ASSESSMENT OF SOIL CONTAMINATION DUE TO HEAVY ?· assessment of soil contamination due to heavy metals:…

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<ul><li><p>Vol-2 Issue-3 2016 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 </p><p>2103 www.ijariie.com 273 </p><p>ASSESSMENT OF SOIL CONTAMINATION </p><p>DUE TO HEAVY METALS: A CASE STUDY </p><p>OF RAKHIAL INDUSTRIAL AREA, AHMEDABAD </p><p>Author Name: Pooja Saini </p><p>L.D College of Engineering, Ahmedabad, Gujarat </p><p>ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of heavy metal soil pollution in one of the cradles of </p><p>industry in India, the Rakhial Industrial area in the city of Ahmedabad, Twenty-five soil samples were collected from the </p><p>top 5 cm o f the soil layer and were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn and Cr. The data reveal a </p><p>remarkable variation in heavy metal concentration among the sampled soils; the mean concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn and </p><p>Cr were compared with the standards of different countries like Canada, Australia, Norway, Taiwan etc. for Maximum </p><p>allowable limits of heavy metals in soil. Soil samples were also analyzed to determine fixed metals present in soils if any </p><p>and results showed that all metals were fixed solids and do not get carried away with rain water. GIS Mapping of study </p><p>area for each metal will be done to demonstrate the distribution of heavy metals co ncentration. </p><p>Keyword: Pollution Assesment, Soil Contamination, Heavy Metals, Industrial Area , Ahmedabad. </p><p>I. INTRODUCTION </p><p>Due to the continuous industrialization in many parts of the world, pollutants are emitted into the terrestrial environment and pose a great threat on human health .Soil Contamination can seriously affect soils ability to perform some of its key functions in the ecosystem. Soil is a living resource, but once contamination exceeds a certa in threshold, </p><p>the soil may be considered functionally dead. Po llution by heavy metals and many organic contaminants is practically </p><p>irreversible. Rakhial area of Ahmedabad is hub for matterlurgical industry and thus selected for Heavy Metals assessment in soil to investigate soil pollution. Metals investigated in this study are Copper, Nickel , Zinc, Chromium and Iron. </p><p>II. METHODOLOGY A. Study area </p><p>Covering area of 1.36 sq. km and being hub of metallurg ical industry, Rakhial industrial area was selected to find possible </p><p>contamination in top soil of the area. Rakhial Industrial area having Latitude:23 1'18.35"N and Longitude: 7237'41.30" </p><p>was divided into Grids of 180 m by 180 m and 25 samples were collected from the area. Figure 1. Demonstrates the area </p><p>categorization for sample collection. </p><p>B. Sampling and Analysis </p><p>Top-soil samples of 5 cm were collected from the industrial area and obtained by compositing surroundings topsoil into a </p><p>polythene bag with aid of a plastic scooping trowel. Auger was used for collecting sample and Sample location were </p><p>recorded through GPS. </p><p>Samples were analyzed by USEPA -3050B method for assessing heavy metal concentration using FAAS. Soil samples </p><p>were digested with both Acid and Neutral pH buffer solution to determine fixed metals and washing away with rain water. </p></li><li><p>Vol-2 Issue-3 2016 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 </p><p>2103 www.ijariie.com 274 </p><p> Figure.1- Study Area Categorization </p><p> III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION </p><p>On analyzing soils for Cu,Ni,Cr and Zn, results obtained for 25 location are compared with standards of different </p><p>countries for Maximum allowable concentration of Heavy metals in So il. Standards compared here includes Canadian, </p><p>Australia, Norway, Taiwan and Netherland. </p><p>A. Data Interpretation </p><p>TABLE I: </p><p>Sr. </p><p>No </p><p>Metal Conc. Maximum Minimum Mean Median Std. Deviation </p><p>1. Copper(Cu) 11995 10.6 664.7784 359.86 2336.157 </p><p>2. Nickel(Ni) 590 17.73 101.200385 132.23 123.634771 </p><p>3. Zinc(Zn) 4520 8.25 586.6404 35 927.2629 </p><p>4. Chromium(Cr) 1695 12.75 199.1746 63.97 340.2996 </p></li><li><p>Vol-2 Issue-3 2016 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 </p><p>2103 www.ijariie.com 275 </p><p>B. Graphical Representation of Results: </p><p>94.14 </p><p>37.72 28.01 </p><p>138.55 </p><p>43.55 </p><p>382.55 </p><p>47.208 </p><p>276.12 </p><p>129.6 </p><p>251.2 </p><p>359.86 </p><p>25.4 46.72 </p><p>79.23 </p><p>283.86 </p><p>10.6 31.65 </p><p>397.2 </p><p>43.2 </p><p>439 </p><p>23.3 </p><p>160.47 </p><p>39.3 </p><p>100 91 </p><p>91 </p><p>250 </p><p>190 </p><p>0</p><p>50</p><p>100</p><p>150</p><p>200</p><p>250</p><p>300</p><p>350</p><p>400</p><p>450</p><p>500</p><p>Copper Copper</p><p>WHO,Australia andNorway StdsCanadian Stds</p><p>Taiwan</p><p>92.9 </p><p>34.07 44.09 </p><p>57.76 </p><p>125 </p><p>48.69 44.7 </p><p>66.28 </p><p>38.46 28.8 </p><p>132.23 </p><p>20.33 </p><p>67.06 </p><p>37.51 </p><p>149.13 </p><p>17.73 23.67 </p><p>151.8 </p><p>53.5 </p><p>123.8 130.9 </p><p>93.04 </p><p>38.8 </p><p>60 </p><p>210 </p><p>50 </p><p>89 </p><p>0</p><p>50</p><p>100</p><p>150</p><p>200</p><p>250</p><p>Nickel</p><p>Australia &amp; Norway</p><p>Netherland</p><p>WHO</p><p>Canadian</p><p>Nickel </p></li><li><p>Vol-2 Issue-3 2016 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 </p><p>2103 www.ijariie.com 276 </p><p>520 </p><p>349 </p><p>23 8.25 </p><p>214.3 </p><p>1504 </p><p>78 </p><p>353 </p><p>114.4 </p><p>1142 </p><p>352.4 </p><p>35 </p><p>142.6 </p><p>297 </p><p>1529 </p><p>245 </p><p>122.9 97.4 </p><p>330 </p><p>165.6 </p><p>1224 1175 </p><p>113 </p><p>323 </p><p>200 300 </p><p>2000 </p><p>360 </p><p>0</p><p>500</p><p>1000</p><p>1500</p><p>2000</p><p>2500Zinc Zinc</p><p>Australia and Norway</p><p>WHO</p><p>Taiwan</p><p>Canadian Stds</p><p>154.5 </p><p>117.6 </p><p>42.9 33.3 </p><p>123.4 </p><p>38.57 </p><p>106.6 </p><p>222 </p><p>72.78 </p><p>32.72 32.9 </p><p>63.97 </p><p>27.45 </p><p>121.9 87.03 </p><p>481.1 </p><p>12.75 38.47 </p><p>519.4 </p><p>57.1 </p><p>500 </p><p>181 </p><p>328 </p><p>29.9 </p><p>100 87 </p><p>50 </p><p>400 380 </p><p>0</p><p>100</p><p>200</p><p>300</p><p>400</p><p>500</p><p>600</p><p>Chromium </p><p>Chromium</p><p>WHO</p><p>Canadian</p><p>Australia &amp; Norway</p><p>Taiwan</p><p>Netherland</p></li><li><p>Vol-2 Issue-3 2016 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 </p><p>2103 www.ijariie.com 277 </p><p>Following results are highest and excluded from graph so it doesnt suppress the values in range </p><p> For Sample-1, Cu- 1756 mg/kg &amp; Ni- 590mg/kg For Sample 6, Cu- 11995 mg/kg, </p><p> For Sample 9 Zn- 4520 &amp; Cr-1695 mg/kg For Sample 12- Ni- 375 mg/kg </p><p>C. Conclusion </p><p>On comparing different standards with the results of Cu, Ni, Zn and Cr concentrations; </p><p>Analysis done with Neutral pH buffer solution did not detect any metal extraction when measured on FASS. </p><p>III. CONCLUSION </p><p>As mentioned in above table, half of the results obtained are above prescribed limits, thus it can be interpreted that Soil o f </p><p>Rakhial industrial area is contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals </p><p>No metals were extracted with buffer solution thus it can be concluded that all p resent metals are fixed metals and do not </p><p>get washed away with rain water. </p><p>Acknowledgment </p><p>I would like to thank my family for always motivating me, my guide Minerva j pandya for her continous guidance, my dears friends harit and sumit for their support in technical analysis and at last students of CEPT for GIS lessons. </p><p>REFERENCES </p><p>References used in analysing, investigating and comparing are as following: </p><p>[1] Soil pollution - Types, effects, sources and control of soil pollution - http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/soil-pollution-types-</p><p>effects-sources.html </p><p>[2] Soil Pollution - http://bosepo.ba/categories/environment/ </p><p>[3] Causes and Types of Soil Pollution - http://nsdl.niscair.res.in/jspui/bitstream/123456789/990/1/Soil_Pollution.pdf </p><p>[4] Chemicals of Public Health Concern - http://www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/public_health/chemicals_phc/en/ </p><p>[5] Soil Sample Analysis - http://cwmi.css.cornell.edu/guidetosoil.pdf </p><p>[6] Statistic Treatment of Data/Results http://www.statsref.com/HTML/index.html?introduction.html </p><p>[7] What is GIS https://www.esri.com/library/bestpractices/essays-on-geography-gis.pdf </p><p>[8] Monitoring and Control Standards of Heavy Metals of Soils in Taiwan - </p><p>http://sgw.epa.gov.tw/ReSAG/Upload_Data/File/Information8839253Nov30_01Regulatory%20Standards%20of%20Heavy%20M</p><p>etal%20Pollutants%20in%20Soil_20111116.pdf </p><p> [9] Soil quality Guidelines, Canadian Council of Ministers of The Environment-</p><p>http://www.ccme.ca/en/resources/canadian_environmental_quality_guidelines/ </p><p>[10] Classification and Management of Contaminated Soil for Disposal, Environment Protection Authority. EPA TASMANIA-</p><p>http://epa.tas.gov.au/documents/ib105_classification_and_management_of_contaminated_soil_2012.pdf </p><p>[11] Guide for Soil pollution assessments- http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/old/klif/publikasjoner/2550/ta2550.pdf </p><p>[12] Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metal Levels in Soil,Vegetables and Urban Grey Waste Water Used for Irrigation in Yola and </p><p>Kano-</p><p>https://www.researchgate.net/file.PostFileLoader.html?id=569cbe0e5cd9e35c558b45a2&amp;assetKey=AS%3A319192471531521%4</p><p>01453112823155 </p><p>Sr. No Heavy Metal </p><p>Parameter </p><p>Total no of Samples exceeding Lowest Standards </p><p>1 Copper Total 13 samples are found above prescribed standard of Copper Concentration. </p><p>2 Nickel Total 15 samples are found above prescribed standard of Nickel Concentration. </p><p>3 Zinc Total 15 samples are found above prescribed standard of Zinc Concentration. </p><p>4 Chromium Total 16 Samples are found above prescribed standard of Chromium concentration. </p><p>http://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/soil-pollution-types-effects-sources.htmlhttp://mjcetenvsci.blogspot.in/2013/11/soil-pollution-types-effects-sources.htmlhttp://bosepo.ba/categories/environment/http://nsdl.niscair.res.in/jspui/bitstream/123456789/990/1/Soil_Pollution.pdfhttp://www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/public_health/chemicals_phc/en/http://cwmi.css.cornell.edu/guidetosoil.pdfhttp://www.statsref.com/HTML/index.html?introduction.htmlhttps://www.esri.com/library/bestpractices/essays-on-geography-gis.pdfhttp://sgw.epa.gov.tw/ReSAG/Upload_Data/File/Information8839253Nov30_01Regulatory%20Standards%20of%20Heavy%20Metal%20Pollutants%20in%20Soil_20111116.pdfhttp://sgw.epa.gov.tw/ReSAG/Upload_Data/File/Information8839253Nov30_01Regulatory%20Standards%20of%20Heavy%20Metal%20Pollutants%20in%20Soil_20111116.pdfhttp://www.ccme.ca/en/resources/canadian_environmental_quality_guidelines/http://epa.tas.gov.au/documents/ib105_classification_and_management_of_contaminated_soil_2012.pdfhttp://www.miljodirektoratet.no/old/klif/publikasjoner/2550/ta2550.pdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/file.PostFileLoader.html?id=569cbe0e5cd9e35c558b45a2&amp;assetKey=AS%3A319192471531521%401453112823155https://www.researchgate.net/file.PostFileLoader.html?id=569cbe0e5cd9e35c558b45a2&amp;assetKey=AS%3A319192471531521%401453112823155</p></li><li><p>Vol-2 Issue-3 2016 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 </p><p>2103 www.ijariie.com 278 </p><p>[13] Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils of urban parks in Beijing, China-</p><p>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653505000846 </p><p>[14] Assessment of Soil Contamination in Patancheru Industrial Area, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India-</p><p>http://maxwellsci.com/print/rjees/v3-214-220.pdf </p><p>[15] Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: A study based on GIS and multivariate statistics - </p><p>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969705002263 </p>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653505000846http://maxwellsci.com/print/rjees/v3-214-220.pdfhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969705002263</li></ul>

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