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    Jurnal Bahasa dan SastraVolume l9o Nomor 3, Desember 2013



    SAWERIGADING vol,. 19 No.3 HLM.323--484



    Terakreditasi No.527lAU2 IPZN{I-LIPI/0 4 12013

  • rssN 0854-4220

    Jurnal Bahasa dan SastraVolume 19, Nomor 3, Desemb er 2013



    SAWERIGADING vol-. 19 No.3 HLM.323--484



    Terakreditasi No.527lAU2 IP2MI-LPVO 4 12013

  • 4 4220

    )INGSastra ISSN:085+4220


    voLuME 19, NO. 3, DESEMBER 2013


    PENULISANKALIMATPEMELAJARBAHASAINDONESIABAGIPENUTUR 333---343ASING: SUATU KAJIAN ANALISIS KESALAIT{N DAN I\4ANFA\T{T\IYADALAM PENGEMBANGAN BAHANAJAR (Writing Sentences of Learners ofBahasa Indonesiafor Foreign Speakers: A Study of Error Analysis and its Usage inMaterial s Dev elopment)Ratnawati

    CORAK KEBAIIASAAN DALAM SASTRABUGIS KLASIK (Language Style inCl os s i c al Bugine s e Lit er ature)Herianah

    SINONIM KELAS KATANOMINABAI{ASABUGIS Q'{oun Synonym in BugineseLanguage)Syamsurijal dan Musayyedah

    METAFORA DALAM BERITA PRODUK CINA PADA SURAT KABARMEDIA INDONESIA DAN KOMPAS : ANALISIS WACANA KRITIS (Metaphor sinthe ChinalsNews Products in Media Indonesia and Kompas Newspapers: CriticalDiscourse Analysis)WinciFirdaus


    KONTRAK KARYA SYARIFAH ALIYYAH(Impoliteness in Character Interaction of "Kcrwin Kontrak" Novel by Syarifah Aliyyah)Rahmatiah

    DGRESSING COMPLIMENTS IN ENGLISHAND INDONESIAN LANGUAGE: 389-497A COMPARATWE STUDY (Pernyataan Pujian dalam Bahasa Inggris dan BahasaIndonesia : Suatu Studi' Kompor asi )

    u,/Harlnah Sahib



    AKTUALISASI DIRI TOKOH DALAM NOVEL THE HLINGER GAMES (SCIf-Actuqlization Character of "The Hunger Games" Novel)Hasina Fajrin R







    ( p er ny ata oi p i i oi Em,gf:;: gW;:; l;n B ah a s a I n d o n e s i u :

    Ilarlinah SahibFakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Hasanuddin

    KampusFlBUniversitasHasanuddinTamalarnea,Kml0MakassarTelepon 04tl 587 223, Faksimile 04II 587 223

    Pos-el: harlinahsahib@yahoo'co'idDiterima: 8 september 2013; Direvisi: 10 oktober 2013; Disetujui: 9 November2013



    litian ini mengknji pernyataan pujian yattg ditakukan oleh penutur Bahasa Inggris dan Bahasa Indonesia baik

    dhmgkaplran olehpriamaupun wanita. Kaiianinibertujuanuntukmendeskripsikankesamaan danperbedaqn

    mengungknptran pujian ialam keduq bahasa tersebut.Penelitian ini menggmaknn metode deslviptif ycmg

    t kuqntitatif. Data diperoleh melalui teknik lapangan dengan telmik kuesioner daniuga kepustaknan' Hasil

    itian menwiuklran balwa penutur bahasa Inggris fulam mengungknpkan puiian cendertmg lebih langsung'

    tetapi penitur bahosa Indinesia cendenmg bersifat tidak langsmg karena perbedaan budaya'

    is snrdy discusses the expressing of compliments uttered by both English and Indonesian native speakers

    her male or female. rnis study of compliment has objectives to describe the similarities and the differences in

    pressing compliments in the btth hnguages. Data is oUtuio.A through field research by using questionnaire and

    kunci: pernyataan pujian, bahasa Inggris, bahasa Indonesia, studi komparasi


    ;;;;;:Th;;"r"t ;ows that E-ngtltt *a hdonesia native speakers tend to express compliments directly'

    tre other hand, Indonesian people express it indirectly since cultural diversity'

    rds: expressing compliment, English, bahasa Indonesian, comparative study

    When two or more people communicate to

    eh other in speech, they are actually employlng

    r code as an in separable part of the system of

    mmmunication. Communication is defined as "the

    orchange and negotiation of information between

    a least two individuals through the use of verbal

    md nonverbal symbols, oral, and written form

    {Richards, Jack C, Richard W. Schmidt, 1987)'

    Regardless of the natural system of

    communication as mentioned above, Canale and

    Swain ( 1 980) have postulated that communication

    requires some important aspects that includes

    socio-culfura1 ruIes of use arrd rules o f discoutse"'

    This is popularly known as sociolinguistic

    competence that is concerned with the extent to

    which utterances are produced and understood

    appropriately in different sociolinguistic contexts

    *fti"ft also depends on the contextual factors

    such as status of participants and purposes of

    interaction.It is known that speech changes according

    to the degree of formality and Japanese is well

    known for its differences in styles' Speech is

    defined by many factors; among them are alike'

    speakers, status, and roles' Most languages in


  • Sawerigading, Vol. 19, No. 3, Desember 2013 3t9-397

    the world possess a number of mechanisms toshow politeness or solidary @rown & Levinson,1987) which range from an elaborate honorfficsystem). The importance of appropriateness ofusing language in social interaction had long beenemphasized by some linguists and hence, theidea of systematic study of speech acts as a socialphenomenon is not new. Therefore, when twopeople from similar and different culture interac!they often state compliments in order to pleaseeach other.

    In our daily lives, we generally exchangecompliments as an effort to keep solid relationships.ln other words, compliments are supposed to befor rapport instead of report and for cooperationinstead of complimenting in Tannen,s terms(1996). There are many ways that people useto express compliments, therefore the ways torespond are also various. Different person mayhave different ways in giving responses of theresponded givers, depending on the situation, andthe ways the recipients ofthe compliments assumethe compliments given and also who the one do thecompliments.

    A compliment is a speech act with orimplicitly attributes credit to someone or otherthan the speaker, usually the person addresses, forsome "good" (possession, characteristics, skills,etc.) which is positively valued by the speakerand the hearer.(Holmes, J, 1988).

    It is generally stereotyped that Englishnative speakers are more direct than Indonesianwhen both express speech acts in this casecompliments. Usually Indonesians go around fora while talking about related things before finallysay that they agree or disagree. Even sometimesthey do not use any expressions which reallymean disagree. They may just ask questions orsay something different from that mention by theirinterlocutors, or even, when their interlocutors arehigher in status than they are, they just keep silent.

    Furthermore, in expressing compliments,Indonesian people usually say indirectly totheir interlocutors without thinking aboutmisinterpretation, although it pleases theinterlocutors.

    ln lndonesian culture for example, $lcompliments are relatively rare because fltoo many complements the recipients are dmisunderstood among people. Thereforc |statement is usually used only among medonly ofthe educated class who have been eryuto western customs.

    There are many ways that people usstate compliments, therefore the ways to rerycompliments are also various. Different peumay have different ways in giving responsesthe responded givers, depending on the situdiand the ways the recipients of the complirrnassumes the compliments given and also udoes the compliments.

    In order to provide insightful understandabout the objectives and detailed analyregarding the subject of the research, the wrioutlines the problem statements which rformulated in the following research questions

    1. What is the characteristic of complimqbetween sexes in the two languages?

    2. How are the similarities and differeubetween the two cultural groups reveale

    3. Why do people disclose compliments?

    After revealing research questionthis study, the writer would like to presentobjectives as follows.

    1. To describe the characteristicscompliments between sexes in the trlanguages.

    2. To explain the similarities and differencbetween sexes in the two languages.

    3. To discuss the reasons for people tocompliments.


    According to Brown and Levinson (19?52), "a compliment is a positive stategy to addrethe hearers'positive face". The positive face is tperson a person's desire to be approved by othtand to have one's goal thought ofas a desirable Iothers who share similar interests. For examplecompliment such as "your personal opinions a


  • H!


    valuable and interesting," conveys approval

    a sense that speaker and hearer share similar

    It works as a kind of social accelerator'

    A compliment is a sPeech act with or

    the hearer (Holmes, J., 1988).

    Brown and Levinson (1987) also claimed

    : speech acts of complementing are a largely

    itive and politeness strategy, since it lets

    addressee knows that he or she is liked' As

    positively affective speech acts, the most

    ious function of compliments is to polish the

    ial relationship, pay attention to positive face

    and thus increase or integrate solidarity

    Harlinah Sahib: Expresstng Compliments "'

    merely polite, and invite repetition in others, the

    opposite maY be true.

    The Function of ComPliments

    The study has shown that complimenting

    involves a variety of linguistics functions' It is

    argued that the main function of compliment is to

    "rtublith tolidarity between speakers and addresse

    ( Holmes lgg}). Manes (1983), maintains that

    praise in American English functions to both

    establish and reinforce solidarity between

    speaker and listener and that solidarity between

    interlocutors thus emerges or establishes'Another possible function of compliments

    may serve to strenghten or replace other speech

    acts like apologizing, greeting, reprimanding

    or thanking or to soften acts such as criticism

    (Wolfson, 1983).

    Tips for ComPliments

    It is suggested by Wolfson (1983) that there

    are several tips for giving powerful compliment

    as follows.

    1. Be specific. Don't vague when you give

    compliment. Say something truely'

    2. Acknowledge their character when

    complementing an accomplishmen' Do

    not just acknowledge what the person did'

    Point to a person's character traits such as

    persperance, kindness, and thougfulness'

    3. -Be

    authentic' If you do not really mean the

    compliment, do not give it' Every one has

    some characters strength or gift worthy of

    acknowledgement.4. Express Your aPPresiation when

    complimenting someone about something

    they did not benefit you' Be direct in your


    Syntactic Pattern of ComPliment

    Manes and Wolfson (1931) have suggested

    the structural pattern of compliment, compliments

    are remarkably formulaic speech acts in that a very

    small number oflexical ideas and syntactic pattems

    account for the great majority 175 compliments'

    The syntactic pattern can be seen as follows'

    also serve other functions such as greeting,

    ing, and apologizing or even as substitute

    them. Yet, to express so many compliments,can oftenbe really annoyed and strange' In

    word, a person does not fell convertible'

    Cultural differences also account lbr

    in making sense of the so called

    Brown and Levinson (1978) cited

    Richards (1984) suggest that in order to enter

    social relationships with each other, one must

    people. Holmes (1992) in her work

    lnting in speech has Provided the

    ition of compliments as a speech act, which

    icitly athibutes credit to someone other than

    speakers, usually the person addresses, for

    agood that is positively valued by the speaker

    the hearer. In shortly, the act of compliment

    ,edge the face of other people. This is to

    tha-t both sides avoid intruding upon each

    territory such as physical tenitory apafiical

    of knowledge and try to seek to enlarge the

    itorv of others. Lakoff(1993) provides term as

    other people to feel good on the assumption

    the same willbe done to them which is believed

    be different from society to society'They further state that the precise ways of

    ting respect for face may be specific culture

    d not subject to direct translation' For example,o^*o ..rlfirreq initial refusal of an offer may be

  • Harlinah Sahib : Expres sing Compliments "'

    Brown" G. Yule, G' 1983' ?itt":'y Analysk'

    n ptiot. Cambridge Ud^y*P rresst

    all data written in the table' Canale, iuf. n"O Swain' 1980' Theorical Base^s

    G a; is significant similarities';f"

    i;;;ir*n"+PProyhes .to X::::b"*..rr lndonesian and English |""g,r;t;;, and Tesitig' Toronto

    : Ontario

    compliments. Both Indonesian ffi.oy"of Educationpeople state compliment wl-en Holmes,J.(19it8;."Paying Complimentl


    ffi; feautiru ot interesting' rr\rl'^:

    ential Politeness Strategy"-Journal of

    ItAoo"tiio PeoPle are rarelY useddonesian people are rarely useo Pragmaticst2:445-465'-rfr", thannnglish' In-other wold' Holmes, J. Igg2.

    'oPoliteness.- Stategjes ll

    il ;;;"donly reluctant to be """--kt ru"tior,:'. Journal of Pragmatics'


    air""tty. Only among members of (105-116). l:---.i^+in,p"opf" are conrmonlY reluctant ::^'^:

    .i*, *rto have been exsposed to 'ot nes, J.2^,lAnlntroductiontosociolinguistic"ms. Although English people are (2'dedition)',London:Longman' .;- nt-^n

    t;*"g cJmptments they do not Lakoff, R. 1993. Languange.":d Y".*::'


    tr"it"p.olpt"*ttoarecomplimented' in Wardhaughlryt " An Introduction to

    il tfto* their friendlY manner' The io.ioio"g"iJti". Massaschussette : Basil

    by English people in the table above Bbckwell' 'vJ L'Lb--"--r--r oo mAqt worrlost " '*?"1^.r., Mirrorof

    complimented, such as, great, y* 19* Manes, J. 1983. ComplimentsA

    ieht what have you been doing?- hi' Cultural Values inwofson &Judd ltqt)'

    re toot i"g3ust terrific' Failure i*iii*S"istic & Languange Acquistion'

    in the process of interaction il;"ty : Rowely, MA: Newbury Hoytl

    .;;;" are looking just tenific' Failure

    ^acc nf interactioll

    causedby differences in cultures, values Mun"r,J.& iVofsonS. (1981)' Compliment

    mdnormsthatthe interlocutorharbor' formula.ytp.Couttnas,(Ed.),Conversational

    " fot-t a small contribution to

    the. , I ^ ^ - . ^ d

    e.. ror,,'r a small contribution to the routine,115-132.TheHague:Mouton'

    ;;at *;ur.t o" language *d:ot:; Richards, J.c' and Rw' -schemiut, (:u:l-|*:

    lt*i".y of acts such as expressive of '"-'-*Co"rersationalAnalysis'


    ."rgr"Jitl"g, and thanking. Richards,J.c. and R.w schmidt (eds)' 1987'

    t ^- ' l^n '

    Curbridge UniversitY Press'

    t t, U"*versal inLanguange' Cambridge

    ';;;;";i andcommunication' London :

    LongmanGrouPukltd' . ^ - \T^.,

    ; P. And S.c' Levinson'1978' Politeness: Tannen' n' lrwq Gender and Discourse'


    fune univrrrot iniirigugogu. cambridge: york: oxford university Press'

    t .jr-^ rr*i,,orcirrr pr"ess. WolfsorU Nattu. l983An empirically based

    il'Hf3.tTIJ*TJ"ll"i*r pgtiteyely, " """";;*,y:l:

    :! .':::1,#!K "kiKtr:l{;,fr:"i:,;;'",;;;;;;. cambridg e Enstish rn socioringuistics and Language: Cambridge University Press.

    Acq"isition' edsN'Wolfsol3ndE' Judd' 82-

    95. -RowlY'

    MA: Newbury House'

  • llItililtffi tfi tiltffi illilil IililillII0854-4220


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