedong became the leader of the communists.
- Mao was more concerned with the plight of the Chinese peasant than Chinese urban workers.
11. Mao Zedong
- Led the army in developing guerilla warfare tactics to fight the Nationalists and then Japanese
12. Civil War / Japanese Invasion
- 1937 Japan invaded China proper
- Communists and Nationalists fought the Japanese separately together.
- Communists were more effective in their guerilla war against the Japanese than the Nationalist army.
13. Civil War & Cold War
- After WWII ended, civil war continued.
- The US began sending military and tactical help to Chiang Kai-shek and the USSR provided minimal help to Mao Zedong
14. Communist Victory
- Chiang Kai-shek & the Nationalists were driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, the Communists founded thePeoples Republic of China .
15. Power Base of Mao
- The Red Army was built.
- PEASANT support grew with redistribution of land by the government.
- OTHERS supported the government because of propaganda and education.
16. Mao consolidated power
- Many who were nationalists, upper class, ordissidentswere imprisoned in forced labor camps or killed.
17. Economic Development
- Foreign economic influence was eliminated most foreigners were kicked out of China
- A Soviet style five year plan was implemented to encourage collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization.
- (These efforts had limited success.)
18. Womens StatusImproved Women hold up half the sky.
- Foot-binding ended and arranged marriages were limited
- Women could hold professions, join the army, and serve in the government.
- Legal equality with men.
19. Womens Status Improved?
- Women were working outside of the home AND still responsible for the home and childcare.
- Traditional emphasis on men as superior continued.
20. The Hundred Flowers Policy
- Goverment loosened control of people
- People were allowed to question government policies
- Significant rise in anti-government rhetoric causedMao to end the policy and arrest top critics
21. Great Leap Forward
- 1958 - Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy
- Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possible
- Eliminated private enterprise
- Forced people out of the cities and into communes
- Backyard steel mills small industrial centers scattered throughout China
22. Great Leap Forward = Great Leap Backward 23. Great Leap Forward
- The plan failed miserably famine caused
- 20 + million to die, steel production dropped drastically, the program ended early, and Maos power was reduced
24. Cultural Revolution
- Mao wished to regain power he lost in the Great Leap Forward and create another revolutionary movement.
- Created The Red Guard from the Chinese youth students, peasants, & soldiers
25. 26. 27. Cultural Revolution
- Red Guard attacked people in positions of power or privilege who publicly disagreed with Mao.
- Any suspects were imprisoned or forced into labor in rural areas.
28. Cultural Revolution
- Traditional culture and education were destroyed.
- Cult of personality formed around Mao
- Eventually military leaders supported ending cultural revolution in fear that it would get out of control.
29. China after Mao
- New communist leadership allowed some private business and farm ownership and created a stock exchange.Manufacturing increased drastically as trade boomed.
30. China after Mao
- Overall, redistribution of wealth, education, healthcare, and living standards improved to higher levels.
31. China after Mao
- Government control and lack of individual freedom along with a variety of economic and social problems still make China one of the least free places on the planet.
- Working conditions remain terrible.
32. 33. China after Mao
- Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 --student and labor protesters were killed by government forces