BAKING Ch. 21. SECTION 21.1 Ingredients and Techniques for Baking

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BakingCh. 21Section 21.1Ingredients and Techniques for BakingIngredient Basics

FlourGluten a protein that affects the texture of baked productsHelps determine how much a product will rise

All purpose most popular, gives good results for most productsBread Flour highest gluten content, gives bread a strong structureCake Flour contains less gluten, gives cakes a tender structureWhole-Grain FlourWeaker gluten than all-purposeSome have no gluten at all

Products rise less and have a heavy texture

Generally combines with all-purpose flour in recipes

Cannot be sifted, must be stirred

Contain some fat and should be stored in the refrigeratorLiquidWater and milk are most common liquids

Milk adds flavor and nutrientsHelps baked goods brown betterTo reduce fat in a recipe use fat free milk

Buttermilk is used in some recipesGives slightly tangy flavorAdds acidity and affects leavening agentLeavening AgentsA substance that triggers a chemical reaction causing a baked product to riseMake baked products less compact and gives softer textureExamplesAirSteamYeastBaking sodaBaking powder

AirTrapped in the mixture as it is beatenCreaming fat and sugar, sifting flour, beating egg whites

When mixture is heated, the air expands and the product rises

ExampleAngel Food Cake

SteamLeavens products that contain high amounts of water

When the mixture is heated, it turns to steam, which expands and causes the baked product to rise

ExamplePopoversCream puffs

YeastA microorganism that produces carbon dioxide gas as it growsNeeds food (flour or sugar), liquid, and a warm temperature to grow

TypesActive Dry & Quick-Rising come as dry granules in a packet, can be stored at room temperatureCompressed comes in individually wrapped cakes and must be refrigeratedBaking SodaSodium Bicarbonate

Used whenever a recipe calls for buttermilk, yogurt, sour milk, or other acidic liquids

When combined with this type of liquid, baking soda produces carbon dioxide gas

Baking PowderContains baking soda and a powdered acid

The most common type is double-acting baking powderReleases some carbon dioxide when it is first mixed with a liquid, the remainder is released when heated

FatFat adds richness, flavor, and tenderness to baked products

Fats can be solid or liquidSolid and liquid fats cannot be easily substituted for one another

Butter/shortening substitutes regular margarineDo not use soft, whipped, or liquid margarineSolid shortening can be substituted for butter/margarine

Any cooking oil can be used in baking as long as it has a mild flavorFatFats usually cannot be eliminated from baked productsThey can be reduced or partially substituted with applesauce or pureed dried fruitsStore lard, butter, and margarine in the refrigeratorStore shortening and oils at room temperature unless other directedEggsAdd flavor, nutrients, richness, and color

They form structure in baked productsWhen beaten, eggs add air to the mixture

To reduce fat and cholesterol, use two egg whites in place of one egg

SweetenersSugar is the most common sweetener

Makes baked products tender, adds sweetness, flavor, and helps the crust brown

Common sweeteners: white, brown, honey, corn syrup, molasses, and powdered sugar

Some sugar substitutes are suitable for baking others are not

Store sweeteners tightly covered in a cool placeFlavoringsFruits, vegetables, and nuts add flavor, texture, and nutrients to baked goods

Herbs, spices, and extracts are used in small amounts to add flavor

Extracts are flavorings in liquid formAlmond and vanilla are most common

Store flavorings in tightly closed containers in a cool, dry placeThe Role of GlutenWhen flour and liquids are mixed together, gluten in the flour developsBecomes strong and elastic

It forms a network of tiny air cellsAir, steam, or gas produced by leavening agents is trapped by these cells

When heated, the trapped gases expand and the product rises. Gluten in Action

The Role of GlutenThe longer the mixing time, the more gluten is developedQuick breads and cakes are mixed until just combinedYeast breads are mixed for a long time

Batters & DoughsThe ratio of liquid to flour determines whether a mixture is a batter or a dough

Pour batter thin enough to pour in a steady stream (pancakes, waffles, cakes)

Drop batter thick and usually spooned into pans (muffins, biscuits, cookies)

Batters & DoughsSoft dough soft and sticky but can be touched and handled (rolled biscuits, yeast breads, rolls)

Stiff dough firm to the touch, easy to work with and cut (pie crust, sugar cookies)

Methods of MixingKneading to work dough with your hands to thoroughly mix ingredients and develop glutenTurn the dough out on a very lightly floured surfaceWith the heel of your hands, push down on the edge of the dough nearest youFold the dough in half toward you can give a quarter turnContinue pushing, folding, and turning for the time directed in the recipe


Preparing to BakeBaking pans affect the results of bakingSize, shape, and material

Most recipes are designed for light-colored metal pans

If using glass lower temperature by 25FGlass retains more heat and may produce darker crusts

Dark pans produce thick crusts, lower oven temperature by 10FPan PreparationGrease and Flour use waxed paper or a paper towel to spread fat inside of pan

sprinkle a little flour into the pan

tilt the pan at different angles until flour is spread evenly

turn pan upside down over sink

tap gently to remove excess flourPan PreparationSpray with a vegetable-oil cooking sprayDoes not work with all baked productsFollow directions on can

Line a pan with paperCut a piece of cooking parchment the same size and shape as the bottom of the panGrease pan and line bottom with paperConventional & Microwave BakingConventional oven uses dry heatProducts brown and develop crispy crustsUnless otherwise stated, always preheat your oven, adjusting oven racks beforehand

Microwave oven uses moist heatProducts do not brown or develop crustProducts are very tender and moist

Removing Baked Products from PanSome products must be removed from the pan immediately after baking

Others may cool for a few minutes in pan

Others may need to cool completely in the pan

Use cooling racks so baked goods cool faster and stay crispStoring Baked GoodsBaked products containing cream fillings and frostings should be refrigerated

Store all other baked products at room temperature, covered tightly

For long term storage, freeze in airtight containerssection 21.2Quick BreadQuick BreadsBreads that are quick and easy to makeThey do not require kneadingMost use baking powder as a leavening agentExamples:MuffinsBiscuitsPancakesCorn breadFruit breadsMuffinsMuffins are prepared using the muffin method

Muffins that are properly mixed will have a rounded, pebbly top with coarse but tender texture

Over-mixed muffins will have peaks on top and are tough and heavy with long narrow tunnels

Muffin MethodSift together or mix all dry ingredients in a large bowl, using the back of a wooden spoon make a well in the dry ingredients

Beat all liquid ingredients together in a small bowl until they are well blended

Pour the liquid ingredients into the well you have made in the dry ingredients. Mix just enough to moisten the dry ingredients batter should be lumpy

Fold in remaining ingredients (ex. Nuts, raisins, chocolate chips)Preparing and Baking MuffinsInstead of greasing the muffin pan you can line them with paper baking cups

Fill 2/3 full

Muffins are done when nicely browned and a toothpick comes out clean

Variations fresh and dried fruit, vegetables, bran, and dairy productsLoaf BreadsMany loaf breads use the muffin method for mixing

Most are baked in a greased loaf panIf the bread contains dried fruits or nuts, line the bottom of the pan with parchment paper

Bread is done when nicely browned and toothpick comes out cleanIt is typical for quick bread loaves to crack on topBiscuitsDelicate, small breadsTwo types drop or rolled

Properly mixed biscuits have an even shape with a smooth, level top and straight sidesCrust is an even brownWhen broken open the crumb is whiteMoist and fluffy, peels into layers

Over mixed low volume and rounded top (smooth)

Pastry & Biscuit MethodCut in to mix solid fat and flour using a pastry blender or two knives and a cutting motion

Sift together or mix dry ingredients in a large bowl

Cut the shortening into the flour until the particles are the size of peas

Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients, add the liquids, stir until the ingredients are blended and form a soft doughRolled BiscuitsTurn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface, knead about ten strokes

Roll the dough out to a uniform thickness (1/2 inch)

Cut biscuits using a biscuit cutter that is lightly dusted in flourPress straight down, DO NOT twist the cutter

Re-roll leftover dough and make more biscuits

Place biscuits on ungreased baking sheet

Drop BiscuitsMade by dropping dough from a spoon

Contain more liquid than rolled biscuitsThe dough is too sticky to roll

Drop the dough in mounds on a greased cookie sheetCan also be spooned or dropped on top of casseroles


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