Baking Science & Tech Vol. 1

Download Baking Science & Tech Vol. 1

Post on 27-Dec-2015

82 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

baking technology book

TRANSCRIPT

  • VOLUME I: Fundamentals & Ingredients

    Baking Science & Technology

    Volume I: Fundam

    entals & Ingredients E.J. Pyler and L.A. Gorton Fourth Edition

    FOURTH EDITION

    BAKINGScience & Technology

    E.J. PYLERAND L.A. GORTON

    SOSLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY

  • ii /

    Copyright 2008 by Sosland Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2008934285ISBN 978-0-9820239-0-7 Baking Science and Technology, Volume 1ISBN 978-0-9820239-2-1 Baking Science and Technology, 2 Volume Set

    No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or graphic, including photocopying, taping, or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of Sosland Publishing Company unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal law.

    Printed in the United States of America

    Sosland Publishing Co.4800 Main St., Suite 100Kansas City, MO 64112Telephone: (+1) 816 756 1000Fax: (+1) 816 756 0494Web: www.bakingbusiness.com

    Every effort has been made to ascertain the owners of copyrights for the selections used in this volume and to credit and/or obtain permission to reprint copyrighted information and graphics. Sosland Publishing Co. expresses its gratitude for permissions it has received. Sosland Publishing Co. will be pleased, in subsequent editions, to correct any inadvertent errors or omissions that may be pointed out.

  • Baking Science & Technology / iii

    ForewordBaking Science & Technology, 3rd edition stayed in print for nearly

    20 years, but as the industry approached the 2007 International Baking Industry Exposition, it became clear that a new edition was needed. Much had happened, especially on the nutrition side as well as with process automation, and the industry now encompassed many new aspects not covered in the text. The 4th edition was announced at that international trade show, and this book is the first of two volumes comprising the new version.

    Baking Science & Technology, was first published in 1952, then again in 1972 and 1988. That this book stood the test of time and continues to be used as a textbook by the industrys leading baking schools and as a daily reference for thousands of bakers worldwide is testament to its original writers insight and writing ability.

    For the 4th edition, Sosland Publishing approached Laurie Gorton, executive editor of Baking & Snack. She has nearly 35 years experience covering the technical, scientific and business aspects of the grain-based foods industry.

    The grain-based foods industry and baking in particular face as many, if not more, challenges than 20 years ago. Todays issues involve nutritional content, food safety and the demands of the health-and-wellness shopper. But every era brings its own concerns to the table, quite literally.

    We intend Baking Science & Technology to move into the future through this new edition and, later, digital formats. As developments occur, the book will be updated using emerging electronic technologies. We encourage readers to comment on this edition and its contents and to recommend topics and changes for future inclusion.

    Mark SaboPresident, Sosland Publishing Co.August 2008

  • Baking Science & Technology / vii

    Table of ContentsForeword ................................................................................................................ ii

    Chapter 1: Basic Food Science ........................................................................... 1Carbohydrates ........................................................................................................ 2

    Sources of carbohydrates used in baking ...................................................... 2Carbohydrate synthesis ................................................................................... 2Simple vs. complex......................................................................................... 3Physical and chemical differentiation ............................................................. 4Monosaccharides ............................................................................................ 4Sugar: Disaccharides and trisaccharides......................................................... 5Starch .............................................................................................................. 7Dextrins ........................................................................................................ 11Gelatinization of starches ............................................................................. 12Retrogradation of starch ............................................................................... 14Acrylamide formation .................................................................................. 15Glycemic index vs. glycemic response ......................................................... 16

    Pentosans ............................................................................................................ 17Sources of pentosans in baking .................................................................... 17Structure ....................................................................................................... 18Physical and chemical differentiation ........................................................... 18Functions and effects during baking ............................................................. 18

    Fiber ..................................................................................................................... 20Sources of fi ber ............................................................................................. 21Defi nition of dietary fi ber ............................................................................. 21Structure ....................................................................................................... 26Properties of fi ber in food ............................................................................. 27Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics ............................................................ 27

    Proteins and enzymes .......................................................................................... 28Proteins ......................................................................................................... 29Sources of proteins ....................................................................................... 30Amino acids .................................................................................................. 31Classifi cation of proteins .............................................................................. 34Structure of proteins ..................................................................................... 39Properties of proteins .................................................................................... 41Proteins of wheat .......................................................................................... 43Enzymes ....................................................................................................... 47Sources of enzymes ...................................................................................... 47Classifi cation and nomenclature of enzymes ............................................... 49Lock-and-key, induced fi t of enzymes .......................................................... 51

  • viii / Table of Contents

    Properties of enzymes ................................................................................... 51Lipids ................................................................................................................... 55

    Source of lipids ............................................................................................. 55Nomenclature ............................................................................................... 56Chemical composition .................................................................................. 57Fatty acids ..................................................................................................... 57Fatty acid naming protocols ......................................................................... 58Saturated vs. unsaturated .............................................................................. 58Cis vs. trans .................................................................................................. 62Short- and medium-chain fatty acids ............................................................ 63Mono-, di- and triglycerides ......................................................................... 63Sterols and stanols ........................................................................................ 64Other lipids ................................................................................................... 64Physical aspects ............................................................................................ 64Liquid, plastic and solid forms ..................................................................... 64Melting point ................................................................................................ 65Crystallinity .................................................................................................. 66Hydrogenation and interesterifi cation .......................................................... 66Oxidation ...................................................................................................... 68Autoxidation mechanism .............................................................................. 68Antioxidants ................................................................................................. 69Hydrolysis and polymerization ..................................................................... 70

    Physical chemistry ............................................................................................... 71Acid-base reactions ...................................................................................... 71Electrolytes ................................................................................................... 71Titration ........................................................................................................ 72Active acidity ................................................................................................ 73The pH concept ............................................................................................. 74Buffers .......................................................................................................... 75pH determination .......................................................................................... 76Role of pH in baking .................................................................................... 77Buffering action of proteins .......................................................................... 78pH in chemically leavened product .............................................................. 79Oxidation and reduction ............................................................................... 80The redox potential ....................................................................................... 81Estimation of redox potential ....................................................................... 81Role of oxidation in baking .......................................................................... 82Role of pentosans ......................................................................................... 83Role of thiols and disulfi des ......................................................................... 84Role of fl our lipids ........................................................................................ 85

    Dough physics: colloids and rheology ................................................................. 86States of matter ............................................................................................. 87

  • Baking Science & Technology / ix

    Molecular forces ........................................................................................... 88Colloidal systems .......................................................................................... 89Emulsions ..................................................................................................... 90Foams............................................................................................................ 92Colloidal character of dough ........................................................................ 92Colloidal aspects of fl our particles ............................................................... 93Starch ............................................................................................................ 94Dextrins ........................................................................................................ 96Pentosans ...................................................................................................... 96Water solubles ............................................................................................... 97Flour proteins ................................................................................................ 97Role of polar fl our lipids ............................................................................... 98Chemical bonds ............................................................................................ 99Water in dough .............................................................................................. 99Adsorption vs. absorption ........................................................................... 100Cell structure in dough ............................................................................... 101Dough rheology .......................................................................................... 103

    Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients ....................................................................... 113Part A: Major Ingredients .............................................................................. 113Wheat fl our ........................................................................................................ 114

    Structure of the wheat kernel ...................................................................... 115Components of wheat fl our ........................................................................ 119Flour treatment ........................................................................................... 136Flour quality ............................................................................................... 141Flour absorption .......................................................................................... 144Flour storage ....................