Baking Terms and Ingredients!!!

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Post on 08-Jan-2017




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  • BATTER- a pourable mixture of combined ingredients such as flour, sugar, eggs shortening, milk, etc.BEAT- To soften hard fats by incorporating air into the mixture of dry and wet ingredients, normally done with a stand mixer.

  • BITE-SIZED - To cut or tear food into small enough pieces to eat in one bite

    BLEND - To thoroughly combine all ingredients until very smooth and uniform.

    BREAKING DOWN - over creaming of ingredients, causing weakened products which collapsed.

  • CARAMELIZE - To heat sugar until it dissolves and turns into a golden syrup.

    CHILL to refrigerate until evenly cold.

    CONSISTENCY (of batter) fluidity of the batter, closely related to viscosity. A batter of low consistency is one which is quite fluid; one of high consistency is stiff.

  • CRUMB- refers to the interior of breads and cakes as compared to the outer crust.

    CREAM- To beat together two or more ingredients, such as butter and sugar, until the mixture is smooth, creamy, uniform consistency.

  • CRIMP- to use a fork to press the edges of an unbaked piecrust against the rim of the pie plate to seal in the filling and provide a traditional decoration.

    DECORATIING- the art of putting fancy inscriptions or design on cakes

  • CUT IN- To mix a cold fat (such as butter) with flour or dry ingredients by hand until the mixture resembles coarse crumbs.- This can be achieved by using a pastry blender or two tableware knives.

  • DIP To slowly, but briefly, lower food into a melted mixture such as chocolate.DROP To place cookies by spoonful's onto a cookie sheet.

    DUST To sprinkle a fine powder such as icing sugar or cocoa on top of baked goods. Normally done with a sifter.FOLD/FOLD IN To gently combine a light, airy mixture( such as beaten egg whites) with a heavier mixture.

  • GLAZE To create a shiny surface on top of baked goods.

    GOLDEN BROWN To visually test for doneness of a light to medium brown color on foods, such as cookies and cakes.

    GRADUALLY the act o proceeding by stages.

  • GREASING application of shortening to the inside of a pan with a brush to prevent mixture from adhering to the pan when baked.

    GREASE AND FLOUR Coat baking pan with shortening before lightly dusting with flour to prevent food from sticking.

  • ICE/ICING To cover a cake or cookie with mixture, such as frosting.

    KNEAD To work dough by hand or with a dough hook of an electric mixer, into a smooth ball to develop the gluten or structure of the dough.

  • LIGHT AND FIRM the degree of lightness and stability normally applied to whipped eggs and creamed batters.

    MELT To apply heat to change a food from a solid to a liquid, such as butter or chocolate.

  • MIX To use a whisk, spoon or fork to combine two or more ingredients.

    PREHEAT To heat (an oven) before hand.

    SCRAPE DOWN To scrape the batter from the sides of the kettle so that it may blend with the batter uniformly.

  • SCALD To heat cream or milk almost to boiling.

    SCORE To make shallow cuts on the surface of yeast bread to ensure even rising and baking.

    SIMMER To heat a liquid until it gently bubbles on the surface.

  • SIEVE To strain dry or wet through the holes of a strainer or sieve.

    SIFT To pass an ingredients, such as powdered sugar, through a sieve or sifter to makes smooth and separating course particles in the ingredients like lumps.

  • SOFT PEAKS To beat whipping cream or egg whites until peaks curl over when beaters are lifted out of the bowl.

    SOGGY presence of excess moisture giving the product a very wet appearance.

    STIFF PEAKS - To beat whipping cream or egg whites until peaks stand up straight when the beaters are lifted up out of the bowl.

  • SPREAD To cover evenly.SPRINKLE To scatter lightly.STEAMING To cook on a rack above boiling liquid in a tightly covered pan.STIR To use a spoon or whisk in a circular motion to combine two or more ingredients

  • WHIP - To combine two or more ingredients using a wire whisk- To beat a liquid (such as cream) briskly with a whisk to incorporate air until soft or hard peaks form.


  • FLOUR is the primary ingredients in baking. - provides the structure in baked goods.

  • WHEAT FLOURIs the most important ingredients in the bakeshop. Wheat flour contains proteins that interact with each other when mixed with water, forming gluten.Is best for cakes, pastries and breads.

  • Types of FlourBread FlourAll-Purpose FlourCake Flour

  • BREAD FLOURHard wheat flour or Strong flour.Contain 12-14% protein.Bread flour feels slightly coarse when rubbed between the fingersIts color is creamy white.

  • ALL-PURPOSE FLOURFamily flour or General flour.Referred to as pastry flour.Contain 10-12% protein.Feels smooth and fine like cake flour and can also squeezed into a lump.

  • CAKE FLOURSoft flourLower gluten content.Contain 7-8% protein.Feels very smooth and fine. It stays in a lump when squeezed in the hand.Its color is pure white.

  • OTHER TYPES OF FLOURStraight flour is flour made from the entire endosperm.Patent flour is milled from the inner part of the endosperm, which breaks into fine particles than the part nearer the bran.Clear four this flour comes from the outer parts of the endosperm.

  • High-gluten flour flour that has an especially high protein content is sometimes used in hard-crusted breads and in such specialty products as pizza dough and bagels.Pastry Flour is also a weak or low-gluten flour, but it is slightly stronger than cake flour.

  • In addition to flours:CORNSTARCH has especially property that makes it valuable for certain purposes.WAXY MAIZE AND OTHER MODIFIED STARCHES have valuable properties. INSTANT STARCHES are precooked or pregelatinized so they thicken cold liquids w/out further cooking.

  • SUGAR Sweetening ingredients.a. Granulated sugar or refined sugar.b. Confectionary sugar or powdered sugar.c. Brown Sugar

  • FATS/SHORTENING1. Fats in the form of solid shortening, margarine or butter or the liquid form of oil contribute tenderness, moistness and a smooth mouth feel to baked goods.

  • 2. SHORTENINGIs 100 percent fat and is solid at room temperature.Made from vegetable oils, animal fats or both.Use the word shortening to mean any of a group of solid fats, usually white and tasteless.


  • BUTTERFresh butter consist of about 80% fat, about 15% water and about 5% milk solids.Butter is available salted and unsalted.

    - Unsalted butter is more perishable, but it has a fresher, sweeter taste and is thus preferred in baking.- Salted butter , the salt in the formula may have to be reduced

  • MARGARINEIt contains 80-85% fat, 10-15% moisture and about 5% salt, milk solids and other components.Margarine is manufactured from various hydrogenated animal and vegetable fats, plus flavoring ingredients, emulsifiers, coloring agents and other ingredients.

  • OILSOils are liquid fats.They are not often used as shortenings in baking because they spread through a batter or dough too thoroughly and shorten too much.

  • LARDLard is the rendered fat of hogs. Because of its plastic quality, it was once highly valued for making flaky pie crust.

  • EGGS Serve many functions in baked goods.

  • LIQUIDWater/LiquidsMilkJuice

  • LEAVENING AGENTPhysical LeavenersBiological Leaveners- YEAST3 . Chemical Leavening Agentsa. Baking Sodab. Baking Powder

  • FLAVORING in BAKINGSaltFlavorCocoa, chocolate and coffeeSeeds and spices, root crops, fruits and other vegetables.5. Alcohols

  • SALTSalt plays a very important role in baking.

    Functions:Salt strengthens gluten structure and makes it more stretchable. Thus it improves the texture of breads.Salt inhibits yeast growth



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