cast iron pipes
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REPORT ON CAST IRON PIPES BRASS PIPES & COPPER PIPES
Submitted By: Adnan Irshad Kirti Pandey B.Arch III Yr. Sfs
CONTENTSS.No1.2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.
ContentsIntro. Of Pipes
Introduction Of Cast Iron ... .1 Laying Detection Of Cracks Joints.. Features Types Of Fittings Different Diam. Of Pipes And Wall Thickness Example Advantage And Disadvantage.......... Brass Pipes11 Threading Bending Features.. Types Of Fittings. Common Sections Of Brass Advantages And Disadvantage. Weight Of Brass Pipe In Kg/Mt Copper Pipes.18 Fin Tubes. Copper Nickel Tube. Copper Pvc Tubes Types Of Cooper Used Copper Fittings. Advantages And Disad Wt. Of Copper Pipe In Kg/Mt.. Conclusion.25 Bibliography.26.
INTRODUCTION OF CAST IRONManufactured by reheating pig iron (in a cupola) and blending it with other material of known composition. Alternate layers of pig iron (with or without scrap steel) and coke are charged into furnace. Limestone is added to flux the ash from the coke. Heat necessary for the smelting is supplied by the combustion of coke and air supplied by the blast. Cupola function to purify iron and produce a more uniform product. When sufficient metal is accumulated at the bottom of the furnace, it is tapped. Composed primarily of iron, carbon and silicon. Shaped by being cast in a mold It has the greatest amount of carbon. Basically, the amount and form of carbon could affect the strength, hardness, brittleness and stiffness of cast iron. Adding carbon to iron increases its hardness and strength but lowers the ductility. Cast iron has high compressive strength but its tensile strength is low. There are 2 types of cast iron that is: a) Gray Cast Iron b) White Cast Iron
INTRODUCTION OF PIPECast Iron pipes and fittings are being made in this country for more than a century. The productio capacity exceeds more than 3,00,000 tons per annum. Due to its strength and corrosion resistance , C.I pipes can be used in soils and for water of slightly aggressive character. They are well suited for pressure mains and laterals where tapping are made for house connections. It is preferable to have coating inside and outside of the pipe. Vertically cast iron pipes shall conform to IS 1537 -1976. The pipes are manufactured by vertical casting in sand moulds. The metal used for the manufacture of this pipe is not less than grade 15. The pipes shall be stripped with all precautions necessary to avoid wrapping or shrinking defects . The pipes shall be such that they could be cut, drilled or machined. Cast Iron flanged pipe and fittings are usually cast in the larger diameters. Smaller sizes have loose flanges screwed on the ends of double spigot spun pipe. Centrifugally cast iron pipes are available in diameters from 800mm to 900 mm inclusive and are covered with protective coatings. Pipes are supplied in 3.7 m to 5.5 meters lengths and a variety of joints is available including socket and spigot and flanged joints.
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The pipes have been classified as LA,A and B according to their thicknesses. Class LA pipes have been taken as the basis for evolving the series of pipes.y y
Class A allows a 10% increase in thickness over Class LA. Class B allows a 20% increase in thickness over Class LA.
Before laying the pipes, the detailed map of the area showing the alignment sluicevalves scour valvesm, air valves and fire hydrants along with the existing intercepting sewers, telephone and electric cables and gas pipes will have to be studied. Care should be taken to avoid damage to the existing sewer, telephone and electric cables and gas pipes.
Detection of Cracks in Pipesy y
The pipe and fittings shall be inspected for defects and be rung with a light hammer, preferably while suspended, to detect cracks. Smearing the outside with chalk dust helps the location of cracks. If doubt persists further confirmation may be obtained by pouring a little kerosene on the inside of the pipe at the suspected spot. If a crack is present the kerosene seeps through and shows on the outer surface. Any pipe found unsuitable after inspection before laying shall be rejected.
JOINTSJoints are classified into the following three categories depending upon their capacity for movement.y
Rigid joints are those which admit no movement at all and comprise flanged, welded and turned and bored joints. Flanged joints require perfect alignment and close fittings are frequently used where a longitudinal thrust must be taken such as at the valves and meters. The gasket used between flanges of pipes shall be compressed fiber board or natural or synthetics rubber. Welded joints produce a continuous line of pipes with the advantage that interior and exterior coatings can be made properly and are not subsequently disrupted by the movement of joints.
(b) Semi Rigid Joints
Semi rigid joints is represented by the spigot and socket with caulked lead joint. A semi rigid joint allows partial movement due to vibration etc. The socketed end of the pipe should be kept against the flow of water and the spigot end of the other pipe is inserted into this socket. A twisted spun yarn is filled into this gap and it is adjusted by the yarning tool and is then caulked well. A rope is then placed at the outer end of the socket and is made tight fit by applying wet clay, leaving two holes for the escape of the entrapped air inside. The rope is taken out and molten lead is poured into the annular space by means of a funnel. The clay is then removed and the lead is caulked with a caulking tool. Lead wool may be used in wet conditions Lead covered yarn is of great use in repair work, since the leaded yarn caulked into palce will keep back water under very low pressure while the joint is being made.
(c) Flexible Joints
Flexible joints are used where rigidity is undesirable such as with filling of granular medium and when two sections cannot be welded. They comprise mainly mechanical and rubber ring joints or tycoon joints which permit some degree of deflection at each joint and are therefore able to stand vibration and movement. In rubber jointing special type of rubber gasket are used to connect cat iron pipe which are cast with a special type of spigot and being socket in the groove, the spigot end being lubricated with grease and slipped into the socket by means of a jack used on the other end. The working conditions of absence of light, presence of water and relatively cool uniform temperature are all conducive to the prservation of rubber and consequetly this type of joint is expected to last as long as the pipes. Hence, rubber jointing is to be preferred to lead jointing.
Why Cast Iron Pipe Fittings?While selecting pipe fittings for drain or sewer system, buyer's mostly prefer materials that are resistant to abrasion. Cast iron pipe fittings are highly resistant to abrasion from sand, gravel, dishwasher discharge, garbage disposal residue and debris, which are carried in suspension along the lower portion of the sewer or drain. This makes cast iron the most sought after choice of buyers for pipe fittings.
Important Features:Cast iron soil pipe fittings are classified either as Hub and Spigot and No Hub or Hubless. Hub coupling fittings comprise a ribbed steel sleeve, which is tightened and held in position by means of steel band clamps on both sides, lined with a rubber gasket. Cast iron couplings are designed to connect pipe to pipe as well as pipe to fitting.y y y y
Pipes made of no hub cast iron are never threaded or welded. These pipes are connected by means of no-hub couplings. Hub and spigot pipe fittings come in two classes of thickness: Service (SV) and Extra Heavy (XH). Hubless cast iron pipe fittings are usually manufactured without a hub, complying ASTM A 888 or CISP 301 and are available in 1 through 15 sizes. Hubless cast iron couplings are used for joining fittings like ells, wyes, and tees with the pipe.
Applications of pipe elbows:y y y
they are manufactured to be used in flow lines for gases, fluids in industrial processes, medical, construction and many other specialized applications. The elbows are constructed of heavy materials for rigid applications like extreme high/low temperature resistance etc. The elbows are specifically designed for use on process and control systems, instrumentation, and equipment used in chemical, petroleum, fluid power, electronic and pulp and paper plants.
Pipe reducery y
A pipe reducer serves the two basic purposes: Changing the piping diameter Handling the expansion, misalignment or vibration problem
Pipe couplings are highly demanded in the pipe fitting market. Pipe couplings are fittings that help to extend or terminate pipe runs. These fittings are also used to change pipe size. Couplings extend a run by joining two lengths of pipe. They are known as reduced coupling if they are used to connect pipes of different sizes.
Pipe unionUses of pipe union:y y y y y
To provide a leak-proof disconnection point in any piping system. Used for inserting metering and regulating devices into any plumbing application. Can connect piping system to vessels. Can join two pipes of different size together. Can easily remove the join between two pipes
Pipe teePipe Tee is used to connect pipelines with a pipe at a right angle with the line. Pipe Tees are widely used as pipe fittings. They are made of various materials and available in various sizes and finishes . Pipe tees are extensively used in pipeline networks to transport two-phase fluid mixtures.
Pipe adapters:y y y y y y y
Adapters are applicable in all sanitary pipes.