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<p>PROJECT REPORT BRT CORRIDORMBA- AB 2009-11</p> <p>Submitted by:21 : Amarjeet Punia 22 : Pranesh Kumar Pathak 23 : Vikas Gupta 24 : Ashish Jain 25 : Anil Gupta</p> <p>26 27 28 29 30</p> <p>: : : : :</p> <p>Tanvi Jindal Anshul Jain Vipul Singhal Vineet Kumar Ishita Dhingra</p> <p>Date:- November 4, 2009</p> <p>UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES GURU GOBIND SINGH INDRAPRASTHA</p> <p>Table of Contents</p> <p>1. Executive Summary2. Introduction of the BRT</p> <p>a. Introduction of Delhi b. Introduction of BRT System c. Need for BRT 3. Financial performance Analysis a. Company reportb. Interpretation of financial condition 4. Strategies for BRT</p> <p>a. Marketing b. Human Resource c. Finance 5. SWOT Analysis 6. Interpretation and Recommendations 7. Conclusions 8. Bibliography</p> <p>4</p> <p>Executive Summary</p> <p>Around</p> <p>the</p> <p>world,</p> <p>cities</p> <p>face</p> <p>enormous</p> <p>problems</p> <p>of</p> <p>transport</p> <p>sustainability. Rapidly increasing populations and vehicle use have created gridlock and sprawl, even in very poor cities, as well as rapid growth in oil use and unacceptably high levels of air pollution. This project shows how better bus systems, incorporating new approaches to system design and new technologies, can put urban transportation on a more sustainable path. It covers the area: new bus systems in Delhi that are tackling very difficult traffic-related problems. Compared to cities dominated by small private vehicles, those with welldesigned bus systems have much less traffic congestion, lower pollutant and CO2 emissions, and offer better mobility for all social and economic classes. Bus systems in the developing world carry a large share of urban travellers but are responsible for only a small part of traffic congestion, energy use and pollution. This is because reasonably full buses are inherently efficient in terms of both road space and fuel use per passenger kilometre Even dirty buses emit far less pollution and CO2</p> <p>4</p> <p>emissions per passenger kilometre than most other types of vehicles. But transit shares of travel are declining in many cities and conditions are worsen in changing these trends and moving toward more sustainable transport is imperative. Our analysis indicates that for a city like Delhi, there is a 100% difference in oil use and CO2 emissions between a future transport system dominated by travel in high-quality bus systems and one that is dominated by private vehicles. While many new technologies are emerging to improve buses, perhaps the most important story to be told is that the systems in which buses operate can be dramatically improved. Bus transit can be a premier form of urban travel. A new paradigm in delivering bus services, becoming known as bus rapid transit, is being developed in a number of cities, particularly in Latin America, and shows promise for revolutionizing bus systems around the world. Getting buses out of traffic, increasing their average speeds, improving their reliability and convenience, and increasing system capacities can ensure high ridership levels and increase the profitability of systems. All in all, the package of improvements described in this book, and being tested and implemented in various cities around the world, holds the potential to make all cities more efficient, cleaner, less gridlocked and more sustainable. But it will not be easy. It will require technical assistance and the transfer of experience and learning from successful cities to those just Starting out. Perhaps most of all it will require political will. The institutional, financial and operational aspects of bus systems must be strengthened. In many poor cities, most buses are run by small independent companies, some of which survive from day to day. These companies are rarely able to make major investments. Systems must be reformed to improve service and profitability, by moving from bus versus bus competition on the same route to competition for a licence to serve</p> <p>4</p> <p>entire routes. The level of service required for the entire route should be specified in the contract, and provision of this service should be assisted by supporting policies, such as adequate fares. Testing of new bus systems in demonstration corridors is an important step. Pilot or demonstration projects can create the seed that later grows into a fully established system of bus rapid transit routes. Demonstration projects can include dedicated bus lanes, improved bus stops and terminals and new ways of licensing and regulating bus services on the route. They can also offer a showcase for advanced technologies, or simply modern buses. New, low-cost bus-system technologies can help. When lanes and entire corridors are given over to buses, bus travel becomes increasingly attractive. With such additional features as bus priority treatment at intersections and traffic signals, buses can become a premium form of urban travel, rather than a last resort. Global positioning systems (GPS) to track bus position and relay this information to travellers in real time, so they know when buses will arrive, are also becoming cost-effective. Smart card ticketing systems can allow easy transfers and multiple trips with one electronic fare card. In such cases, technology leap-frogging makes good sense for many cities in the developing world. Improved buses and bus systems should be part of a comprehensive strategy. Improving buses and bus systems will help increase the bus share of passenger travel in cities around the world. But unless strong policies to dampen the growth in car travel and, in many places, motorcycle travel are also applied, the fight for sustainable transport will be a losing battle. Increasing vehicle and fuel taxes, strict land-use controls and limits and higher fees on parking are important to ensure a sustainable urban transport future. Equally important is integrating transit systems into a broader package of mobility for all types of travellers, for example non-motorised vehicle lanes. Pedestrians and bicyclists are</p> <p>4</p> <p>important users of transit, if they can get to it. Finally, all travel is rooted in the electric-drive structure of a city. Electric-drive development should be geared toward avoiding cardependence and putting important destinations close to public transit stations (and vice versa).</p> <p>4</p> <p>Introduction of BRTThe Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System is a newly introduced concept of transport in Delhi in which the buses cater to sixty percent of the city's transportation needs. Together with Delhi Metro and soon to be introduced Monorail and Light Rail, it will be part of an integrated multimodal transport systems operational in Delhi. Delhi BRT work is also being sped up keeping in mind the fact that the city will be hosting Commonwealth Games in 2010. The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi is undertaking major reforms to make the transport in the capital city better. This includes introducing the multi-modal transport system that will interact with each other at common bays as well as other measures, like the AC buses, privatizing Delhi Transport Corporation etc. Like other bus-rapid transit systems across the world, Delhi BRT aims to make public transport a more convenient option for its people. Delhi BRT is not grade-separated, i.e., the buses do not run at a different level or height than the normal traffic and share the same traffic signals.</p> <p>DELHIDelhi is known as city of flyovers in India. In the last decade, a number of flyovers were built to ease the traffic condition on the road. Flyovers and underpasses were built to increase the mobility of the commuters. The new expanded road spaces were seen as a symbol of progress and speed and were accepted with much fanfare. However, each action has tradeoffs. To create a private vehicle oriented infrastructure, the public transportation system was neglected. Further with the citys buoyant economy, cars have replaced buses on the roads and cyclists have switched to two-wheelers and motorcycles. Pedestrians are now the most marginalized commuters on the road. Increased number of vehicles on the road has not only reduced the mobility of a large section of people, but</p> <p>4</p> <p>has also increased the pollution level, journey time and average per KM fuel consumption. In 2002, Supreme Court issued an order to convert all diesel buses into CNG. The action aimed to reduce the carbon level in the air and also generated hopes of a clean and healthier society. However, in less than a decade, the gains that accrued from the CNG program have been lost. All the options available under the first generation reforms have been exhausted. In August 2008, the average total suspended particulate (TSP) level in Delhi was 378 micrograms per cubic meterapproximately five times the World Health Organizations (WHO) annual average standard (Source: Central Pollution Control Board). It is estimated that over 3000 metric tons of air pollutants are emitted in Delhi (MOEF, 2002). To address all these issues, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) envisions an Integrated Multi-Modal Network of Public Transport system consisting of a network Metro, Mono Rail, Light Rail and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). The overall vision aims to strengthen the public transportation system and envisage a long-term solution to the citys traffic and parking problem.</p> <p>Traffic scenario in DelhiThe transportation network in Delhi is predominantly road based with 1,284 km of road per 100 km2. The number of vehicles on Delhis road has increased by 212% in the last 18 years from 19.23 lakh in 1991 to over 60 lakh by 2008. Road space in Delhi is 21% of the total space available, thus there is little scope of future expansion of road length. The road length in Delhi has increased from 22,487 km in 1991 to 31,183 km in 2008, a modest increase of 17% in the same period. To accommodate the increasing vehicular population, additional space is increasingly</p> <p>4</p> <p>sought to be created either over or beneath the road, i.e. Flyovers and underpasses. However, traditional approaches do not help to improve the mobility but help to shift the bottleneck from one point to another. For example, GNCTD built more than 15 flyovers on Ring Road to increase the throughput. The condition has improved radically so far as engineering is concerned, but not necessarily in a mobility context. Ring Road has become completely signal-free, but not congestion-free. Increasing vehicle population is also positively co-related with number of fatalities caused by road accidents, most of these are pedestrians, cyclists and bus travelers. According to a recent World Bank report (August 2008), every year road accidents cost India about 3% of its gross domestic product, which was more than $1 trillion in 2007. In Delhi alone, till July 2008, 1,128 people had lost their lives in road accidents, of which 64 people had died in accidents casued by Bluelines buses. Therefore, a longterm solution to improve the traffic condition in Delhi, which includes bringing behavioral, attitudinal and cultural changes, is the need of the hour. To avoid the chaos caused by the mixed traffic and to mitigate the risk of accidents, there is a need to encourage lane driving of buses that had been introduced earlier with the orders of the High Court. Further, instead of giving more incentive and road space to private vehicles owners, there is a need to promote public transport. The success of policy initiatives aimed at public transport is palpable. Delhi Metro has proved to be a tremendous success story in Delhi. The idea was approved in 1998, with an aim to improve the traffic condition and mobility of commuters. Delhi Metro is operating around 90 trains and carrying approx. 8 lakhs passenger per day. The bus system, however, has its own importance. Delhi Metro can not completely replace the busbased system on all routes. Due to higher capital cost, low capital returns</p> <p>4</p> <p>and large gestation period, it is not feasible to build Metro line on all stretchs. The logic of this argument is seen from the situation in other cities with well developed metro networks like London and Paris, where buses still cater to a much larger number of passenger trips than metro. The reason is that the bus system is more flexible compared to other transportation system. There is, thus, a need to strengthen the bus-based system. In Delhi, buses are generally considered unreliable and time consuming, to reach the destination. Thus, there is need to develop a system to give priority and dedicated road space to buses in order to make them reliable and faster. BRT system is part of the Multi Modal Transport Policy of GNCTD, a total of 7 BRT corridors are proposed to be built in the first phase</p> <p>4</p> <p>Corridors plannedA total 26 BRT corridors are planned, covering a total length of 310 km by the year 2020. This will be in addition to more than 400 km of metro train coverage by 2020 and further coverage by Monorail and Light Rail.</p> <p>Phase I (20052010) II (20102015)7 III (20152020)</p> <p>Corrid ors 7 3 3</p> <p>Length (Km) 115.5 28.0 166.0</p> <p>Delhi BRT systemBRT means giving right of way to buses and safeguarding cyclists and pedestrians by encouraging lane driving on engineered road spaces along large and wide corridors and link them to metros and other colony roads for easy access. Besides giving priority to buses, the system also provides dedicated lanes for pedestrian and non-motorized vehicles like cycles and rickshaws etc. The corner stone for the introduction of BRT system in Delhi was put up in 1995, when Central Pollution Control Board commissioned a study for reducing vehicular pollution in Delhi. The final report, with a recommendation to introduce segregated bicycle lanes and bus lanes, was submitted in 1997. An international workshop was organized by the Delhi Transport Corporation in collaboration with SIAM, IDFC and IIT Delhi on High Capacity Bus Systems System in January 2002. This was the first major step in the conceptualization of the BRT System for Delhi.</p> <p>4</p> <p>In 2004, GNCTD appointed RITES and Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT Delhi) for designing and implementing the first corridor from Dr. Ambedkar Nagar to Delhi Gate. RITES has been appointed the Project Management Consultant and TRIPP IIT Delhi the technical and conceptual advisors. In 2006, GNTCD established Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System (DIMTS), a Special Purpose Vehicle to oversee the establishment of public transport systems in Delhi. DIMTS is currently entrusted with the operation and maintenance of the existing corridor as the Corridor Manager. In October 2006, the construction work on the corridor started. The stretch from Dr. Ambedkar Nagar to Moolchand is under trial run since April 20, 2008.</p> <p>Technical detailsThe first corridor of BRT in Delhi, from Ambedkar Nagar to Delhi Gate, is 14.5 km long with ROW varying from 28 meters to 51.5 meters. Bus Lane is in the middle of the road with a widt...</p>