american government and organization ps1301 tuesday, 16 september
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- American Government and Organization PS1301 Tuesday, 16 September
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- Outline Midterm one week from today Please bring Orange scantrons. The problem of low voter turnout Reforms to increase turnout Vote Choice
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- Sample Question #1 The framers of the U.S. Constitution wanted to a. ensure majority rule over the minority. b. prevent the suppression of minority rights. c. keep the states more powerful than the federal government. d. both b and c.
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- Sample Question #2 Which of the following protects minority rights? a. Two-thirds vote in both houses for passing constitutional amendment b. Separation of powers c. Bi-cameral legislature d. Federal system e. All of the above
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- Sample Question #3 The American political system is based on the principle of a. Majority rule b. Preservation of minority rights c. Direct democracy d. All of the above
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- Sample Question #4 Liberals are more likely to support policies which: a. retract government efforts to achieve greater equality b. call for totalitarian rule c. restrict suffrage to only non-conservatives d. actively promote individual equality e. all of the above
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- Age and Turnout
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- Role of Age and Education
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- Who Voted in 2000?
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- Role of Parties Link to George Bushs website George Bushs websiteGeorge Bushs website The John Kerry campaign The John Kerry campaign
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- Why is voter turnout so low? Difficulty of registration Lack of convenience Early voting Early voting Absentee voting Absentee voting Vote by mail Vote by mail Voter Attitudes Electoral System Changing demographics
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- Why then would anyone vote? Voting is the most common form of political participation Many people also talk about politics and try to persuade others to vote Very few participate in any other specific way.
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- Types of Reforms Increase Convenience, Reduce Costs Liberalize Absentee Laws Vote only by Mail Same day registration Compulsory voting (increase costs of not voting) Increase Voting Efficacy make people feel better about voting Term limits Change Electoral System (to PR)
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- Intended Consequences Increase overall turnout Reduce inequalities Improve efficacy Enhance legitimacy
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- Voting by Mail Oregon Already high proportion of absentee voting Already high proportion of absentee voting Makes voting more convenient Does it increase turnout? Sometimes (in low saliency elections) Sometimes (in low saliency elections) Among which groups does it increase turnout? What is likely effect of Internet voting?
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- Comparing Turnout in Vote only by Mail and Polling Place Elections (1986-2000)
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- Registration Requirements Same day registrationMN, ME, WI, ID, NH, WY No registrationNorth Dakota 30 days prior to electionsAlaska, Arkansas, Dist. of Columbia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, Ohio, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Pennsylvania Between 15 29 days before election California, Kansas, South Dakota, Delaware, Massachusetts, Utah, West Virginia, Maryland, Oregon, New York, North, Carolina, Oklahoma, Illinois, Missouri, New Mexico, Arizona, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, New Jersey, Virginia, Colorado, Vermont
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- Other registration requirements Must be resident of state in which you register (sometime municipality) E.g. Utah requires must be a resident for 30 days prior to election E.g. Utah requires must be a resident for 30 days prior to election Texas requirements Must be resident of co. in which apply for registration Must be resident of co. in which apply for registration Must be 17 and 10 months to register and 18 to vote Must be 17 and 10 months to register and 18 to vote Must not be finally convicted of a felony. May register if pardoned, after discharge from correction institution, or after period of probation. Must not be finally convicted of a felony. May register if pardoned, after discharge from correction institution, or after period of probation.
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- Registration Requirements and Turnout Registration seen as a barrier to higher turnout; Reforms intended to relax registration requirements National Voter Registration Act, 1993 (Motor Voter Bill) mandating states to offer on- the-spot voter registration at various government agencies mandating states to offer on- the-spot voter registration at various government agencies Same Day Registration The six states with same-day registration (MN, ME, WI, ID, NH, WY) in general have higher levels of turnout The six states with same-day registration (MN, ME, WI, ID, NH, WY) in general have higher levels of turnout If campaign becomes close/interesting in final 30 days, citizens do not have chance to register If campaign becomes close/interesting in final 30 days, citizens do not have chance to register But concern about voter fraud But concern about voter fraud
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- Compulsory Voting Examples of Countries: Australia (1924) Greece Belgium (1892) LuxembourgMexico Netherlands (1917-1967) Belgium and Australia have strict enforcement, Mexico and Greece weak
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- Impact of Compulsory Voting on Turnout in Australia
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- Sanctions for non-voting in compulsory voting countries The numbers listed in the column for Type of Sanction stands for different types of sanctions. These are as follows: 1. Explanation. The non-voter has to provide a legitimate reason for his/her abstention to avoid further sanctions, if any exist. 2. Fine. The amount varies between the countries, for example 3 Swiss Francs in Swtzerland, between 300 and 3 000 ATS in Austria, 3. Possible imprisonment. The non-voter may face imprisonment as a sanction, however, we do not know of any documented cases. This can also happen in countries such as Australia where a fine sanction is common. 4. Infringements of civil rights or disenfranchisement. It is for example possible that the non-voter, after not voting in at least four elections within 15 years will be disenfranchised in Belgium. In Bolivia the voter is given a card when he/she has voted so that he/she can proof the participation. The voter would not be able to receive his/her salary from the bank if he/she can not show the proof of voting during three months after the election. 5. Other. For example in Belgium it might be difficult getting a job within the public sector if you are non-voter, or difficulties obtaining a new passport or driver's license in Greece. There are no formal sanctions Mexico or Italy but possible arbitrary or social sanctions. This is called the "innocuous sanction" in Italy, where it might for example be difficult to get a daycare place for your child or similar but this is not formalised in any way at all.
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