animal diversity chapters 33 & 34. coelomates deuterostome endoskeleton enchinodermata & chordata

Download Animal diversity Chapters 33 & 34. Coelomates Deuterostome Endoskeleton Enchinodermata & Chordata

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  • Animal diversityChapters 33 & 34

  • Coelomates Deuterostome Endoskeleton Enchinodermata & Chordata

  • Enchinoderms600 myaOceans StarfishBrittle starsSea urchinsSand dollarSea cucumber

  • Enchinodermsspiny skinEndoskeleton made up of calciumPlates enclosed in living tissueAdults plates fuseCreates hard shellWater-vascular system----move Central ring canal with canals that extend into the arms

  • Body planBilateral symmetry larva Develop-radial symmetryNerve ring: central ring5 branches arise from central ringTube feetPart of water-vascular systemHelps attach itself to somethingReproduction, sexual & external Regenerate parts

  • Chordates Bilateral symmetryNotochordJointed appendagesSegmentationBirds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, & mammals

  • ChordatesCommon features of chordatesPresent at some point in development1. Nerve cordHollowEctodermBeneath dorsal surfaceVertebrates (brain & spinal cord)

  • Chordates2. NotochordDorsal side of primitive gut in embryoFluid filled cellsEnclosed in stiff fibrous tissuePersists in someSupportReduced to vertebral discs in others

  • Chordates3. Pharyngeal slits: Connect pharynx & esophagus to outsideGills stay connect to outsidePharyngeal pouches:Slits do not connect to outsideTerrestrial vertebratesPresent in embryos4. Postanal tailAt least during embryo development

  • ChordatesHumansNerve cord staysNotochord is replaced by spinal column (discs)Pharyngeal pouches are lost Except one forms Eustachian tubeTail regresses tail bone

  • ChordatesOther featuresMuscles arranged in segmented blocksWork against internal skeletonHelps movement

  • ChordatesPhylum Chordata includes three subphyla, Vertebrates Two phyla of invertebratesUrochordatesCephalochordates.

  • Fig. 34-2Lobed finsLegsAmniotic eggMilkJaws, mineralized skeletonLungs or lung derivativesVertebral columnHeadNotochordCommonancestor ofchordatesANCESTRALDEUTERO-STOMEEchinodermata(sister group to chordates)Chondrichthyes(sharks, rays, chimaeras)Cephalochordata(lancelets)Urochordata(tunicates)Myxini(hagfishes)Petromyzontida(lampreys)Mammalia(mammals)Actinopterygii(ray-finned fishes)Actinistia(coelacanths)Amphibia (frogs,salamanders)Dipnoi(lungfishes)Reptilia(turtles, snakes,crocodiles, birds)ChordatesCraniatesVertebratesGnathostomesLobe-finsOsteichthyansTetrapodsAmniotes

  • ChordatesNonvertebratesNotocord but no backboneTunicates (urochordates)Marine, shallow watersSessileAdults no cavity or segmentationTadpole shows characteristics Tunic: sac of cellulose secreted by adultsSurrounds the animal

  • ChordatesLancelets (cephalochordata)Shallow waters in oceanBuried in sand Anterior end sticking outPlanktonGill slitsClosest relative to vertebrate

  • Fig. 34.4(b)(a)

  • Vertebrates1. Vertebral column2. HeadBrain is enclosed in a bony skull or cranium Craniate chordates

  • VertebratesOther characteristics1. Neural crestCells that develop on crest of neural tube Form other structures (teeth, neurons, dermis)2. Internal organsLiver, kidney, endocrine glands3. EndoskeletonCartilage & bone helps with movement

  • Neural crest

  • Fig. 34-7Migrating neuralcrest cellsNotochordDorsal edgesof neural plateNeuralcrestNeuraltubeNeural crest

  • Vertebrates470 myaJawless fishJaw developedGave rise to Amphibians Were first vertebrate moved to landFirst reptiles 300 myaBirds (descendants of dinosaurs)Mammals 220 mya

  • Vertebrates65 mya dinosaurs disappeared Gave rise to larger mammalsNine classes of vertebrae5 fish (2 are extinct)4 tetrapods (animals with 4 limbs)Amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

  • FishMarine & freshwater1. Vertebral column2. Jaws & paired appendagesHelps eat larger & active preyPaired fins help with swim

  • Fish3. GillsExtract oxygen dissolved in waterVessels rich in bloodSupported by cartilage4. Single-loop blood circulationBlood pumped from heart to gillsOxygenated blood to body Returns to heart

  • Fish5. Nutritional deficienciesCannot make certain aaMust consume them

  • Fish evolutionFirst fish jawless Internal skeleton made of cartilageSucked up small food particlesHagfish: Present day jawless fish

  • Fig. 34-10

  • FishJaw 410 myaCartilage, supported gillsTeeth evolvedSpiny fish with scales had boneNo longer exist Bony & sharks developed nextSharks dominated for awhile

  • Fish Skeleton cartilage with calcium carbonate Lighter skeletonShark teeth first to be developed Not firmly attached so fall out easilyReproduction advanced with internal fertilization Most females give birth to pups

  • FishBony fishCartilage is replaced by bone OssificationEarly fish evolved in freshwater unlike sharkFirst bony fish were smallFins of thin scalesSymmetrical tails

  • FishBony fish most dominant Swim bladderGas filled sac-keeps them floatingSharks have to keep moving or they sinkLateral line systemHelps fish detect movement of objectsHelps orient the fishGill cover

  • Fig. 34-16IntestineAdipose fin(characteristicof trout)Cut edgeof operculumSwimbladderCaudalfinLaterallineUrinarybladderPelvicfinAnusDorsal finSpinal cordBrainNostrilGillsKidneyHeartLiverGonadAnal finStomach

  • Fig. 34-18

  • Fig. 34-19TetrapodlimbskeletonBonessupportinggills

  • AmphibiansFirst vertebrae to walk on landDescendants of fishSmallMore species than mammalsFrogs, salamanders & caccileansKey role in terrestrial food chains

  • AmphibiansCharacteristics1. Legs4 legs helps movement (tetrapods)2. Cutaneous respirationRespiration occurs across their skinMoist skin3. LungsPair of lungs, poorly developedLower mouth-suck in air

  • Amphibians4. Pulmonary veinsReturn aerated blood to heartRe-pumps to body5. Partially divided heartTwo chambers separatedPrevents un-aerated/aerated blood mixing

  • Amphibian evolutionAmphibia Greek both livesEvolved from lobe-finned fishAdaptations due to movement on land1. Legs2. Lungs3. Heart4. Reproduction5. Keep body from drying out

  • Amphibians370 mya in GreenlandPresent day 3 ordersAnura Frogs & toadsFrogs smooth, moist skin, long hind legs Live in or near waterToads dry skin, short legsReproduce in water (tadpoles)Eggs fertilized externally

  • AmphibiansUrodela (Caudata)SalamandersLong tails, moist skinFertilization external, eggs in waterApodaTropical burrowing amphibiansResemble worms

  • Fig. 34-23

  • Reptiles

  • ReptilesCharacteristics1. Amniotic egg (Amniotes)Chorion: outer layer of eggBelow shell (gas exchange)Amnion: encases the embryo (cushions)Yolk sac: supplies food (blood supply)Allantois: surrounds a cavity in which wastes from the embryo goes

  • Fig. 34-26

  • Reptiles2. Dry skinWatertight skinScales3. Thoracic breathingExpand & contract rib cagePulls air into lungs

  • ReptilesEvolution 4 major groups of reptiles dominated for 250 million yearsDinosaursPresent day reptilesTurtles, lizards, snakes, & crocodiles

  • Fig. 34-27d(d) Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina)

  • ReptilesOther characteristicsInternal fertilization4 chambered heartEctothermic: Body temperature determined by environmentRegulate temperature by behavior

  • Birds

  • Fig. 34-29Airfoil wingwith contourfeathersToothed beakWing clawLong tail withmany vertebrae

  • Birds Birds successful due to structure of the featherDerived from reptilian scalesBones are thinHollow

  • BirdsBirds anatomy modified to enhance flight.Reduce weightMissing of some organs.Females-only one ovary. Modern birds-toothless Grind food in a muscular gizzard Near stomach.

  • BirdsDescended from dinosaursAdaptations1. Efficient respiration2. Efficient circulation3. Endothermy Generate heat internally4. Amniotic egg

  • Mammals

  • Mammals5300 living speciesSmallest # of species of vertebraeCharacteristics1. Mammary glandsNewborns nurseMilk is rich in fat, sugar, protein, vitamins & minerals

  • Mammals2. HairConsists of proteinSensitive to touch (cat)Avoid colliding with objects3. EndothermyFat layer under skin4. PlacentaCarry & nourish babies

  • Mammals5. TeethVariety of teeth to match diet6. Middle ear

  • Fig. 34-31(b) In mammals, the articular and quadrate bones are incorporated into the middle ear.(a) In Biarmosuchus, an early synapsid, the articular and quadrate bones formed the jaw joint.Middle earTemporalfenestraJaw jointEardrumPresent-day reptilePresent-day mammalMalleus (articular)Incus (quadrate)SoundStapesInner earEardrumMiddle earSoundInner earStapesKeyQuadrateArticularSquamosalDentary

  • Mammals1. Egg-layingMonotremes: duck-billed platypusFound in Australia2. MarsupialsPouched mammals3. Placental mammals

  • Marsupials

    **Figure 34.7 The neural crest, embryonic source of many unique craniate characters**********


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