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  • Artificial Intelligence

    By Dr Zafar. M. Alvi

  • Artificial Intelligence (CS607)

    Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan

    2

    Table of Contents:

    1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................ 4

    1.1 What is Intelligence? .................................................................................................................... 4

    1.2 Intelligent Machines ..................................................................................................................... 7

    1.3 Formal Definitions for Artificial Intelligence............................................................................... 7

    1.4 History and Evolution of Artificial Intelligence ........................................................................... 9

    1.5 Applications ............................................................................................................................... 13

    1.6 Summary .................................................................................................................................... 14

    2 Problem Solving .................................................................................................................................. 15

    2.1 Classical Approach..................................................................................................................... 15

    2.2 Generate and Test ....................................................................................................................... 15

    2.3 Problem Representation.............................................................................................................. 16

    2.4 Components of Problem Solving................................................................................................ 17

    2.5 The Two-One Problem............................................................................................................... 18

    2.6 Searching.................................................................................................................................... 21

    2.7 Tree and Graphs Terminology.................................................................................................... 21

    2.8 Search Strategies ........................................................................................................................ 23

    2.9 Simple Search Algorithm ........................................................................................................... 24

    2.10 Simple Search Algorithm Applied to Depth First Search........................................................... 25

    2.11 Simple Search Algorithm Applied to Breadth First Search........................................................ 28

    2.12 Problems with DFS and BFS...................................................................................................... 32

    2.13 Progressive Deepening ............................................................................................................... 32

    2.14 Heuristically Informed Searches ................................................................................................ 37

    2.15 Hill Climbing.............................................................................................................................. 39

    2.16 Beam Search............................................................................................................................... 43

    2.17 Best First Search......................................................................................................................... 45

    2.18 Optimal Searches........................................................................................................................ 47

    2.19 Branch and Bound ...................................................................................................................... 48

    2.20 Improvements in Branch and Bound .......................................................................................... 55

    2.21 A* Procedure.............................................................................................................................. 56

    2.22 Adversarial Search ..................................................................................................................... 62

    2.23 Minimax Procedure .................................................................................................................... 63

    2.24 Alpha Beta Pruning .................................................................................................................... 64

    2.25 Summary .................................................................................................................................... 71

    2.26 Problems..................................................................................................................................... 72

    3 Genetic Algorithms.............................................................................................................................. 76

    3.1 Discussion on Problem Solving.................................................................................................. 76

    3.2 Hill Climbing in Parallel ............................................................................................................ 76

    3.3 Comment on Evolution............................................................................................................... 77

    3.4 Genetic Algorithm...................................................................................................................... 77

    3.5 Basic Genetic Algorithm ............................................................................................................ 77

    3.6 Solution to a Few Problems using GA ....................................................................................... 77

    3.7 Eight Queens Problem................................................................................................................ 82

    3.8 Problems..................................................................................................................................... 88

    4 Knowledge Representation and Reasoning.......................................................................................... 89

    4.1 The AI Cycle .............................................................................................................................. 89

    4.2 The dilemma............................................................................................................................... 90

    4.3 Knowledge and its types............................................................................................................. 90

    4.4 Towards Representation ............................................................................................................. 91

    4.5 Formal KR techniques................................................................................................................ 93

    4.6 Facts ........................................................................................................................................... 94

    4.7 Rules........................................................................................................................................... 95

    4.8 Semantic networks ..................................................................................................................... 97

    4.9 Frames ........................................................................................................................................ 98

    4.10 Logic........................................................................................................................................... 98

    4.11 Reasoning ................................................................................................................................. 102

    4.12 Types of reasoning ................................................................................................................... 102

    5 Expert Systems .................................................................................................................................. 111

  • Artificial Intelligence (CS607)

    Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan

    3

    5.1 What is an Expert? ................................................................................................................... 111

    5.2 What is an expert system? ........................................................................................................ 111

    5.3 History and Evolution .............................................................................................................. 111

    5.4 Comparison of a human expert and an expert yystem.............................................................. 112

    5.5 Roles of an expert system......................................................................................................... 113

    5.6 How are expert systems used?.................................................................................................. 114

    5.7 Expert system structure ...............................................................................

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