APJ Abdul Kalam - ?· APJ Abdul Kalam Born - 15 October 1931 Achievements - This eminent scientist and…

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<p>APJ Abdul Kalam </p> <p>Born - 15 October 1931 </p> <p>Achievements - This eminent scientist and </p> <p>engineer has also served as the 11th President of </p> <p>India from the period 2002 to 2007. APJ Abdul </p> <p>Kalam is a man of vision, who is always full of </p> <p>ideas aimed at the development of the country. He </p> <p>firmly believes that India needs to play a more </p> <p>assertive role in international relations. </p> <p>Apart from being a notable scientist and engineer, </p> <p>Dr APJ Abdul Kalam served as the 11th President </p> <p>of India from the period 2002 to 2007. He is a man </p> <p>of vision, who is always full of ideas aimed at the </p> <p>development of the country and is also often also </p> <p>referred to as the Missile Man of India. People </p> <p>loved and respected Dr APJ Abdul Kalam so much </p> <p>during his tenure as President that was popularly </p> <p>called the People's President. Read more about </p> <p>the biography of Dr APJ Abdul Kalam here. </p> <p>APJ Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 at the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu and received honorary </p> <p>doctorates from about 30 universities globally. In the year 1981, the Government of India presented him the nation's </p> <p>highest civilian honor, the Padma Bhushan and then again, the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 and the Bharat Ratna in </p> <p>1997. Before Kalam, there have been only two presidents - SarvepalliRadhakrishnan and ZakirHussain - to have </p> <p>received the Bharat Ratna before being appointed to the highest office in India. </p> <p>Read on about the life history of Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, who are also the first scientist and bachelor to occupy the seat </p> <p>of the RashtrapatiBhavan. His perspectives on important topics have been enunciated by him in the book 'India </p> <p>2020'. It highlights the action plans that will help develop the country into a knowledge superpower by the time 2020. </p> <p>One thing for which he received ample kudos is his unambiguous statement that India needs to play a more assertive </p> <p>role in international relations. </p> <p>And Dr APJ Abdul Kalam regards his work on India's nuclear weapons program as a way to assert India's place as a </p> <p>future superpower. Even during his tenure as President, APJ Kalam took avid interest in the spheres of India's </p> <p>science and technology. He has even put forward a project plan for establishing bio-implants. He is also an ardent </p> <p>advocate of open source software over proprietary solutions to churn out more profits in the field of information </p> <p>technology in India. </p> <p> Contributed by: - Shubham Kashyap </p> <p>Amartya Sen </p> <p>Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen was born on 3 November 1933 in Santiniketan, West Bengal. Besides being a </p> <p>world-renowned economist, Amartya Sen is also a philosopher. He served as a Master at the Trinity College at </p> <p>Cambridge University, the first Asian academic to head an Oxbridge college. Currently the Lamont University </p> <p>Professor at Harvard University, Amartya Sen traces his roots to an illustrious lineage. His father, Ashutosh Sen, </p> <p>taught chemistry at the Dhaka University. Amartya completed his high-school education from Dhaka in Bangladesh in </p> <p>1941. After his family migrated to India in 1947, Sen studied at the Presidency College, Kolkata and at </p> <p>the Delhi School of Economics before moving over to the United Kingdom to complete his higher studies. He earned </p> <p>his doctorate from the Trinity College, Cambridge in 1959. He has taught at various reputed Universities including the </p> <p>University of Calcutta, Jadavpur University, Oxford, London School of Economics, Harvard and many others. </p> <p>His works helped to develop the theory of social choice. In 1981, he published his famous work Poverty and Famines: </p> <p>An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, where he showed that famine occurs not only due to shortage of food, but </p> <p>from inequalities in the mechanisms for distributing food. He had personally witnessed the Bengal famine of 1943. He </p> <p>has done valuable work in the field of development economics, which has had a tremendous influence on the </p> <p>formulation of the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report. </p> <p>He wrote a famous but controversial article in the New York Review of Books titled "More Than 100 Million Women </p> <p>Are Missing", wherein he analyzed the mortality impact of unequal rights between the genders in the developing </p> <p>world, mainly Asia, a claim that was contested by many. Thrice married, he is presently married to Emma Georgina </p> <p>Rothschild, a Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award </p> <p>in 1999. In the same year, he received the honorary citizenship of Bangladesh. He received the Eisenhower Medal, </p> <p>for Leadership and Service in USA in 2000. In 2002, he was awarded the International Humanist Award by the </p> <p>International Humanist and Ethical Union. </p> <p>Contributed by:- Sweta Gupta </p> <p>http://www.mapsofindia.com/west-bengal/http://www.mapsofindia.com/delhi</p> <p>Anna Hazare </p> <p>His only motive in life lies in service of his fellow humans. His fight against corruption has been basically targeted at </p> <p>uplifting the poor and downtrodden conditions prevailing in rural India. His supporters call him "Second Gandhi". He is </p> <p>Anna Hazare, an ex-army man and a social activist, recognized and celebrated for his undying support for the </p> <p>citizens of India to serve them and fight for them against greed and corruption. His journey of four decades, right from </p> <p>a tenacious army soldier to a social reformer, is regarded as an unprecedented campaign of resurrecting India as a </p> <p>strong nation. By upgrading the ecology and economy of the Ralegan Siddhi village, sited in drought-prone </p> <p>Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra state, Hazare has played a significant role in transforming this poverty clad </p> <p>hamlet into one of the richest villages in India. Recently, he has earned name and fame for fighting for the </p> <p>implementation of the Jan Lokpal Bill, the anti-corruption bill drafted by his crusaders to deal with the corruption </p> <p>prevalent in the government of India at the highest level. </p> <p>Early Life </p> <p>Anna Hazare was born as Kisan Baburao Hazare to Baburao Hazare, an unskilled laborer in Ayurveda Ashram </p> <p>Pharmacy, in the village of Bhingar near Hinganghat city in Bombay Province, presently in Maharashtra. After his </p> <p>grandfather's death in 1945 who served in the Indian army, his father continued working in Bhingar till 1952, after </p> <p>which he resigned and returned to his ancestral home in Ralegan Siddhi. Due to financial hardships, Anna Hazare </p> <p>was looked after by his childless aunt who took him to Mumbai and funded his education. Here in Mumbai, he studied </p> <p>till class seven and took up employment to support his family. A job that started as selling flowers in Dadar </p> <p>culminated into owning a flower shop and calling upon two other brothers to Mumbai. </p> <p>Service in the Indian Army </p> <p>The Indian soldiers who turned martyrs in the Indo-China War of 1962 urged the government to recruit young Indians </p> <p>in the Indian army on emergency basis. Highly inspired by patriotism and love for his country, Anna Hazare joined the </p> <p>Indian Army in 1963, despite not fulfilling the physical requirements. Here began his career as an Indian army soldier, </p> <p>starting as a truck driver, after successful training at Aurangabad in Maharashtra. When Pakistan attacked India in </p> <p>1965, he was posted at Khem Karan border, where all his comrades turned martyrs, but Anna managed to survive a </p> <p>close shave as a bullet just passed by his head. This incident forced him to think upon the existence of humans and </p> <p>meaning of life and death. Swami Vivekananda proved to be a great inspiration for him, post reading the small </p> <p>booklet "Call to the youth for nation building" he found at a book stall at the New Delhi railway station. It was at this </p> <p>point that he decided to dedicate his entire life for serving humanity. He was just 26 at that time. However, having </p> <p>completed only three years in the army would not have made him eligible for the pension scheme, which is why he </p> <p>continued to serve in the army for 13 long years, after which he took voluntary retirement from the army in 1975 and </p> <p>returned to his native place, Ralegan Siddhi. During his tenure as a soldier, he served in different states, like Sikkim, </p> <p>Bhutan, Jammu &amp; Kashmir, Assam, Mizoram, Leh, and Ladakh. </p> <p>Upliftment of Ralegan Siddhi </p> <p>During his tenure in the Indian Army, Anna Hazare visited Ralegan Siddhi every year for two months and was highly </p> <p>moved by the miserable condition of the farmers residing there. On retirement, he went back to this drought-prone </p> <p>and rain-shadow zone of Ahmednagar district and pledged to develop the village. He came across the novel project </p> <p>of water management through watershed development undertaken by Vilasrao Salunke, a resident of Saswad near </p> <p>Pune. Motivated by the project, he decided to implement the same in his village to eradicate water scarcity. The </p> <p>project was successful in increasing the ground water level and providing water to 1500 acres of land, instead of the </p> <p>meager 70 acres previously. As a result, the farmers produced good yield of food grains and the village became self-</p> <p>sufficient. Eventually, Anna Hazare brought about several economic changes leading to establishment of a school, a </p> <p>temple, a hostel, and other buildings. Mass marriages, Grains Bank, dairy, cooperative society, self-help group for </p> <p>women, and youth mandals followed next to give the village a new and improved face. This village became a model </p> <p>village for numerous other oppressed villages, and has been regarded as a tourist spot for people from across the </p> <p>country till date. </p> <p>Social Life </p> <p>Bhrashtachar Virodhi Jan Aandolan (BVJA), or People's Movement against Corruption, was started by Anna Hazare </p> <p>in 1991 as an attempt to fight against corruption that was blocking rural development in India. Hunger strikes became </p> <p>his tool of protest with high-profile politicians being his target. The movement found 42 forest officers guilty for duping </p> <p>hundreds of crores through corruption. Even though Anna Hazare handed over the evidences to the government, the </p> <p>government was reluctant in taking action against the culprits since some officers of the ruling party were themselves </p> <p>involved in the scam. Distressed and heart-broken, Anna Hazare protested and was imprisoned, a step that was </p> <p>supported by all social activists and political leaders of all parties, except BJP and Shiv Sena. To force the </p> <p>government raise charges against another set of political leaders, he began his fast unto death on August 9, 2003, </p> <p>which ended on August 17, 2003 with the then chief minister Sushil Kumar Shinde forming a one-man commission to </p> <p>find evidence against the convicts. </p> <p>Right to Information Movement </p> <p>Envisioning that action against fraudulent ministers and officers was not sufficient to fight back corruption, Anna </p> <p>Hazare campaigned for the Right to Information Act in 1997 which was turned down by the state government. To </p> <p>protest against the result, he agitated at Azad Maidan in Mumbai and then traveled across the state to create mass </p> <p>public awareness. Realizing that the government has turned blind, he went on an indefinite hunger strike in July </p> <p>2003. His protest compelled the President of India to sign the draft of the Right to Information Act after 12 days of </p> <p>hunger strike. The act was put to order with effect from 2002 and formed the base for the National Right to </p> <p>Information Act, 2005. </p> <p>Lokpal Bill Movement </p> <p>The most touted protest among all the remonstrations campaigned by Anna Hazare against the Indian government is </p> <p>the Lokpal Bill Movement, or People's Ombudsman Bill, which was initiated in April 2011. This anti-corruption bill was </p> <p>drafted by N. Santosh Hegde, a former justice of the Supreme Court of India and Lokayukta of Karnataka; Prashant </p> <p>Bhushan, a senior lawyer at the Supreme Court; and Arvind Kejriwal, a social acitivist, along with other members of </p> <p>the India Against Corruption movement. The bill included more stringent provisions and wider power than the Lokpal </p> <p>Bill prepared by the government in 2010. In support of getting the bill approved, Anna Hazare began his fast unto </p> <p>death on April 5, 2011 at Jantar Mantar, New Delhi, after his demand for a more independent Jan Lokpal Bill was </p> <p>rejected by the Indian Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh. </p> <p>Hazare's hunger strike and anti-corruption campaign was supported by thousands of people and social activists, such </p> <p>as Medha Patkar, Arvind Kejriwal, former IPS officer Kiran Bedi, and Jayprakash Narayan. The hunger strike ended </p> <p>on April 8, 2011 after the government agreed to give into the demands. Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh stated that </p> <p>the bill would be re-introduced in the monsoon session of the Parliament. This resulted in the issue of a notification in </p> <p>the Gazette of India on April 9, 2011 to form a joint committee, comprising of five nominee ministers of the </p> <p>Government of India and five nominees of the civil society. The five nominee ministers of the Government of India </p> <p>included Pranab Mukherjee, P. Chidambaram, M. Veerappa Moily, Kapil Sibal, and Salman Khursheed. From the civil </p> <p>society Anna Hazare, N. Santosh Hegde, Shanti Bhushan, Prashant Bhushan, and Arvind Kejriwal, represented as </p> <p>the five nominees. </p> <p>Meanwhile, on 5 June 2011, Swami Ramdev and his followers went on a hunger strike against the issues of black </p> <p>money and corruption, doubting seriousness of the government in taking measures to eradicate corruption. But they </p> <p>were forcibly evicted from the Ramlila Maidan by Delhi Police. As a retort, Anna Hazare and other civil society </p> <p>members boycotted the meeting of the joint Lokpal Bill drafting committee scheduled on June 6, 2011. They even </p> <p>asked the government to make its stand on the contentious issues related to the proposed draft legislation public. </p> <p>The group also declared that the future meetings would be attended only if they were telecast live. What followed </p> <p>next was the grand march on June 8, 2011 at Rajghat, wherein Anna Hazare threatened to go on an indefinite hunger </p> <p>strike, if the government tried to discredit the joint Lokpal Bill drafting committee and did not pass the bill. </p> <p>On July 28, 2011, the union cabinet approved a draft of the Lokpal Bill, but what came out was a weak version of the </p> <p>original proposed bill. Not only did the government version kept the Prime Minister, judiciary and lower bureaucracy </p> <p>out of the ambit of the proposed corruption ombudsman Lokpal, but the drafted bill limited the powers of Lokpal to </p> <p>being just an Advisory Board. It stated that the Lokpal would have no police powers and no ability to register an FIR </p> <p>or pr...</p>