approaches to ai. robotics versus artificial intelligence
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Approaches to AI.Robotics VersusArtificial Intelligence
OutlineFounders of AISearchWhat are expert systemsArtificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in RobotsOther uses of AIShortcomings of AINew Directions in Intelligent RoboticsLooking forward
HAL in 2001: A Computer with Artificial IntelligenceIn 2001: A Space Odyssey (book by Arthur Clarke, movie by Stanley Kubrick, 1968), the HAL 9000 computer onboard the spacecraft exhibited several characteristics which represent areas of artificial intelligence research today: Capacity to understand natural languages: natural language processing. Facility with logic: expert systems and logic programs. Visual ability to understand what it is seeing: neural networks for image processing.Capability to monitor and control the spaceship: robotics. We will discuss them, but let us start from the beginning...
Who started AI?The founding Father of AIOther names to remember:MinskyPapertHollandDe GarisMoravecBrooks
Autonomous robot needs Artificial Intelligence
What is AI?
How does the human brain work?
How do we emulate the human brain?
Who cares? Lets do some cool and useful stuff!
How do we create intelligence?
What is intelligence?
How do we classify research as AI?
Does it investigate the brain?
If we dont know how it works, then its AI. When we find out how it works, its not AI anymore
Is it intelligent?
Does it investigate intelligence?
Does it emulate the brain?
What is Intelligence?The ability to learn and to cope.The ability to contemplate, think, and reason.Synonyms:Brain, brainpower, mentality, mother wit, sense, witRelated:Acumen, discernment, insight, judgment, perspicacity, sagacity, wisdom
Definition of AI (first try)Artificial Intelligence is the enterprise of constructing an intelligent artifact
IntelligenceWhat is intelligence?Doing what people do?visionvoice recognitiongame playingpeople solve many subtle problemsCurrent programs are brittle
Alan M. TuringComputing Machinery and IntelligenceTuring TestThirty minutes to ask questionsIf you cannot distinguish between a person and the artificial system based on the responses, then the system is intelligent (how many tries, language,etc)
IntelligenceTuring Test: A human communicates with a computer via a teletype. If the human cant tell he is talking to a computer or another human, it passes.Natural language processingknowledge representationautomated reasoningmachine learningAdd vision and robotics to get the total Turing test.
The Imitation GameIf a computer can fool a human interrogator into believing that it is human, then it may be said that the machine is intelligent, and thinks.The scope of questions that may be asked is virtually unlimited.The imitation game competition
Example of an InterrogationQ: Please write me a sonnet on the subject of the Forth Bridge.A: Count me out of this one. I never could write poetry.Q: Add 34957 to 70764.A: 105621.Q: Do you play chess?A: Yes.Q: I have K at my K1, and no other pieces. You have only K at K6 and R at R1. It is your move. What do you play?A: R-R8 mate.
One more definition of Turing Test
A Refined DefinitionArtificial Intelligence is the enterprise of constructing an artifact that can reliably pass the Turing Test
Objections to the Turing TestNot everything about human can be learned by only talking by phoneIs looking an answer up in a large table really intelligence?Does a functional definition of intelligence really characterize human intelligence?
What are artifacts? points to discussAn inorganic objectA physical-symbol systemsymbolsexpressionsa symbol manipulating entitysymbols correspond to objects in an environment
A Final DefinitionArtificial Intelligence is the enterprise of constructing a physical symbol system (a robot) that can reliably pass the Turing Test
Weak and Strong AI ClaimsWeak AI:Machines can be made to act as if they were intelligent.Strong AI:Machines that act intelligently have real, conscious minds.
AI Concepts and Definitions
Artificial Intelligence: more definitions
What are the objectives of Artificial Intelligence?
What are typical signs of Intelligence?
Signs of Intelligence (cont)
Approaches to AISearchingLearningFrom Natural to Artificial SystemsKnowledge Representation and ReasoningExpert Systems and PlanningCommunication, Perception, Action
Interlinked Components of AISearchKnowledge RepresentationExamples
Your taskWhat is your definition of intelligence?Can your definition be applied to a robot?Give one example from your area what is Knowledge. How this knowledge can be represented in LISP? Give one example from your area what is RepresentationHow your representation will be implemented in LISP?Give an Example of a Turing test limited to some area, in which it will be relatively easy but not trivial for a machine to pass. For instance, if you restrict the test to questions about baseball league.