chinese revolution & mao

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  • 1.Revolution in China and Communist China (How does this compare with the Russian Revolution and Stalins Soviet Union) This presentation relies heavily on a power point created by Dan McDowell. Teaching Point, 2003

2. Revolution in China Where are the sources? History is interpretation! 3. Background

  • The Qing Dynasty maintained limited power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan at the beginning of the 20 thcentury.
  • Rural & urban workers, nationalists, communists, and intellectuals challenged the government.
  • The dynasty fell in 1911 and a weak provisional government took its place.

4. Background

  • Between 1925 1937 the NATIONALISTS led byChiang Kai-shekand the COMMUNISTS led byMao Zedongfought for control of China with regional warlords.

5. Nationalists vs Communists

  • Chiang used brutal tactics against his rivals and violently attacked communists leaders and worker groups.
  • Organized crime and Western powers supported Chiang.

6. 7. Chiang Kai-shek

  • Encouraged continued western investment in China and worked closely with foreign investors.
  • He failed to consolidate power, improve the economy (especially the peasants), or modernize China

8. The Long March

  • In 1934 Chiang Kai-shek attacked the communist strong-hold in Hunan province.

9. The Long March

  • 100,000 men retreated 6000 miles over 370 days to a new communist base in Northern China.
  • 30,000 soldiers remained

10. Mao Zedong became the leader of the communists.

  • Mao was more concerned with the plight of the Chinese peasant than Chinese urban workers.

11. Mao Zedong

  • Led the army in developing guerilla warfare tactics to fight the Nationalists and then Japanese

12. Civil War / Japanese Invasion

  • 1937 Japan invaded China proper
  • Communists and Nationalists fought the Japanese separately together.
  • Communists were more effective in their guerilla war against the Japanese than the Nationalist army.

13. Civil War & Cold War

  • After WWII ended, civil war continued.
  • The US began sending military and tactical help to Chiang Kai-shek and the USSR provided minimal help to Mao Zedong

14. Communist Victory

  • 1949
  • Chiang Kai-shek & the Nationalists were driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, the Communists founded thePeoples Republic of China .

15. Power Base of Mao

  • The Red Army was built.
  • PEASANT support grew with redistribution of land by the government.
  • OTHERS supported the government because of propaganda and education.

16. Mao consolidated power

  • Many who were nationalists, upper class, ordissidentswere imprisoned in forced labor camps or killed.

17. Economic Development

  • Foreign economic influence was eliminated most foreigners were kicked out of China
  • A Soviet style five year plan was implemented to encourage collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization.
  • (These efforts had limited success.)

18. Womens StatusImproved Women hold up half the sky.

  • Foot-binding ended and arranged marriages were limited
  • Women could hold professions, join the army, and serve in the government.
  • Legal equality with men.

19. Womens Status Improved?

  • Women were working outside of the home AND still responsible for the home and childcare.
  • Traditional emphasis on men as superior continued.

20. The Hundred Flowers Policy

  • 1957
  • Goverment loosened control of people
  • People were allowed to question government policies
  • Significant rise in anti-government rhetoric causedMao to end the policy and arrest top critics

21. Great Leap Forward

  • 1958 - Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy
  • Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possible
    • Eliminated private enterprise
    • Forced people out of the cities and into communes
    • Backyard steel mills small industrial centers scattered throughout China

22. Great Leap Forward = Great Leap Backward 23. Great Leap Forward

  • The plan failed miserably famine caused
  • 20 + million to die, steel production dropped drastically, the program ended early, and Maos power was reduced

24. Cultural Revolution

  • 1960s
  • Mao wished to regain power he lost in the Great Leap Forward and create another revolutionary movement.
  • Created The Red Guard from the Chinese youth students, peasants, & soldiers

25. 26. 27. Cultural Revolution

  • Red Guard attacked people in positions of power or privilege who publicly disagreed with Mao.
  • Any suspects were imprisoned or forced into labor in rural areas.

28. Cultural Revolution

  • Traditional culture and education were destroyed.
  • Cult of personality formed around Mao
  • Eventually military leaders supported ending cultural revolution in fear that it would get out of control.

29. China after Mao

  • New communist leadership allowed some private business and farm ownership and created a stock exchange.Manufacturing increased drastically as trade boomed.

30. China after Mao

  • Overall, redistribution of wealth, education, healthcare, and living standards improved to higher levels.

31. China after Mao

  • Government control and lack of individual freedom along with a variety of economic and social problems still make China one of the least free places on the planet.
  • Working conditions remain terrible.

32. 33. China after Mao

  • Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 --student and labor protesters were killed by government forces