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CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS HANDBOOK

CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS HANDBOOK

Revised and Edited under the direction of the TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP of the CAST IRON SOIL PIPE INSTITUTE

CAST IRON SOIL PIPE INSTITUTE 5959 Shallowford Road, Suite 419 Chattanooga, Tennessee 37421 (615) 892-0137

CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS HANDBOOK Copyright 1967, 1972, 1976, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1994 by the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute. Printed in the United States of America. All rights in this book are reserved. This book or parts thereof may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publishers.

Ninth Printing 1994

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 86-071884 PRICE: $20.00

PREFACEPublication of this edition has been sponsored by the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute to provide a reference book which fully meets the needs of those requiring information on the industrys products. It was compiled and edited by the Technical Advisory Group of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute, and the content has beneted from the collaborative effort of its members and their experience in the manufacture and application of cast iron soil pipe and ttings. This publication is subject to periodic revision, and the latest edition may be obtained from the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute.

TABLE OF CONTENTSPage

TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................. i INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... viii The Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute ....................................................................................... viii

VOLUME ICHAPTER I CAST IRON SOIL PIPE HISTORY, USES CHAPTER I AND PERFORMANCE ................................................................................... 1 HISTORY OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE ................................................................................ 1 Early Production and Use in the United States................................................................. 2 Growth and Dispersion of Foundries, 1880-1890 ............................................................ 2 Emergence of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Industry ................................................................ 4 USES OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE ....................................................................................... 5 REQUIREMENTS FOR A SAFE AND DURABLE DRAIN, WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM............................................................................................. 6 Corrosion Resistance ........................................................................................................ 6 Expansive Soils ................................................................................................................ 8 Resistance to Abrasion ..................................................................................................... 8 CAST IRON SOIL PIPE JOINTS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS............................... 8 Types of Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings ......................................................................... 8 Shielded Hubless Coupling .............................................................................................. 9 The Compression Joint ................................................................................................... 10 The Lead and Oakum Joint............................................................................................. 10 Soundproong Qualities of Cast Iron with Rubber Gasket Joints .................................. 11 ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE............................................... 11 Performance.................................................................................................................... 11 Versatility........................................................................................................................ 11 Low-Cost Installation ..................................................................................................... 12 Product Availability........................................................................................................ 12

CHAPTER II THE MANUFACTURE OF CAST IRON CHAPTER II SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS ....................................................................... 13 THE CAST IRON SOIL PIPE INDUSTRY ........................................................................ 13 Manufacturers of Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings ......................................................... 13 PRODUCTION OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS ......................................... 14i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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DISTRIBUTION OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS ....................................... 14 NUMBER OF OPERATING UNITS ................................................................................... 15 THE MANUFACTURING OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS....................... 15 Types of Iron .................................................................................................................. 15 The Modern Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Foundry................................................... 15 Melting Devices Used and Raw Materials ..................................................................... 16 The Cupola Furnace for Melting Iron............................................................................. 17 The Start of the Operation of the Cupola ....................................................................... 17 CASTING OF SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS ....................................................................... 20 Centrifugal Pipe Casting ................................................................................................ 20 Sand-Lined Molds .......................................................................................................... 20 Metal Molds ................................................................................................................... 20 Casting Process............................................................................................................... 22 STATIC CASTING OF FITTINGS...................................................................................... 22 Sand Casting ................................................................................................................... 22 Permanent Mold Casting ................................................................................................ 27 Cleaning and Finishing Operations ................................................................................ 28 NEW TECHNOLOGY AND IMPROVEMENTS IN MANUFACTURING METHODS .................................................................................. 35 The Melting Section ....................................................................................................... 35 The Casting Section........................................................................................................ 35 PATTERNS FOR CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS ............................................. 36 Materials Handling Equipment....................................................................................... 36 POLLUTION EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................ 38 Results of Technological Improvements ........................................................................ 38

CHAPTER III TYPICAL CAST IRON SOIL PIPE LAYOUTS...................................... 39 STORM DRAINAGE .......................................................................................................... 39 Building Sub-drains and Sub-soil Drains ....................................................................... 39 Roof Drains .................................................................................................................... 40 THE USE OF TRAPS .......................................................................................................... 44 VENTING SYSTEMS ......................................................................................................... 44 Venting and Drainage for a Battery of Fixtures.............................................................. 44

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CHAPTER IV INSTALLATION OF CAST IRON SOIL PIPE AND FITTINGS.......... 52 HANDLING......................................................................................................................... 52 METHODS OF CUTTING CAST IRON SOIL PIPE ......................................................... 52 JOINING METHODS FOR CAST IRON SOIL PIPE......................................................... 54 Compression Gaskets ..................................................................................................... 54 Hubless Joints................................................................................................................. 55 Caulked Joints ................................................................................................................ 55 UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION PROCEDURES ....................................................... 57 ABOVE GROUND INSTALLATION PROCEDURES ...................................................... 58 Large Diameter Fittings.................................................................................................. 59 GENERAL INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS................................................................. 60 Horizontal Installation of Large Diameter Pipe.............................................................. 63 Suggested Installation of Horizontal Fittings ................................................................. 63 Seismic Restraints .....

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