chinese cultural revolution
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MAOS CULT OF PERSONALITYand theCULTURAL REVOLUTION
WHY TALK ABOUT THE TOPIC?THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION WAS A SIGNIFICANT EVENT BECAUSE IT COMPLETELY CHANGED THE CULTURE AND SOCIETY OF ONE COUNTRY FROM ITS CORE IN ONLY A FEW YEARS AND A DECADE OF POLITICAL STRUGGLE. (Landin, 2013)
WHY TALK ABOUT THE TOPIC?
THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION COMPLETELY TRANSFORMED CHINESE CULTURE AND WAS ONE OF THE GREATEST SOCIO-POLITICAL MOVEMENTS THAT THE WORLD HAS SEEN.
TIMELINE1644Ching dynasty was established and China was isolated1699Britain gained trading post at Canton1839Opium War erupted1842Treaty of Nanking was signed1856Britain and France gained spheres of influence in China1894-1895Japan defeats China 1899-1900"Boxer Rebellion" in Northern China seeks to stifle reforms in the Qing administration, drive out foreigners and re-establish traditional rule. Defeated by foreign intervention, with Western powers, Russia and Japan extracted further concessions from weakened Qing government.1911Ching Dynasty collapsed; Republic of China was established.
1916Sun Yat Sen became president of Nationalist Govt1917China entered WW11919Marxist ideas enter China1920Mao organized revolution of peasants in Hunan against KMT1925Chiang Kai-shek succeeded Sun
NATIONALISTS ATTACK COMMUNISTSUnlike Sun, Chiang distrusted the Soviet Unions involvement in China. He suspected Russian advisers were preparing to overthrow his regime. Politically, Chiang preferred the friendship of western bankers and capitalists.The westerners and rich Chinese also feared that a Soviet-style revolution in China would destroy their privileged position. Land distribution, a promise made by Sun Yat-sen, was ignored by Chiang. Chiang was too dependent on landlord-support to return the land to the tillers.By 1935, many who had supported Chiang became disillusioned with his policies and had left the Kuomintang. (Perry, 1983)
Only the middle class and city-workers continued to support the nationalist cause. CPC soon took advantage of Chiangs mistakes.7
1931-45- Japan invades and gradually occupies more and more of China.1934-35 - Mao Zedong emerges as Communist leader during the party's "Long March" to its new base in Shaanxi Province.1937 - Kuomintang and Communists nominally unite against Japanese. Civil war resumes after Japan's defeat in Second World War.1949- 1 October - Mao Zedong, having led the Communists to victory against the Nationalists after more than 20 years of civil war, proclaims the founding of the People's Republic of China. The Nationalists retreat to the island of Taiwan and set up their own government. Mao builds ties with USSR. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-13017882#story_continues_1
HOW WAS MARXISM INTRODUCED IN CHINA?
Hsiang Chiang Jih-pao - newspaper discussing socialismMay 4th movement (1915-1921)9
TECHNIQUES MAO USED TO GAIN POWERThree and Five Anti Campaign, 1951Hundred Flowers Campaign, 1956Anti-Rightist Campaign, 1957 (Landin, 2013)
Fundraising event for soldiers, posters depicting heroic act, eliminate corruption, bureaucracy and fraud among industrialists and government itselfconstructive criticism of the govt, became aggressive so haltedRightist intellectuals were denounced, intellectuals were punished, soon everyone is scared to speak against govt10
GREAT LEAP FORWARD1958-1960
1958- Mao launches the "Great Leap Forward", a five-year economic plan. Farming is collectivized and labor-intensive industry is introduced. The drive produces economic breakdown and is abandoned after two years. Disruption to agriculture is blamed for the deaths by starvation of millions of people following poor harvests.11
TRIVIACIA reports that starving Chinese during the GLF resorted to prostitution to survive. (Secret CIA National Intelligence Estimate)To feed his addiction to smoking, Maos soldiers would exchange opium with cigarettes with the troops they were supposed to be fighting. (Diary of Maos Bodyguard, Chen Chanfeng, 1970)When Stalin died in 1953, he was replaced with Nikita Khrushchev, who didnt come into good terms with Mao. (History channel)
The effects of Collectivisation and the Great Leap Forward hit Maos reputation very hard. In 1958 Mao had resigned as President of the People's Republic of China and was replaced by Liu Shaoqui. In 1962 Mao handed over responsibility for the economy to President Liu Shaoqi and CCP General Secretary Deng Xiaoping and withdrew from the political scene. Rural markets began to reopen and peasants were given small plots of land. By 1962 about half of the farm land in China was in the hands of individual families once again. The results of these changes were sudden increases in the amounts of food being produced in China.
Mao remained, however, as Chairman of the CCP. In 1962 Mao handed over responsibility for the economy to President Liu Shaoqi and CCP General Secretary Deng Xiaoping and withdrew from the political scene. Liu and Deng were both more moderates and accepted that Mao' s reforms had gone too far too quickly.Liu and Deng brought in Chen Yun, the leading Chinese expert in agriculture, to advise them14
Liu and Deng also attempted to tackle the risk of famine by introducing population control.Young people were required to postpone marriage and the use of contraceptives was encouraged by the state.These changes reduced the influence of Mao and also reversed many of his ideas. But whilst Mao had little influence in government or the CCP, to the great majority of the Chinese people he remained the embodiment of the Revolution. Mao was prepared to bide his time and to use other tactics to re-establish his position in China.
By 1963 Mao was already regretting his loss of power and was becoming concerned at the changes that were taking place in China. In particular the growing dominance of the economy by an educated elite. His response was to begin to build up support in the PLA (People's Liberation Army) and his supporters gradually occupied key posts in the government and gained control of the Central Cultural Revolution Committee.Although Mao lacked supporters in the upper reaches of the government and the CCP, he had many supporters in lesser positions. Many people shared his view that the revolution was being undermined by the policies of Liu and Deng, who appeared to be adopting western, revisionist ideas.http://www.dhahranbritish.com/history/A14_ReformLiuDeng.htm
MAO USES WIFE FOR THE COME-BACK
Task: Remake Chinese culture for the revolution.
ACTRESS whose field is culture; began a series of attacks on artists seen as capitalistsSet out to remake Chinese culture for the revolution.18
FIRST ACTS OF CULTURAL REVOLUTIONAnounce, if not, expose policization of arts. Jiang Qing was put in charge as artistitic advisor to the army.All feudal Chinese art like Chinese classical opera and artworks were banned; Western art were even treated as worse.Feudal and old culture are bad because they are symbols of the oppressive classes before the revolution. Revolutionary culture was good which was narrowed down to handful of operas and ballets. (Dr. Orville Schell; History Channel)Opera stories were about revolutionaries fighting the capitalists. Traditional music and dance were replaced with machine gun and fine and heroic poses. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ATOEI_IM1vk
Qing brainwashed the entire nation with her public films. Chinese people were not allowed for western art except her propaganda films.
SHORT-TERM CAUSES AND AIMSEliminate political rivals (Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping); rid the communist party from capitalist roaders, criticize reactionary bourgeois academics, and transform culture to consolidate the socialist system.Reform the Communist Party for the good of the people. (Landin, 2013)
2. Was held by the govt and was made public in a document called, Resolutions on Party History in 1981 resulting to a discouraged academic research on the CR.20
TRIVIAWhen cultural revolution began, little children were first taught to write Long Live Chairman Mao before they were even taught to write their names. (Mao Declassified; History Channel)Mao contracts a venereal disease but women are proud to be infected as proof of their relationship with him. (Maos physician, Dr. Li Zhisui, 1964)
WHO ARE THE ENEMIES?Landlords, rich farmers, intellectuals, bureaucrats, the west and the old communist party which Mao himself built but which he was no longer in charge of.
EVILS OF THE CULTURAL REVOLUTIONSmashing of store sites and store names.Destruction of schools and other Chinese institutions; beating of teachers and school leaders.Doing revolutionary tasks instead of studying.When Party newspapers dont print editorials Mao has written, he tells people their Chairman Mao is being victimized.
Maos named successor.
LIN BIAO- head of the army. He made the little red book of Maos teachings which he used for his troops to foster loyalty.
THE RED GUARDSThey were allowed by Mao to travel China for free to spread the fire of revolution.Mother is close, father is close but neither is closer than Chairman Mao.In August 1966, Mao unleashed the red guards who destroy Chinese culture, humiliate and torture intellectuals and landowners and fall into bereaved behavior ranging from beating their own parents to the mass slaughter of political opponents.Children had power over adults.
1960s young people attack their parents and their governments.26
MAOS CULT OF PERSONALITY
Soon, Red Guards fought among themselves,