Baking Science & Tech Vol. 1

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  • VOLUME I: Fundamentals & Ingredients

    Baking Science & Technology

    Volume I: Fundam

    entals & Ingredients E.J. Pyler and L.A. Gorton Fourth Edition

    FOURTH EDITION

    BAKINGScience & Technology

    E.J. PYLERAND L.A. GORTON

    SOSLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY

  • ii /

    Copyright 2008 by Sosland Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2008934285ISBN 978-0-9820239-0-7 Baking Science and Technology, Volume 1ISBN 978-0-9820239-2-1 Baking Science and Technology, 2 Volume Set

    No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or graphic, including photocopying, taping, or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of Sosland Publishing Company unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal law.

    Printed in the United States of America

    Sosland Publishing Co.4800 Main St., Suite 100Kansas City, MO 64112Telephone: (+1) 816 756 1000Fax: (+1) 816 756 0494Web: www.bakingbusiness.com

    Every effort has been made to ascertain the owners of copyrights for the selections used in this volume and to credit and/or obtain permission to reprint copyrighted information and graphics. Sosland Publishing Co. expresses its gratitude for permissions it has received. Sosland Publishing Co. will be pleased, in subsequent editions, to correct any inadvertent errors or omissions that may be pointed out.

  • Baking Science & Technology / iii

    ForewordBaking Science & Technology, 3rd edition stayed in print for nearly

    20 years, but as the industry approached the 2007 International Baking Industry Exposition, it became clear that a new edition was needed. Much had happened, especially on the nutrition side as well as with process automation, and the industry now encompassed many new aspects not covered in the text. The 4th edition was announced at that international trade show, and this book is the first of two volumes comprising the new version.

    Baking Science & Technology, was first published in 1952, then again in 1972 and 1988. That this book stood the test of time and continues to be used as a textbook by the industrys leading baking schools and as a daily reference for thousands of bakers worldwide is testament to its original writers insight and writing ability.

    For the 4th edition, Sosland Publishing approached Laurie Gorton, executive editor of Baking & Snack. She has nearly 35 years experience covering the technical, scientific and business aspects of the grain-based foods industry.

    The grain-based foods industry and baking in particular face as many, if not more, challenges than 20 years ago. Todays issues involve nutritional content, food safety and the demands of the health-and-wellness shopper. But every era brings its own concerns to the table, quite literally.

    We intend Baking Science & Technology to move into the future through this new edition and, later, digital formats. As developments occur, the book will be updated using emerging electronic technologies. We encourage readers to comment on this edition and its contents and to recommend topics and changes for future inclusion.

    Mark SaboPresident, Sosland Publishing Co.August 2008

  • Baking Science & Technology / vii

    Table of ContentsForeword ................................................................................................................ ii

    Chapter 1: Basic Food Science ........................................................................... 1Carbohydrates ........................................................................................................ 2

    Sources of carbohydrates used in baking ...................................................... 2Carbohydrate synthesis ................................................................................... 2Simple vs. complex......................................................................................... 3Physical and chemical differentiation ............................................................. 4Monosaccharides ............................................................................................ 4Sugar: Disaccharides and trisaccharides......................................................... 5Starch .............................................................................................................. 7Dextrins ........................................................................................................ 11Gelatinization of starches ............................................................................. 12Retrogradation of starch ............................................................................... 14Acrylamide formation .................................................................................. 15Glycemic index vs. glycemic response ......................................................... 16

    Pentosans ............................................................................................................ 17Sources of pentosans in baking .................................................................... 17Structure ....................................................................................................... 18Physical and chemical differentiation ........................................................... 18Functions and effects during baking ............................................................. 18

    Fiber ..................................................................................................................... 20Sources of fi ber ............................................................................................. 21Defi nition of dietary fi ber ............................................................................. 21Structure ....................................................................................................... 26Properties of fi ber in food ............................................................................. 27Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics ............................................................ 27

    Proteins and enzymes .......................................................................................... 28Proteins ......................................................................................................... 29Sources of proteins ....................................................................................... 30Amino acids .................................................................................................. 31Classifi cation of proteins .............................................................................. 34Structure of proteins ..................................................................................... 39Properties of proteins .................................................................................... 41Proteins of wheat .......................................................................................... 43Enzymes ....................................................................................................... 47Sources of enzymes ...................................................................................... 47Classifi cation and nomenclature of enzymes ............................................... 49Lock-and-key, induced fi t of enzymes .......................................................... 51

  • viii / Table of Contents

    Properties of enzymes ................................................................................... 51Lipids ................................................................................................................... 55

    Source of lipids ............................................................................................. 55Nomenclature ............................................................................................... 56Chemical composition .................................................................................. 57Fatty acids ..................................................................................................... 57Fatty acid naming protocols ......................................................................... 58Saturated vs. unsaturated .............................................................................. 58Cis vs. trans .................................................................................................. 62Short- and medium-chain fatty acids ............................................................ 63Mono-, di- and triglycerides ......................................................................... 63Sterols and stanols ........................................................................................ 64Other lipids ................................................................................................... 64Physical aspects ............................................................................................ 64Liquid, plastic and solid forms ..................................................................... 64Melting point ................................................................................................ 65Crystallinity .................................................................................................. 66Hydrogenation and interesterifi cation .......................................................... 66Oxidation ...................................................................................................... 68Autoxidation mechanism .............................................................................. 68Antioxidants ................................................................................................. 69Hydrolysis and polymerization ..................................................................... 70

    Physical chemistry ............................................................................................... 71Acid-base reactions ...................................................................................... 71Electrolytes ................................................................................................... 71Titration ........................................................................................................ 72Active acidity ................................................................................................ 73The pH concept ............................................................................................. 74Buffers .......................................................................................................... 75pH determination .......................................................................................... 76Role of pH in baking .................................................................................... 77Buffering action of proteins .......................................................................... 78pH in chemically leavened product .............................................................. 79Oxidation and reduction ............................................................................... 80The redox potential ....................................................................................... 81Estimation of redox potential ....................................................................... 81Role of oxidation in baking .......................................................................... 82Role of pentosans ......................................................................................... 83Role of thiols and disulfi des ......................................................................... 84Role of fl our lipids ........................................................................................ 85

    Dough physics: colloids and rheology ................................................................. 86States of matter ............................................................................................. 87

  • Baking Science & Technology / ix

    Molecular forces ........................................................................................... 88Colloidal systems .......................................................................................... 89Emulsions ..................................................................................................... 90Foams............................................................................................................ 92Colloidal character of dough ........................................................................ 92Colloidal aspects of fl our particles ............................................................... 93Starch ............................................................................................................ 94Dextrins ........................................................................................................ 96Pentosans ...................................................................................................... 96Water solubles ............................................................................................... 97Flour proteins ................................................................................................ 97Role of polar fl our lipids ............................................................................... 98Chemical bonds ............................................................................................ 99Water in dough .............................................................................................. 99Adsorption vs. absorption ........................................................................... 100Cell structure in dough ............................................................................... 101Dough rheology .......................................................................................... 103

    Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients ....................................................................... 113Part A: Major Ingredients .............................................................................. 113Wheat fl our ........................................................................................................ 114

    Structure of the wheat kernel ...................................................................... 115Components of wheat fl our ........................................................................ 119Flour treatment ........................................................................................... 136Flour quality ............................................................................................... 141Flour absorption .......................................................................................... 144Flour storage ............................................................................................... 145

    Flour milling ...................................................................................................... 147Flour types .................................................................................................. 152Pastry, cake and cookie fl our ...................................................................... 152Germ and bran as fl our components and ingredients ................................ 159Whole-grain fl our ....................................................................................... 160

    Non-wheat fl ours ............................................................................................... 165Rye .............................................................................................................. 165Soy fl our ..................................................................................................... 170

    Masa (nixtamalized corn fl our) .......................................................................... 175Sweeteners ......................................................................................................... 176

    Sucrose ....................................................................................................... 177Corn syrups and dextrose ........................................................................... 183Honey.......................................................................................................... 187Malt and malt syrups .................................................................................. 189Lactose ........................................................................................................ 191

  • x / Table of Contents

    Sorghum and maple syrups ......................................................................... 191Role in breadmaking ................................................................................... 192Role in cakemaking .................................................................................... 195Role in cookies and crackers ...................................................................... 197

    Shortenings ........................................................................................................ 198Sources and composition ............................................................................ 200Physical characteristics ............................................................................... 210Shortening processing ................................................................................ 213Categories ................................................................................................... 217Bakery applications .................................................................................... 223Frying fats ................................................................................................... 227Recent issues involving bakery shortenings ............................................... 232

    Water .................................................................................................................. 236Chemical nature of water ............................................................................ 236Sources of water ......................................................................................... 238pH variability .............................................................................................. 238Mineral constituents ................................................................................... 239Water treatment ........................................................................................... 242Waters functions in dough and batter ........................................................ 247Ice as an ingredient ..................................................................................... 253

    Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients Part B: Minor ingredients ............................................................................... 271Leavening ........................................................................................................... 272

    Yeast ........................................................................................................... 272Bacteria ....................................................................................................... 296Chemical leavening .................................................................................... 303Air and steam .............................................................................................. 311

    Dairy .................................................................................................................. 312Milks composition ..................................................................................... 312Commercial forms of milk ......................................................................... 316Cheese ......................................................................................................... 322Whey products ............................................................................................ 324Storage stability .......................................................................................... 327Nonfat dry milks functionality .................................................................. 327Practical aspects of milk products in baking .............................................. 329

    Eggs ................................................................................................................... 330Structure of eggs ......................................................................................... 331Processing of eggs ...................................................................................... 337Commercial forms of eggs ......................................................................... 340Functions in baking .................................................................................... 346Recent developments .................................................................................. 348

  • Baking Science & Technology / xi

    Starch ................................................................................................................. 349Wheat starch ............................................................................................... 350Supplementary starches .............................................................................. 351Properties and functions ............................................................................. 355Starchs role in bread baking ...................................................................... 356Cake, cookie, cracker and other applications ............................................. 359Recent developments .................................................................................. 361

    Fiber ................................................................................................................... 363Composition ............................................................................................... 364Fiber ingredients and their processing ........................................................ 366Bakery applications .................................................................................... 371Bulking agents ............................................................................................ 375Prebiotics and probiotics ............................................................................ 376

    Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients Part C: Micro ingredients ............................................................................... 391Oxidation, reduction, yeast foods and buffers ................................................... 394

    Oxidation and reduction ............................................................................. 395Reducing agents .......................................................................................... 399Yeast foods and buffers ............................................................................... 401

    Enzymes ............................................................................................................. 402Amylase in dough ....................................................................................... 402Cereal proteinases ....................................................................................... 403Malt ............................................................................................................. 404Exogenous enzymes ................................................................................... 405

    Gluten ................................................................................................................ 412Nature of gluten .......................................................................................... 413Gliadin ........................................................................................................ 414Glutenin ...................................................................................................... 415Glutenin-gliadin ratios ................................................................................ 417Glutenin interactions during mixing ........................................................... 417Sulfhydryl and disulfi de groups .................................................................. 418Protein-lipid interaction .............................................................................. 420Vital wheat gluten ....................................................................................... 421

    Proteins .............................................................................................................. 423Concentrates and isolates ........................................................................... 424Allergens ..................................................................................................... 426

    Salt .................................................................................................................... 427Salt sources and processing ........................................................................ 428Sea salt ....................................................................................................... 428Forms and grades ........................................................................................ 429Specifi c applications ................................................................................... 432

  • xii / Table of Contents

    Salt functionality ........................................................................................ 433Improvers ........................................................................................................... 437

    Emulsifi ers and surfactants ......................................................................... 438Compounds ................................................................................................. 442Functionality of improvers ......................................................................... 449

    Antioxidants and antimicrobials ........................................................................ 452Antioxidant ingredients .............................................................................. 454Antimicrobial ingredients ........................................................................... 456Spoilage organisms ..................................................................................... 459

    Gums (hydrocolloids) ........................................................................................ 466Sources ....................................................................................................... 466How they work ........................................................................................... 477Functions in baking .................................................................................... 478

    Enrichment and fortifi cation .............................................................................. 480Mandatory vs. voluntary ............................................................................. 483Contemporary issues .................................................................................. 483Technical considerations ............................................................................. 485Storage and handling .................................................................................. 486Beyond vitamins and minerals ................................................................... 487

    Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients Part D: Characterizing Ingredients ............................................................... 499Fruits .................................................................................................................. 500

    Fresh, canned and frozen fruits .................................................................. 500Dried and dehydrated fruits ........................................................................ 503Glac and candied fruit ............................................................................... 509

    Nuts .................................................................................................................... 510True nuts ..................................................................................................... 511Seed nuts ..................................................................................................... 514

    Flavors................................................................................................................ 519Natural, artifi cial and mixtures ................................................................... 520Flavor components...................................................................................... 521Extract processing ...................................................................................... 521Vanilla ......................................................................................................... 522Storing fl avor extracts ................................................................................. 526

    Spices ................................................................................................................. 526Sources ....................................................................................................... 527Processing ................................................................................................... 533

    Colors ................................................................................................................. 534Color additives vs. colorants....................................................................... 535Certifi able vs. exempt ................................................................................. 536Dyes and lakes ............................................................................................ 539

  • Baking Science & Technology / xiii

    Caramel color ............................................................................................. 540Spice blends ................................................................................................ 541Reactive colors............................................................................................ 541

    Cocoa and chocolate .......................................................................................... 542Chocolate .................................................................................................... 545Cocoa powders ........................................................................................... 548Confectionery coatings ............................................................................... 550Bloom ......................................................................................................... 551

    Fabricated particulates ....................................................................................... 552

    Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients Part E: Ingredient Systems ............................................................................. 557Ingredient components ....................................................................................... 560Ingredient handling ............................................................................................ 561Processing .......................................................................................................... 562

    Mixing equipment ...................................................................................... 562Blending methods ....................................................................................... 563

    Packaging ........................................................................................................... 565

    Chapter 3: Crops and their processing .......................................................... 567(By C.E. Walker and J. Li)Eight principal cereal grains of commerce ........................................................ 569

    Barley.......................................................................................................... 569Corn (maize) .............................................................................................. 571The millets .................................................................................................. 574Oats ............................................................................................................. 576Rice ............................................................................................................. 577Rye .............................................................................................................. 578Sorghum (milo) ........................................................................................... 579Wheat .......................................................................................................... 581

    Minor and pseudocereals and special wheats .................................................... 584Amaranth .................................................................................................... 584Buckwheat .................................................................................................. 585Coix (adley, Jobs tears) .............................................................................. 586Emmer and spelt ......................................................................................... 587Kamut ......................................................................................................... 587Quinoa ........................................................................................................ 588Teff .............................................................................................................. 589Triticale ....................................................................................................... 589

    Pulses and oilseeds ........................................................................................... 590Non-grain oils ............................................................................................. 590Coconut ....................................................................................................... 590

  • xiv / Table of Contents

    Olive .......................................................................................................... 591Palm ............................................................................................................ 591Oilseeds ...................................................................................................... 592Canola (rape) .............................................................................................. 592Flax ............................................................................................................ 592Peanut ......................................................................................................... 593Poppy .......................................................................................................... 593Saffl ower ..................................................................................................... 594Sesame ........................................................................................................ 594Soy .............................................................................................................. 595Sunfl ower .................................................................................................... 597Pulses .......................................................................................................... 598Lentil ........................................................................................................... 598Lupin ........................................................................................................... 599

    Crop improvement ............................................................................................. 600

    Chapter 4: Quality Laboratory ...................................................................... 613(By T. Cogswell)The bake test ...................................................................................................... 614Physical dough testing ....................................................................................... 615

    AlveoConsistograph ................................................................................... 616Extensograph .............................................................................................. 618Farinograph ................................................................................................. 619Mixograph .................................................................................................. 621Rheograph ................................................................................................... 622Dough quality controller systems ............................................................... 622Research Extensometer .............................................................................. 623Maturograph ............................................................................................... 624Oven-Rise Recorder ................................................................................... 624Flourometer method ................................................................................... 625Dough shock test ........................................................................................ 626Firmness test ............................................................................................... 626

    Physiochemical tests .......................................................................................... 626Near-infrared refl ectance analysis .............................................................. 627Flour color .................................................................................................. 628The slick test ............................................................................................... 629Colorimeter instruments ............................................................................. 629Ash determination ...................................................................................... 630Moisture measurement methods ................................................................. 631Direct (or chemical) methods ..................................................................... 631Indirect (or physical) methods .................................................................... 632Flour moisture determination ..................................................................... 632

  • Baking Science & Technology / xv

    The vacuum oven method ........................................................................... 633The air oven method ................................................................................... 633

    The air oven aluminum plate method ........................................................ 634Protein determinations ................................................................................ 634Kjeldahl procedure ..................................................................................... 634Biuret method ............................................................................................. 636Crude gluten ............................................................................................... 636Sedimentation tests ..................................................................................... 637Acidity determinations ............................................................................... 638pH determination ........................................................................................ 638Total titratable acidity (TTA) ...................................................................... 639Free fatty acid titrations .............................................................................. 639Iodine value ................................................................................................ 639

    Enzymatic activity methods ............................................................................... 640Diastatic activity of fl our ............................................................................ 640Amylograph method ................................................................................... 641Rapid Visco Analyzer method .................................................................... 642 Falling Number method .............................................................................. 642Proteolytic activity ...................................................................................... 644

    Determination of sugar ...................................................................................... 644Gas production methods .................................................................................... 645Miscellaneous determinations ........................................................................... 646

    Lipid content ............................................................................................... 646Crude fi ber .................................................................................................. 646Dietary fi ber ................................................................................................ 647

    Bread scoring ..................................................................................................... 647External characteristics ............................................................................... 648Internal characteristics ................................................................................ 649Flavor factors .............................................................................................. 650Scanning systems ........................................................................................ 651

    How to set up a bakery laboratory ..................................................................... 652Testing of raw materials ............................................................................. 652Flour ........................................................................................................... 652Sugar ........................................................................................................... 653Shortening, fats and oils ............................................................................. 653Measurements during processing ............................................................... 653Finished product monitoring ...................................................................... 653Moisture ...................................................................................................... 653Weight ......................................................................................................... 653Dimensions ................................................................................................. 653Salt and fat content ..................................................................................... 654Suggested laboratory equipment ............................................................... 654

  • xvi / Table of Contents

    Equipment for general use .......................................................................... 654Equipment for specifi c tests ........................................................................ 655

    Chapter 5: Sanitation and Regulations .......................................................... 661(By R.F. Stier)Sanitation: A prerequisite to safe food ............................................................... 662Sanitation, food safety and foodborne illness .................................................... 663Elements of a good sanitation program ............................................................. 663

    Sanitation as a system ................................................................................. 664Areas your sanitation programs should address ......................................... 665

    Regulating Sanitation ......................................................................................... 666Sanitation regulations ................................................................................. 666Regulatory inspection ................................................................................. 670Preparing for inspection ............................................................................. 670The inspection ............................................................................................ 671

    Developing sanitation systems ........................................................................... 675Sanitation SOPs .......................................................................................... 676Good manufacturing practices .................................................................... 677Preventive maintenance .............................................................................. 680PM programs .............................................................................................. 680Establishing preventive maintenance programs ......................................... 682

    Training and education ...................................................................................... 684Why educate and train? .............................................................................. 685Understand your audience .......................................................................... 685Educational needs ....................................................................................... 688The fi nal element ........................................................................................ 689

    Assuring water quality and safety ...................................................................... 689Ice ............................................................................................................... 692Water quality analysis ................................................................................. 693Water quality and its effects on process operations .................................... 694Cleaning and sanitizing .............................................................................. 695Plant water systems .................................................................................... 695

    Condition and cleanliness of food contact surfaces ........................................... 696Constraints in cleaning dry processing operations ..................................... 696How to clean ............................................................................................... 697

    Personal hygiene and employee health .............................................................. 701Hand washing ............................................................................................. 703Disease control ........................................................................................... 704Uniforms and garments .............................................................................. 705Hair restraints ............................................................................................. 706Jewelry ........................................................................................................ 706Personnel facilities ...................................................................................... 707

  • Baking Science & Technology / xvii

    Product protection programs .............................................................................. 707Sanitary design of equipment ..................................................................... 708Building design and maintenance ............................................................... 708Floors .......................................................................................................... 709Drains ......................................................................................................... 709Walls ........................................................................................................... 710Ceilings ....................................................................................................... 710Lighting ...................................................................................................... 711Doors .......................................................................................................... 711Traffi c ......................................................................................................... 712Warehouse design ....................................................................................... 712Grounds ...................................................................................................... 713Glass and brittle plastic .............................................................................. 714Allergen control .......................................................................................... 714Vendor certifi cation .................................................................................... 715Receiving and storage ................................................................................. 715Control in batching and blending ............................................................... 715Production control and scheduling ............................................................. 715Control of rework ....................................................................................... 716Tracking and traceability ............................................................................ 716Cleaning ...................................................................................................... 716Education .................................................................................................... 716

    Chemical handling and control .......................................................................... 717MSDS sheets .............................................................................................. 717Chemicals ................................................................................................... 718Lubricants ................................................................................................... 718

    Pest management ............................................................................................... 719Premises for program building ................................................................... 719Pest exclusion ............................................................................................. 720Monitoring .................................................................................................. 721Chemicals for pest control .......................................................................... 721Documenting the program .......................................................................... 723

    Verifi cation and recordkeeping .......................................................................... 724Forms .......................................................................................................... 725Proper recordkeeping .................................................................................. 725

    Appendix: Molecular Drawings ..................................................................... 729

    Index: Volume I ................................................................................................ 733

  • Baking Science & Technology / 1

    The basic components of baked foods number in the thousands, even millions. Plants, animals and mineral sources provide the raw materials for bakings ingredients. Entities such as bakers yeast and bacteria contribute their lives and by-products to baked foods, while inert minerals provide nutritive and functional attributes. At their most basic, the plant and animal compounds are classifi ed as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

    An understanding of the basic food science aspects of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids will help bakers and other practitioners of the bakers art in their work to develop products and manage the processing of baked foods. The ability to identify such compounds and recognize their differences goes a long way when solving formulating and production problems.

    CHAPTER 1

    Basic Food ScienceINTRODUCTION

    A working knowledge

    of the science

    of carbohydrates,

    proteins, lipids and

    fi bers will help

    any practitioner

    of the bakers art.

    Baking Science & Technology / 1

  • 2 / BASIC FOOD SCIENCE

    1.A. Carbohydrates

    1.A.1. Sources

    Of all the compounds composing baked foods, carbohydrates predominate by sheer quantity, typically accounting for 67% of wheat fl our. Qualities that consumers associate with freshness such as keeping quality, crust and crumb texture, along with fi rmness, result from the condition of the carbohydrates in the product.

    In nature, plants store much of the energy supply for their seeds in the form of carbohydrates and also warehouse these compounds in their stems and roots. Carbohydrates make up the bulk of the white, starchy material found in the interior content of seeds and roots.

    Typical sources for the carbohydrates in baked foods include wheat kernels, of course, but also corn and other cereal grains and legumes, along with sugar cane and sugar beets. When considering complex carbohydrates and fi ber, sources become even more diverse, including tree exudates, seaweed colloids and fruit pectin as well as root and stem materials from a wide variety of plants.

    Glucose, the simple sugar that forms the basis of all carbohydrates, is fundamentally important to life. While mammals derive energy from the glucose they consume, plants put it to additional use. They can transform carbohydrates into lipid substances, and when making proteins, plants combine the hydrogen, carbon and oxygen from its glucose stores with the nitrogen, occasionally sulfur and sometimes phosphorus that it gets from the soil in the form of inorganic salts. The results are complex protein molecules.

    1.A.1.a. Carbohydrate synthesisHow do plants make glucose? Through the process of photosynthesis, the chlorophyll

    in the green leaves of plants, as well as some algae and bacteria, absorbs electromagnetic radiation from sunlight. This is transformed into chemical energy that acts on carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), turning it into glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2). The process can be expressed by the equation:

    6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2

    The energy component of the process is quite complex and involves highly specialized cells, or chloroplasts, within plant leaves. In cyanobacteria and prochlorobacteria, photosynthesis takes place within the folds of single-celled organisms membranes.

    Known as the Calvin cycle (Figure 1.01) (other names include Calvin-Benson cycle and Carbon Fixation cycle), it resembles the Krebs cycle in its use of the electron-transport molecules adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). During the Calvin cycle, enzyme-mediated reactions split the water to release the oxygen and reduce the carbon dioxide to create carbon-carbon covalent bonds and to accept hydrogen, thus forming carbohydrates. These compounds,

    Figure 1.01. During the Calvin cycle, enzyme-mediated reactions split water to release the oxygen and reduce the carbon dioxide to create carbon-carbon covalent bonds and to accept hydrogen, thus forming carbohydrates.

    three molecules ofCO2 fixed give a netyeild of one moleculeof glyceraldehyde3-phosphate at a netcost of nine moleculesof ATP and sixmolecules of NADPH

    SUGARS, FATTY ACIDS, AMINO ACIDS

    one molecule

    glyceraldehyde3-phosphate

    3C

    2

    OOO

    H CCC

    H HH

    three molecules

    1C2OC

    five molecules

    glyceraldehyde3-phosphate 3C

    three molecules

    ribulose5-phosphate 5C

    three molecules

    ribulose5-phosphate 5C

    P2

    3

    3

    6

    6

    six molecules

    3C1,3-diphosphoglycerate

    six molecules

    3C3-phosphoglycerate

    six molecules

    glyceraldehyde3-phosphate 3C

    i

    Pi

    ADP

    ATP

    6

    6

    6

    ADP

    ATP

    NADPH

    NADP*

    Pi

  • Part A: Major Ingredients / 113

    Bakery Ingredients Part A: Major Ingredients INTRODUCTION

    In practice, bakers tend to group ingredients into three categories based on their level of usage in formulations: major, minor and micro. Major, also termed bulk, ingredients make up the majority of the formulation. Flour, for example, constitutes around 55 to 60% (formula weight) or more of breads raw materials. Minor ingredients typically range from 5 to 10% (formula weight), and micro ingredients are those added at 5% or less.

    CHAPTER 2

    High-quality

    baked foods

    demand use

    of high-quality

    ingredients.

    Part A: Major Ingredients / 113

  • 114 / BAKERY INGREDIENTS

    This classifi cation came about when bakeries started installing automated ingredient handling systems. Return on investment came rapidly for capital spent on the silos, scales, sifters and control systems suitable for storing, portioning and dispensing bulk ingredients. The payout for automating the handling of ingredients used at lower rates was not as fast, so installation tended to lag. Manual scaling and hand-add delivery usually characterize the handling of minor and micro ingredients. A good number of large bakeries do automate their ingredient systems through the micro level, but it is far more common to fi nd only the bulk materials dispensed through computerized systems.

    For this reason, the discussion of bakery ingredients will follow a major, minor, micro format. Also presented will be coverage of characterizing ingredients, and ingredient systems such as bases, concentrates and mixes.

    2.A.1. Wheat fl our

    Wheat is the No. 1 cereal in the world in terms of area planted. Corns production numbers are higher, and more of the planet Earths people eat rice, but wheat remains the premier food cereal grain. The reasons for this preeminence are many. Wheat is well adapted to the soil and climatic conditions that prevail in the large temperate regions across the globe. The wheat plant is high-yielding and relatively easy to cultivate. The mature grain possesses excellent storage stability and exceptional food value. Its yield of suitable fl our upon milling is relatively high, and there is practically no waste since the by-products of milling are used as animal feed.

    Table 2.A.01. US Wheat Classes and Principal Uses Class General characteristics Principal usesHard red winter (HRW) High protein, Bread and related products strong gluten, high water absorption Soft red winter (SRW) Low protein, Cakes, cookies, pastries, pie crusts, crackers, biscuits weak gluten, low water absorption Hard red spring (HRS) Very high protein, Bread, bagels, pretzels and related products strong gluten, high water absorption Hard white High protein, Bread and related products Strong gluten, high water absorption, bran lacks pigments Soft white Low protein, Noodles, crackers, wafers and other weak gluten, products in which specs are undesirable low water absorption, bran lacks pigments Durum High protein, Pasta strong gluten, high water absorption

    (Atwell 2001)

  • Part B: Minor Ingredients / 271

    Although minor ingredients typically range from 5 to 10% (or sometimes less) on a formula weight basis, they can make or break product success. Within this category, we nd leavening systems microbial cultures of yeast and/or bacteria, chemical leavening, air and steam. Other ingredients used at this level include dairy products and eggs, added starches and ber enhancement ingredients.

    Bakers yeast shows budding scars.(Min-Dak Yeast)

    CHAPTER 2

    Bakery IngredientsPart B: Minor Ingredients

    Ranging from 5 to

    10% on a formula

    weight basis, minor

    ingredients encompass

    leavening systems,

    dairy, eggs, starch,

    fi ber and other

    components.

    Part B: Minor Ingredients / 271

  • 272 / BAKERY INGREDIENTS

    2.B.1. Leavening

    Leavening lightens doughs, enhancing the volume, texture, eating quality and often the avor of baked foods. The word leaven can be tracked through Middle Englishs levain to the Latin levare, meaning to raise. The function of leavening agents is to aerate the dough or batter and make it light and porous. When baked, the porosity translates into the crumb of the nished product. Leavening, thus, also tenderizes the crumb and contributes to the esthetic enjoyment of the nal product by giving it uniform cell structure, bright crumb color, soft texture and enhanced palatability.

    The process of leavening involves creating and enlarging the gas cells in dough or batter, cells that expand under the in uence of time and heat to increase the overall size of the dough piece before its starch-and-protein matrix gelatinizes and sets. Mixing incorporates air into the dough mass, thus nucleating the bubbles essential to every style of leavening. Batters cannot create their own cells, only mixing does. Without the bubble nuclii, any gas generated by biological or chemical means would merely dissolve in the free water of the dough. The tiny air bubbles formed during mixing collect the gaseous products of leavening. The more the nucleation sites, the ner the texture of the nished product. While such air bubbles are enough to leaven angel food cakes, nearly every other formulation requires additional leavening gases. The ingredients that contribute leavening effects often provide other functional properties and add to, or detract from, the products nal texture, avor and appearance.

    Leavens such as bakers yeast, barm or a portion of fermenting sponge consist of living microbes that generate carbon dioxide, ethanol and other volatile organic compounds that ll and in ate the air cells created by mixing. Another category of ingredients

    leavens by chemical action. This process combines alkaline baking soda with an acid material such as buttermilk or leavening acids to generate carbon dioxide, which aerates and expands the batters volume before the heat of the oven sets its structure.

    Not all leaveners are alike in their gassing power, as noted in Table 2.B.01. While chemical leavening releases its gas relatively quickly, there is no further leavening action as with yeast. But yeast may not be ef cient in all baked foods.

    2.B.1.a. YeastBiological processes interact with physical and chemical reactions during baking in

    a highly complex fashion. Of these, fermentation is the most fundamental, in uencing avor, texture and organoleptic qualities of the nished product, as well as its leavening performance. Most bakery fermentation processes are initiated and sustained by the life forces of a unicellular plant, a fungus actually: the microscopically small yeast. A number of bene cial lactic and acetic acid bacteria also contribute their lives and by-products to the fermentation of baked foods.

    Table 2.B.01. Leavening Action of Yeast and Baking Powder Yeast Baking powder*Leavener based on fl our 2.5% 6.0%Leavener based on dough weight 1.47% 3.42%CO2 evolved per g leavener 0.5 g** 0.15g***CO2 evolved per 100 g dough 0.735 g** 0.513 g***CO2 evolved per 100 g dough 350 ml** 214 ml***

    * A double-acting baking powder containing 30% NaHCO3 ** CO2 evolution per hour *** Total CO2 evolution (Reed and Nagodawithana 1991)

  • Part C: Micro Ingredients / 391

    When formulation quantities and weighments enter the realm of parts per million (ppm), you know you have reached the micro-ingredient category. Typically used at 5% or less and usually at 0.1% or less, these materials can be diffi cult to measure accurately and so are often combined with other ingredients in packets or as ingredient systems such as bases and concentrates. Some oxidation and fortifi cation ingredients, which are important to achieving proper baking activity and nutritional quality, are added at the fl our mill, using specialized equipment that streams the ingredient at a controlled rate directly into the fl our.

    With all micro ingredients, accuracy is essential. Consider the example of fortifi cation

    CHAPTER 2

    Bakery IngredientsPart C: Micro Ingredients

    Used at less than

    5%, down to parts

    per million, micro

    ingredients play vital

    roles in fi nished product

    quality and shelf life.

    Folic acid, shown recrystallized in this photomicrograph taken under polarized light, became a mandatory enrichment in 1998.(Molecular Expressions: Michael W. Davidson, Florida State University)

    Part C: Micro Ingredients / 391

  • 392 / BAKERY INGREDIENTS

    ingredients. Calcium and folic acid illustrate the physical conundrum of dosing. The US Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for calcium is 1,000 mg, but for folic acid, it is 0.4 mg. A slight miscue in dosing will not affect calcium, but it can really throw off the delivery of folic acid.

    In a certain sense, micro ingredients represent the baking industrys equivalent to applied nanotechnology. The defi nition of nanotechnology pegs it as the applied science and technology of controlling matter at the atomic and molecular physical level and employs chemistry, engineering, physics and microfabrication techniques. It involves scales of 100 nanometers or less. (A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, or 10-9 m. In comparison, a micron, or micrometer, is one-millionth of a meter, or 10-6 m. Thus, 100 nm equals 1 mcm, or 1 .) Although bakers do not measure ingredients to parts per billion (ppb), the concept is being studied.

    Food nanotechnology is attracting increasing attention among formulators (Tarver 2006), and the Institute of Food Technology issued a Scientifi c Summary on the topic (Weiss et al. 2006). The authors noted that foods carbohydrate, protein and fat molecules interact through nano-scale participation of their sugar, amino acid and fatty acid components. They suggested the future may see use of nanotechnology for biosensors and functional improvements such as association colloids, nano-emulsions, biopolymers and controlled-release delivery systems.

    Controlled release is the whole point of micro-encapsulation, a method of managing ingredient functionality. Encapsulation is the general term covering the enrobing of one material in another at the microscopic scale, and micro-encapsulation describes an even fi ner degree. Ingredient suppliers can count the

    Table 2.C.01. Encapsulation Examples Encapsulated ingredient Bakery application ReasonSodium bicarbonate Frozen and refrigerated Prevent premature release doughs; batters Leavening phosphates Frozen and refrigerated doughs; Prevent premature release batters Salt Soft pretzels Prevent premature dissolutionFumaric acid Tortillas Prevent premature carbon dioxide release; prevent formation of translucent spotsVitamins and minerals Fortifi ed bakery products Prevent off-fl avors and loss of viabilityHydrocolloids Muffi ns Prevent sticky doughs during mixingCinnamon Yeast-raised doughs Prevent inhibition of yeastHighly aromatic seasonings (onion, garlic) Frozen and refrigerated Prevent softening of dough during doughs; batters processing; mask strong odors during storageSodium aluminum phosphate Frozen and refrigerated Prevent premature release; doughs; batters prevent graying of dough during storage Natural fl avors and colors General use Prevent fadingEnzyme General use Prevent dusting and exposure of allergens to workers during scaling and addition

    (Rask 2003, Rask and Tongue 2006)

  • Part D: Characterizing Ingredients / 499

    Baked foods appeal to consumers in far more ways than as simple remedies for hunger. The infl uences leading a person to select one food over another involve the senses of taste, smell, sight and touch. Even an auditory crunch sends signals to the part of the brain that controls appetite.

    Some foods we eat to assuage hunger, but others we consume to satisfy a craving for specifi c taste sensations. In this more or less discretionary consumption, food selection usually ranges beyond staple products and follows more freely the dictates of hedonism.

    Characterizing ingredients provide numerous attractive attributes. The appeal of many baked foods is enhanced by this class of ingredients. Prominent among the group of discretionary foods are items such as sweet goods, cakes, cookies, confections and pies. Because the appeal of many of these foods is to a large measure determined by their

    CHAPTER 2

    Bakery IngredientsPart D: Characterizing Ingredients

    Nuts, like all

    characterizing

    ingredients, add eye

    appeal and fl avor to

    baked foods.

    Part D: Characterizing Ingredients / 499

  • 500 / BAKERY INGREDIENTS

    highly fl avored ingredients, the nature and selection of these ingredients play a signifi cant role in determining the level of the acceptability of these foods. In other words: fruits, nuts, spices, fl avors, colors, cocoa, chocolate and other such ingredients add value to baked foods.

    2.D.1. Fruits

    Fruits are the jewels in the bakers crown. Their bright colors and pleasing fl avors make them natural partners for the more subtle taste of grain-based ingredients. Bakers can avail themselves of an encyclopedias worth of fruits in fresh, frozen and processed forms.

    While this discussion looks at several of the most economically important fruits used by bakers, lately several new fruits have found a home in the bakery formulary, including acai, banana, guava, mango and pomegranate (Berry 2006). They are worth exploring for their emerging appeal to consumers.

    Growers federations, boards and councils manage marketing and promotion of many fruit and nut crops grown in the US. These groups generally provide a wealth of information and application resources concerning their crops. They often sponsor research into crop improvement as well as consumer preferences, and some offer grants to support academic-level research about the dietary, nutritional and physiological effects and benefi ts of consuming these crops as food.

    The most recent edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, released in 2005, recommends that adults eat 2 cups of fruits and 2 cups of vegetables every day. Bakery foods can contribute to this.

    2.D.1.a. Fresh, canned and frozen fruitsThe US Department of Agriculture (USDA) sets quality grades for

    fresh, canned and frozen fruits. Handling of fresh fruits is critical to the quality of fi nished baked goods. Care must be taken to avoid bruising, which opens the fl esh to spoilage microorganisms.

    Apples are the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica and a member of the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and in the US, the largest producer is Washington State. Roughly 55% of the apple crop enters the retail fresh

    market. Bins of apples destined for processors such as bakers are kept in cold storage or controlled atmosphere rooms until needed. An atmospheric content low in oxygen (1%) and carbon dioxide (1.5%) drastically retards the apples natural respiration and ripening processes (Deuel 1986). The most popular varieties for bakery use include Granny Smith and Jonathan.

    Blueberries are commercially harvested from highbush varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum and V. ashei) and wild lowbush varieties (V. angustifolium). The plant is native to North America and grows throughout the northern US and Canada but is now also cultivated in Australia, New Zealand and some South American countries. It is related to the bilberry of Europe. About 60% of the commercial blueberry crop comes

    Figure 2.D.01. Native to North America, blueberries from the highbush variety are large in size and sweet-tart in fl avor.(US Highbush Blueberry Council)

  • Part E: Ingredient Systems / 557

    Using and managing ingredients ef ciently presents constant challenges to bakers. Some formulas like classic French bread are simple, requiring only four ingredients ( our, water, yeast and salt), while others like cake doughnuts are quite complex, with 12 to 15 ingredients and sometimes as many as 25 (Smith 1991). Additionally, pro-duction schedules often include products such as multi-grain bread that are made in relatively low volume yet need ingredients unique to that formula.

    Both wholesale and retail bakeries, then, are faced with two sources of inef ciency:

    CHAPTER 2

    Bakery Ingredients Part E: Ingredient Systems

    The ineffi ciencies

    of hand-weighing

    ingredients, some in

    quantities measured

    in milligrams, prompts

    bakers to use bases,

    concentrates and

    mixes.

    Part E: Ingredient Systems / 557

  • 558 / BAKERY INGREDIENTS

    the necessity for weighing out a large number of ingredients for a product and ware-housing and handling many ingredients in relatively small quantities. To overcome these inef ciencies, bakers turn to the ingredient systems known as complete mixes, half-and-half mixes, bases, concentrates and pre-mixes.

    A complete mix contains everything needed to make a product except water, yeast and sometimes liquid eggs. This is handy in retail shops, where the product may require a special type of our not readily available to the baker. Many wholesale bakers also use complete mixes for certain products, especially cake doughnuts and Danish pastry.

    Half-and-half products are mixes that contain all the additive ingredients required plus part of the formulas our, usually a specialty our such as rye, rice, oat, corn or whole-wheat. The baker supplies the rest of the our from the bakerys own bulk our stores.

    Bases incorporate all formula ingredients except those readily available in bulk to the baker usually bread or cake our, sugar, yeast and water. Bases are offered in liquid (Figure 2.E.01), paste, plastic (Figure 2.E.02) or powdered form. For example, a roll base may look like shortening, while a sourdough base is often liquid.

    Concentrates resemble bases but contain fewer ingredients. The active ingredients are blended onto a base ( our, soy, dry milk solids, etc.) for a dry concentrate or creamed into a shortening or oil carrier creating a paste or plastic material. Usage is generally low: 1 to 5 lb per 100 lb of our.

    Pre-mixes, which contain blends of oxidants, yeast foods, enzymes, enrichment vi-tamins and minerals and/or additive ingredients, nd wide acceptance. Formulation accuracy improves tremendously because the addition of such micro ingredients is no longer a matter of many weighments but the addition of a single packet or pouch to

    Figure 2.E.01. Biofermented fl avor systems, another style of ingredient system or concentrate, come in liquid form such as this sourdough system. (Puratos)

    Figure 2.E.02. Bases are often blended with other materials to form a plastic or paste-like material, shipped in cubes. (Caravan Ingredients)

    Table 2.E.01. Mixes and Bases for Bread: A Comparison Ingredient Scratch Mix Base (1:1) Base (2:1) (lb) (lb) (lb) (lb)Flour (spring) 70.00 73.00 41.00 21.00Flour (winter) 30.00 27.00 Sugar 8.00 5.00 5.00 5.00Salt 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00Nonfat dry milk solids 3.00 Mineral yeast food 0.50 0.35 0.35 0.35Shortening 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00Emulsifi er 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.50Calcium propionate 0.25 0.15 0.15 0.15Vital wheat gluten 1.00 1.00 1.00Whey 2.00 2.00 2.00Potato fl our 2.00 2.00 2.00Soy fl our 1.00 1.00 1.00Blend weight 118.00 118.00 59.00 39.00 Yeast 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00Water 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00Flour 59.00 79.0Total dough weight 186.00 186.00 186.00 186.00

    (Smith 1991)

  • Baking Science & Technology / 567

    INTRODUCTIONIn addition to the ubiquitous wheat ours, bakers use many other grains and seeds in

    their baked foods. They add them not only for ingredient functionality but also for avor, texture, appearance and a healthy image. Strictly speaking, a grain means the seed of the botanical family Gramineae (now renamed Poaceae), usually called the grasses (Morrison and Wrigley 2004). These are the principal cereal grains. In practice, there are several other plant seeds with similar properties that are used by bakers and considered by them as grains also and sometimes referred to as pseudocereals. And nally, there

    A thorough

    understanding of the

    grains suitable for

    baked foods is critical

    for formulation and

    nutrient claims.

    CHAPTER 3

    Crops and Their ProcessingBy C.E. (Chuck) Walker, Ph.D., and Jian (Jane) Li, MSDepartment of Grain Science & Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

    66506-2201. Phone (785) 532-6161; e-mail chuckw@ksu.edu and jli7676@ksu.edu. Published as contribution No. 08-272-B by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Bakers work with many cereal grains: (from left) oats, wheat, millet, barley, quinoa, rye and corn.(Getty Images, Christel Rosenfeld)

  • 568 / CROPS AND THEIR PROCESSING

    are seeds that do not resemble the cereal grains but that are added to provide unique characteristics (Table 3.01). In addition to incorporating these other grains and seeds into the main dough or batter, they are frequently used as toppings and llings.

    This chapter provides a listing of the grains and seeds most commonly used by bakers. For simplicity, we will use the term grain for all items discussed. They are listed in alphabetical order, and each in turn is discussed, providing information on the basic grain

    properties, where and how it is produced, and how and why it is used by bakers. References are provided to lead the reader to more detailed discussions on each of the grains.

    It has been suggested that the habit of nomadic peoples to gather seeds from wild grasses led to the establishment of permanent settlements, agriculture and civilization (Ziehr 1987). At any rate, cereal grains today provide a major portion of our calorie needs, either directly or through feeding them to animals. There are eight cereal grains that are usually listed as widely used for food and feed. They are, in order of world-wide production: corn (maize), wheat, rice, barley, sorghum, oats, rye and the millets.

    The naked kernels, or caryopses of the cereal grains with the hull removed, have many similar characteristics in their structure and composition (Figure 3.01). The lengths (diameters) for the various species will vary from about 1 mm to about 10 mm and their individual seed weights from about 1 mg to about 350 mg. Their structures and compositions all share many characteristics.

    Table 3.01. Principal Cereal Grains and Oilseeds of World Importance Worldwide grain production (2006-07 July/June crop year) Grain Worldwide Production Top producing Next fi ve leading producing countries US share rank (mmt*) country and shareCorn (maize) 1 704.28 US 37.9% China, EU**, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico 37.9%Wheat 2 593.19 EU** 21.0% China, India, US, Russian Federation, Canada 8.3%Rice 3 418.24 China 30.6% India, Indonesia, Bangeladesh, Vietnam, Thailand 1.5%Barley 4 137.35 EU 40.9% Russian Federation, Ukraine, Canada, Turkey, Australia 2.8%Sorghum 5 56.99 Nigeria 18.4% India, US, Mexico, Sudan, Ethiopia 12.3%Oats 6 23.11 EU 33.4% Russian Federation, Canada, US, Australia, Ukraine 5.9%Rye 7 12.38 EU 52.8% Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Canada, Turkey 1.5% Oilseeds (2006-07 crop year) Soybeans 1 237.27 US 36.6% Brazil, Argentina, China, India, Paraguay 36.6%Rapeseed 2 46.80 China 27.0% Canada, Germany, India, France, UK1.30%Cottonseed 3 45.82 China 30.4% India, US, Pakistan, Brazil, Uzbekistan 14.6%Palm oil 4 37.02 Indonesia 44.8% Malaysia, Thailand, Nigeria, Colombia, Papua New Guinea ***Peanut 5 32.41 China 45.3% India, US, Nigeria, Indonesia, Burma 4.8%Sunfl owerseed 6 30.15 Russian 22.4% Ukraine, Argentina, France, India, Hungary 3.2% FederationPalm kernel 7 10.27 Indonesia 43.3% Malaysia, Nigeria, Thailand, Colombia, Papua New Guinea ***Copra 8 5.28 Philippines 41.6% Indonesia, India, Vietnam, Mexico, Papua New Guinea ***

    * million metric tonnes ** EU: Austria, Belgium/Luxembourg, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom *** No domestic production of these crops in the US

    Table 3.01. While corn leads the worlds crops in production, wheat comes in a close second, and soybeans lead among oilseeds.(USDA 2008a, USDA 2008b)

  • Baking Science & Technology / 613

    CHAPTER 4

    Quality LaboratoryIntroduced and updated by Theresa S. CogswellBakerCogs, Inc., Olathe, KS 66062. Phone (816) 820-5364; e-mail bakercogs@sbcglobal.net.

    INTRODUCTION

    From specifying the our, to mixing the dough and through nishing the loaf of bread or any other baked product, it is wise to use objective data to validate consistency and quality to assist production and product development. Maintaining adequate control over composition and functional properties of the ingredients used in the process is an important requisite for producing any type of baked food.

    Bakery laboratories

    require good staffi ng as

    well as instrumentation,

    supplies and good

    documentation to

    accomplish their tasks.

    Members of the Interstate Bakeries R&D team evaluate a new formula.(Baking & Snack, Matthews Communications)

    Baking Science & Technology / 613

  • 614 / Quality Laboratory

    Change is inevitable. Analytical procedures and methods can detect, monitor and track small changes, unseen by the human eye, over time. Maintaining a history of these changes can help make sure you are receiving the quality you are paying for from your ingredient suppliers. But this data can also assist in an investigation to validate a complaint or document a decline in product quality.

    Typically, our is the main ingredient on the ingredient legend of any baked food. This key ingredient deserves more attention than simply documenting limits or ranges on an ingredient speci cation to be recorded in a database or stored in le drawer. Flours from different wheat blends, mills and geographic origins can uctuate considerably in their content of protein, ash, moisture, absorption, mix time and functionality. It is essential for the baker to be aware of any changes that may occur in these characteristics before using the our in production. In the automated bakery today, knowing the consistency of our functionality before the mixing process is essential. If the mix time and absorption of each lot of our is not optimized, then the resulting product will not achieve the consistent high-quality product consumers deserve.

    Evaluating and approving test methods pertaining to our and other ingredients used by the baking and other cereal-based industries has historically been taken on by AACC International (previously American Association of Cereal Chemists) and AOAC International (previously Association of Of cial Analytical Chemists). Both organizations publish their approved methods in volumes titled, respectively, Approved Methods of the AACC, whose 10th edition appeared in 2000 and was updated as of September 2004, and Of cial Methods of Analysis (AOAC Methods), whose 18th edition was published in 2004-05.

    This chapter will attempt to survey the more pertinent tests relating to our and dough evaluation as they appear in these volumes. Methods that are gaining acceptance in cereal and baking laboratories will also be described brie y even though they may not have gained of cial status.

    All laboratory work requires precision, especially when handling such a naturally variable ingredient as our. Timing and technique must be impeccable and reproducible. For this to happen, however, temperature and humidity conditions within the laboratory and its storage areas must be consistent. Whether lab tests support production or product development, reproducibility is critical, and that precision cannot occur when the labs ambient conditions vary day-to-day. Climate control is essential.

    Remember a short pencil beats a long memory any day. Maintain records of your test results. Data and facts will provide the information needed to run a successful grain-based food company.

    4.A. The bake test

    By far, the most useful test in the bakers repertoire is to actually bake with the material being examined, especially our. Various physical and physiochemical our testing methods will report useful information, but ultimately, the bake test yields the most reliable index to the ours potential performance in production. Although the bake test takes place under standardized and controlled laboratory conditions, its results must still be interpreted according to the variables that normally enter into large-scale commercial production.

  • Baking Science & Technology / 661

    Bakery Sanitation and Regulations

    By Richard F. StierConsulting Food ScientistPhone (707) 935-2829; e-mail Rickstier4@aol.com.

    INTRODUCTION

    There are some people who equate sanitation with a bakery looking, smelling and feeling clean. Sanitation is more than that. It is a state of mind and a means of ensuring the products that come out of each and every bakery, whether breads, cookies, cakes, meat pies, pizzas or any one of the myriad of specialty products, are safe, wholesome and t for human consumption. Commitment to good sanitation starts with management and ows down through the plant hierarchy. Management must provide the tools, nancial support and leadership to establish and sustain such commitment. Sanitation is an integral part of the whole quality system, which consists of every operation needed to ensure the

    A complete

    understanding of

    sanitation its

    program, procedures,

    systems and tools is

    required to maintain a

    safe and secure bakery

    operation.

    CHAPTER 5

    Baking Science & Technology / 661

  • 662 / BAKERY SANITATION AND REGULATIONS

    manufacture of safe and high quality baked foods.

    5.A. Sanitation: a prerequisite to safe food

    The US seafood and juice HACCP (Hazard Analysis, Critical Control Point) regulations state that a HACCP plan should include certain Prerequisite Programs (FDA 1995, 2001). These programs may be grouped into six basic categories. These are:

    Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP) Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) Training Preventive Maintenance Product Identi cation and Coding Recall Programs

    The HACCP concept was developed in 1959 (although it was not called so at the time) to help establish the potential risk of salmonella in foods and to control that risk. This work was conducted by the US Army Laboratories in Natick, MA, and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) in collaboration with the Pillsbury Co., who was a major supplier to the space program. These pioneers realized that existing inspection systems based on nished product testing did not provide the necessary degree of safety. They would need to conduct too much nished product testing to provide that assurance, so the decision was made to develop a system in which safety was built into the process. At that time, there were only three HACCP principles. HACCP has grown through the years to seven principles. It is, as noted above, mandated for certain industries and has become a standard for the whole food industry. It is not yet mandated for the baking industry, but for all intents and purposes it is. Most buyers require that companies from whom they purchase foods or ingredients have a functioning HACCP system.

    Even though this chapter is entitled Bakery Sanitation, mentioning the two regulations is germane since they formalized the concept of prerequisite programs. When preparing the regulation, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearly stated that HACCP is not a stand alone program. This position is not limited to FDA alone.

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), which regulates meat and poultry processing, also mandates the adoption of prerequisite programs as part of ensuring food safety. Since there are many bakery items that contain meats, these companies fall under the jurisdiction of USDA. Regulatory agencies and food safety professionals the world over also have taken this stance. HACCP with its prerequisite programs are mandated in the European Union and in many other parts of the world. Finally, prerequisite programs are an integral part of the Codex Food Hygiene guidance document and of the ISO 22000 standard.

    Codex Alimentarius Recommended International Code of Practice: General Principles of Food Hygiene not only includes HACCP guidelines but emphasizes the importance of prerequisite programs (UN/FAO 1997). Codex documents are not standards, however. They are guidance documents for international harmonization.

    After several years of work, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) issued its ISO 22000 document (ISO 2005). This document is entitled Food safety management systems Requirements for any organization in the food chain. The

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