Agenda21-Earth Summit-The United Nations Programme of Action From Rio

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stttYr\b gfi{AG'ENDATHE I'NITED P RO(ERAII'IIVIENATIONI5 (oF ACTT(ONFROmRr(O@ACENDA 2lzProgromme Actionfor of i nobleDevelopment SustoRIO DECTARAflONon Environment Development ondStotement ofFOREST PRINCIPTESThefinoltextof ogreements negotioted Governments by ot the UnitedNotions Conference on Environment Development ond (UNCED), 4 3-1 June1992, Riode Joneiro, Brozilin to lt Moteriol contoined thisbookisnotsubiect copyright. moybe reproduced strictly for purposes, provided is non-Devglopingdomestic policiesthotmoximize the benefits of trodeliberolization sustainable for developmentACTIVITIES A) /NTERNAT/ONAL AND REG/ONA/COO7ERATION AND COORD/NAIION > Promoting internotionol on troding system that fokesoccounfof the needs developingcountries of 2.10 Accordingly,the international comnrunityshould: (a) Halt and reverseprotectionismin order to bring aboutfurtherliberalization expansion world trade, and of to thebenefitof all countries, particular developing in the countries; ( b ) P r o v i d e f o r a n e q u i t a b l e ,s e c u r e ,n o n - d i s criminatoryandpredictable internati onaltradin system g ; (c) Facilitate,in a timely way, the integrationof all countriesinto the world economyand the intemational tradingsystem; (d) Ensure that environment and trade policies are mutuallysupportive, a view to achieving with sustainable development: (e) Strengthen international the trade policies system throughan early,balanced, comprehensive successancl ful outcomeof the UruguayRoundof multilateraltrade negotiations. 2.11 Theinternational community should aimatfinding ways and meansof achievinga betterfunctioningand enhanced transparency commodity markets,greater of diversificationof the cornmodity sectorin developing economieswithin a macroeconomic framework that takesinto consideration country'seconomicstructure, a resource endowments marketopportunities, betand and ter management naturalresources of that takesinto accountthe necessities sustainable of development. 2J2 Therefore,all countriesshould implementprevi ous c om m it m e n ts h a l t a n d re v e rs e ro te c tioni sm to p and furtherexpandmarketaccess, particularlyin areas o f int er estto dev e l o p i n g o u n tri e s . h i s i mp ro v e ment c T of market accesswill be facilitated by appropriate s t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n ti n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . Dev eloping oun tri e s h o u l d o n ti n u e e tra d e - pol i cy c c th reforms and structuraladjustmentthey have unclertak en.I t is t hus u rg e n tto a c h i e v ea n i m p ro v e mentn i m ar k et ac c es sc o n d i ti o n sfo r c o mn to d i ti e sn otabl y , thr ough t he pr o g re s s i v ere mo v a l o l - b a rri e rs that r e s t r i c t i m p o r t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y 1 ' r o md e v e l o p i n g co unt r ies ,of c om m o d i ty p ro d u c ts i n p ri m a ry and processed forms.as well as the substantial progresand sivereduction typesof supportthatinduceuncompetiof tiveproduction, suchasproduction exportsubsidies. and2.13 For devel opi ng countri esto benefi t from t he liberalization tradingsystems, of they shouldimplement the following policies,as appropriate: (a) Create a domesticenvironmentsupportiveof an optimalbalance between production thedomestic for and export marketsand remove biasesagainstexportsand discourage inefficientimport-substitution ; (b) Promotethe policy frameworkand the infrastructure required to improve the efficiency of export and irnport trade as well as the functioning of domestic markets. 2.14 The fol l ow i ng pol i ci es shoul d be adopredby developingcountrieswith respectto commoditiesconsistentwith marketefficiency: (a) E xpand processi ng, stri buti on and i mpr ove di marketing practices and the competitiveness the comof modity sector; (b) Diversify in order to reduceclependence comon modity exports, (c) Reflect efficient and sustainable of factorsof use production theformationof commodityprices, in including the reflectionof environmental, socialand resources costs.c) DATA AND /NFORMATTON > Encouroging doto collection ond reseorch 2.15 GATT, UNCTAD and other reler,'ant institutions should continue to collect appropriatetrade data and information. The Secretary-General the United Naof tions is requestedto strengthenthe Trade Control Measures InforrnationSystemmanaged UNCTAD. by > lmprovinginternationol in ,cooperation commoditytrade ond thediversificotion the sector of 2.16 With regard to commodity trade, Governments should,directly or throughappropriate international organizations, whereappropriate: (a) Seek optimal functioningof commodity markets, interalia, throughimprovedmarkettransparency involving exchanges views and information investment of on plans,prospects markets inciividual and for commodities. Substantive negotiationsbetweenproclucers and consumers shouldbepursued with a view to achieving viable andmoreefficientinternational agreements takeinto that21as accountmarket trends,or affangements, well as study particularattentionshouldbe paid groups. In this regard, on to the agreements cocoa, coffee, sugar and tropical timber. The importance of international commodity is and agreements alrangements underlined.Occupationsafety matters, technology transfer and al health and with the production,marketingand servicesassociated promotion of commodities,as well as environmental shouldbe takeninto account; considerations, mechanisms for (b) Continueto apply compensation in commodity export earningsof developing shortfalls diversificationefforts; countriesin order to encourage (c) Provide assistance developingcountriesupon to requestin the designand implementationof commodity policies and the gatheringand utilization of information on commodity markets; (d) Support the efforts of developing countries to promote the policy framework and infrastructure required to improve the efticiency of export and import trade: (e) Support diversification initiativesof thedeveloping the levels. countriesat the national,regionaland intemationalMEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ FINANCING has estimatedthe 2.17 The Conferencesecretariat averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing areato be about$8.8bilthe activitiesin this progralrune lion from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governments.Actual costsand financialterms,includwill depend upon, ing any that are non-concessional, inter alia, the specific strategiesand programmes decideupon for implementation. Governments B) CAPACTTY-BUtLDING 2.18 The above-mentionedtechnical cooperation activities aim at strengtheningnational capabilitiesfor of designandimplementation commoditypolicy,useand and the gatheringand management nationalresources of utilizationof informationon commoditymarkets.supportive.An open,multilateraltradingsystemmakes possiblea more efficient allocation and useof resources and therebycontributesto an increasein production and on demands the environment. incomesand to lessening needed economic for resources additional It thusprovides growth and development and improved environmental protection. A sound environment,on the other hand, provides the ecological and other resourcesneededto of sustaingrowth and underpina continuingexpansion trade. An open,multilateraltrading system,supported policies,would by the adoptionof soundenvironmental havea positiveimpacton theenvironmentandcontribute to sustainable development. 2.20 Internationalcooperationin the environmental tradeprovisions in field is growing,anci anumberofcases have played a in multilateralenvironmentagreements Trade challenges. role in tackling global environmental have thus been used in certain specific inmeasures to the whereconsidered necessary, enhance efstances, fectiveness environmentalregulationsfor the protecof shouldaddress Suchregulations tion of theenvironment. so degradation asnot to of the root causes environmental on resultin unjustifiedrestrictions trade.The challenge is to ensure that trade and environmentpolicies are consistentand reinforce the processof sustainable However,accountshouldbe taken of the development. fact that environmental standardsvalid for developed countriesmay have unwarrantedsocial and economic countries. costsin devdlopingOBJECTIVES 2.21 Govemmentsshould strive to meet the following throughrelevantmultilateralforums,including objectives, UNCTAD and other internationalorganizations: GATT, (a) To make international trade and environment policies mutually supportivein favour of sustainable development; (b) To clarify the role of GATT, UNCTAD and other international organizationsin dealing with trade and issues,including, where relevant, environment-related and disputesettlement; conciliationprocedure (c) To encourage productivity and cominternational role petitiveness encourage constructive on thepart a and and of industryin dealingwith environment development issues.B) frrAKrNG TRADEAND ENVIRONTYIENT fiIUTUAILY SUPPORTIVEACTIVITIES > Developingon environment/trode ord deuJlophentogendo GATT, UNCTAD shouldencourage 2.22 GovernmentsFOR BASIS ACTION be and 2.19 Environment tradepoliciesshould mutually22and other relevantinternational and regionaleconomic institutions exarnine, accordance to in with theirrespective mandates competences, following proposiand the tionsandpr inc ip l e s : (a) Elaborateadequatestudiesfor the better understandingof the relationship betweentradeand environment for the promotionof sustainable development; (b) Promote a dialogue betweentrade, development and environnrent comrnunities: (c) In thosecases when trademeasures relatedto environment are used, ensure transparency and compatibilitywith international obligations; (d) Deal with the root causesof environmentand problems a manner development in thatavoids adopthe tion of enr,'ironmental measures resulting unjustified in restrictions trade on : (e) Seekto avoidthc useof traderestrictions distoror tionsasa means offsetdifferences costarising to in from differenccs environmental in standards and regulations, sincetheirapplication couldleadto tradedistortions and increase protectionist tendencies: (f) Ensure that environment-related regulationsor stanclards. including those relatedto health and safety standards, not constitutea meansof arbitrary or do unjustifiable discrimination a disguised or restriction on trade: (g) Ensurethat specialfactorsaffectingenvironment and tradepoliciesin the developing countries borne are in mind in theapplication environmental of standards, as well asin theuseof anytrade measures. is worthnoting It that standardsthat are valid in the most advanced countries mav be inappropriate of unwarranted and social costlbr the developing countries; (h ) Encourage participation developing of countries in nrultrlateral agreements through such mechanisms as sp ec ialr ans it io n a l l e s : t ru (i) Avorcluniiateral actions dealwith environmental to ci r allengc s s i d eth e .j u ri s d i c ti o n f th e i mporti ng out o countr\'. Environrnental measures addressing transborder or glohalcnvirclnmental problems should,as far as possiblc. based aninternationalconsensus. be on Domestic nreasures tar_qeted achievecertainenvironmental to ob.jcctives may needtracle ntcasures renderthem efio l'ectrr Should e'. policymeasures foundnecessary trade be for thr-enforccrnent environmental of policies,certain p rir r c iplcanc l ul e ss h o u l d p p l y .T h e s e o u l di n c l ude, -s r a c iritr uiitr. the principieof non-discrirnination; printhe ciple thei tlte trademeasure chosenshouldbe the least trade-rcstrictivc necessary achieve objectives; to the an obligationto ensuretransparency the use of trade in rllcdsulcsrclatc'c-l the environment and to provide to lucleiluaic ication of nationalregulations: notif and the n e edt o gir c ' t ' or r s i d e ra tro n e s p e c i ac o n d i ti o ns to th l anddevelopmental requirements developingcountriesas of they movetowardsinternationally agreed environmental objectives; and C) Develop more precision, where necessary, clarify the relationship between GATT provisions and someof themultilateral measures adopted theenvironin ment area; (k) Ensurepublic input in the formation,negotiation and implementationof trade policies as a means of fosteringincreased transparency the light of countryin specificconditions; (l) Ensurethat environmental policiesprovidethe appropriate legaland institutional frameworkto respond to new needs the protectionof the environmentthat may for resultfrom changes productionand trade specializain tion.c) PROVTD|NG ADEQUATE F|NANC|ATRESOURCES TO DEVETOPING COUNTRIESBASIS ACTION FOR 2.23 Investmentis critical to the ability of developing countries achieve to needed economic growthto improve the welfare of their populations and to meet their basic needsin a sustainable manner,all without deteriorating or depletingthe resource basethat underpinsdevelopment. Sustainable developmentrequiresincreasedinvestment, for which domestic and external financial resources needed.Foreignprivateinvestment the are and returnof flight capital,which depend a healthyinveston ment climate, are an important sourceof financial resources. Many developing countries haveexperienced a decade-long situation negative transferoffinancial of net resources, during which their financial receipts were exceeded payments by theyhadto make,in particular for debt-servicing. As a result, domesticallymobilized resources had to be transferred abroadinsteadof being investedlocally in order to promote sustainable economic development. 2.24 For manydeveloping countries, reactivation the of development will not take place without an early and durable solution to the problemsof externalindebtedness, takinginto account fact that,for manydevelopthe ing countries,external debt burdensare a significant problem.The burdenof debt-service payments those on countries hasimposedsevere constraints their ability on to accelerate growth and eradicate poverty and hasled to a contracti onn i mports, i nvestmentand consum pi ti on. E xternal i ndebtedness emergedas a ma in has factor i n the economi c stal emate n the devel oping i countri es. onti nuedvi gorousi mpl ementati on t he C of23evolving international debt strategy is aimed at restoring debtorcountries'externalfinancial viability, and the resumptionof their growth and development grow th and would a s s i s t i n a c h i e v i n g s u s ta i n abl e dev elo p m e n t.In th i s c o n te x t, a d d i t i onal fi nanci al resourcesin favour of developing countriesand the efficient utilization of such resourcesare essential. OBJECTIVES for 2.25 The specificrequirements the implementation programmesincluded sectoraland cross-sectoral of the in Agenda27 aredealt with in the relevantprogramn're ar eas a n d i n c h a p te r 3 3 (F i n a n c i a l resourcesand mechanisms).ACTIVITIES OF OFFICIAL A) MEETING /NIERNAI/ONAI TARGETS LA DEVE PMENI ASS'SIANCE FUNDING2.26 As discussedin chapter 33, new and additional resourcesshould be provided to support Agenda 21 programmes.'SSUE THE B) ADDRESSING DEBT 2.27 In regardto the externaldebt incurredwith commercial banks, the progressbeing made under the and a morerapid is debt strategy recognized strengthened is encouraged.Some implementation of this strategy countrieshave already benefitedfrom the combination policiesand commercialbank debt of soundadjustment commeasures. international The reduction orequivalent munity encourages: (a) Other countries with heavy debts to banks to negotiatesimilar commercial bank debt reductionwith their creditors: (b) The partiesto sucha negotiationto takedueaccount of both the medium-termdebt reductionand new money of requirements the debtor country; (c) Multilateral institutionsactively engagedin the to debt strategy continueto international strengthened packagesrelated to commersupport debt-reduction cial bank debt with a view to ensuringthat the magwith theevolving nitudeof suchfinancinsis consonant debt strategy; ( d) Cr e d i to r b a n k s to p a rti c i p a te n debt and debti servicereduction: (e) Strengthened policies to attractdirect investment, levels of debt and foster the return avoid unsustainable of flight capital.2.28 With regard to debt owed to otficial bilateral taken by the Paris Club creditors,the recentmeasures generous termsof relief to thepoorest with regard more to most indebtedcountriesare welcomed.Ongoingefforts in to implementthese"Trinidadterms"measures a mancapacityof those with the payments ner cofiunensurate countriesand in a way that gives additionalsupportto their economicrefbrm efforts are welcomed.The substantial bilateral debt reduction undertakenby some and is creditorcountries alsowelconted, otherswhich are to positionto do soareencouraged takesimilaraction. in a w c o 2.29 Theactions f low-income ountries ith substanti aldebt burdensw hi ch conti nue,at gr eat cost , their cr edit wor to servi cethei r debt and safeguard thi nessare commended.P arti cul aratte nt ionshould be pai d to thei r resourceneeds. Other debt - disw countri es hi ch are m akinggr eat tressed devel opi ng efforts to conti nue to servi ce thei r debt and m eet due thei r externalfi nanci al obl i eati onsal so deser ve attenti on. debt,it is urgedthat with multilateral 2.30 In connection attention given to continuingto rvork towards be serious grow'.h-oriented solutionsto the problemof developing problems, includwith serious countries debt-servicing ing thosewhosedebt is mainly to official creditorsor to in Particularly thecase financial institutions. multilateral of l ow -i ncome countri esi n the processo f econom ic reform, the supportof the mul ti l ateralfinancial ins sti tuti onsi n the form of new di sbursem entand t he The use fundsi s w el comed. of ruse thei r concessi onal of supportgroupsshoul d be conti nuedin pr oviding resourcesto cl ear arrearso1'countri e s em bar king supupon vi gorous economi c reform progrant m es by portedby IMF and the W orl d B ank. Mea sur es t he mul ti l ateral fi nanci al i nsti tuti onssuch as t he r ef io n a n c i n go f i n t e r e s to n n o n - c o n c e s s i o n la l a n sw i t h ID A refl ow s - " fi fth di mensi on"- are not ed r vit h appreci ati on.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSI EVALUATIONF/NANC/NGPOLICIES ECONOMIC D) ENCOURAGTNG DEVELOPMENT TO CONDUCIVE SUSTAINABLEFORACTION BASIS 2.31 The unfavourahle external environment facing developing countries makesdomesticresourcemobilization and efficient allocation and utilization of domesti*See chop. 33 s { F i n o n c i orl e s o u r c e o n d m e c h o n i s m s } .24all cally mobilized resources the more important for the In promotionof sustainable development. a numberof countries,policies are necessaryto correct misdirected public spending,large budget deficits and other macropoliciesanddistortions restrictive economicimbalances, and finance, rates,investment in the areasof exchange a n d obs t ac lest o e n tre p re n e u rs h i p .In d e v e l oped countries.continuing policy reform and adjustment,insavingsrates,would help generate cluding appropriate developto transition sustainable resources supportthe to and in developingcountries. ment both domestically of that fostersthe association 232 Good management effective, efficient, honest,equitableand accountable public administrationwith individual rights and opporbroadly elementfor sustainable, tunitiesis an essential baseddevelopmentand soundeconomicperformanceat all developmentlevels. All countriesshould increase of their efforts to eradicatemismanagement public and private affairs, including corruption,taking into account for, and agentsinvolved in, this the factorsresponsible phenomenon. developing countries undergoare 2.33 Many indebted ing structural adjustmentprogrammesrelating to debt are rescheduling new loans.While suchprogrammes or for necessary improving the balancein fiscal budgetsand accounts, somecases in they have balance-of-payments resultedin adverse socialandenvironmental effects,such as cuts in allocations for health care, education and environmentalprotection. It is important to ensurethat structuraladjustmentprogrammesdo not have negative impacts on the environmentand social developmentso that such programnles can be more in line with the objectives sustainable of development. OBJECTIVES 2.34 It is necessary establish,in the light of the to country-specificconditions,economic policy reforms that promote the efficient planning and utilization of resourcesfor sustainabledevelopment through sound fosterentrepreneurship economic andsocialpolicies, and the incorporation of social and environmentalcosts in of resourcepricing, and remove sources distortion in the areaof tradeand investment.ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMFNI-RETATED ACTIVITIESD Promotingsoundeconomic policies countriesand othercountriesin 2.35 The industrialized a position to do so should strengthen their efforts:(a) To encourage stableand predictableintemational a economic environment, particularly with regard to monetary stability, real ratesof interestand fluctuations in key exchange rates; (b) To stimulatesavings and reducefiscal deficits; (c) To ensurethat the processes policy coordination of take into account the interests and concerns of the developing countries, including the need to promote positive action to support the efforts of the least developedcountriesto halt their marginalizationin the world economy; (d) To undertakeappropriatenationalmacroeconomic and structuralpoliciesaimedat promotingnon-inflationary growth, narrowing their major extemal imbalances and i ncreasi ng the adj ustment capaci ty of the ir economies. 2.36 Developingcountriesshould considerstrengthening their effortsto implementsoundeconomicpolicies: (a) That maintain the monetary and fiscal discipline requiredto promoteprice stability and externalbalance; (b) That resultin realisticexchange rates; (c) Thatraisedomestic savings as andinvestment, well as improve returnsto investment. 2.37 More specifically, all countries should develop policies that improve efficiency in the allocation of resourcesand take full advantageof the opportunities offered by the changingglobal economicenvironment. In particular,whereverappropriate. and taking into account national strategiesand objectives, countries should: ( a ) R e m o v e t h e b a r r i e r s t o p r o g r e s sc a u s e d b y bureaucraticinefficiencies, administrativestrains,unnecessary controlsand the neglectof marketconditions; (b) P romote transparencyi n admi ni strati onand decision-making; (c) Encourage the private sector and foster entrepreneurship inrprovinginstitutional by facilitiesfor enterprisecreationand market entry. The essentialobjective would be to simplify otrremovethe restrictions, regulationsand formalities that make it more complicated,costly and time-consuming set up and operate to in enterprises many developingcountries. (d) Promote the andsupport investment infrastrucand ture requiredfor sustainable economicgrowth anddiversificationon an environmentally soundand sustainable basis; (e) Provide scope for appropriate economic instruments,including market mechanisms, hannony with in the objectivesof sustainable development andfulfilment of basicneeds; (t) Promotethe operationof effective tax systems and financial sectors; (g) Provide opportunities for small-scale enterprises,25both farm and non-farm, and for the indigenouspopulation and local communities to contribute fully to the development; attainmentof sustainable (h) Remove biases against exports and in favour of inefficient import substitutionand establishpolicies that allow them to benefit fully from the flows of foreign investment. within the framework of national, social, goals; economicand developmental (i) Promote the creation of a domestic economic environment supportive of an optimal balance between productionfor the domesticand export markets.the developing world. Therefore, the efforts of the developing countriesto promote economic cooperation among themselvesshould be enhancedand continue to be supportedby the internationalcommunity.MEANS IMPI-EMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON ,A' T,NANCTNG 2.41 The Conference secretariathas estimated the of averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000) implementing in this prograrnmearea to be about $50 the activities million from the international community on grant or concessionalterms. These are indicative and order-ofonly andhavenot beenreviewedby magnitudeestimates Actual costsand financial terms,includGovernments. will ing any that arenon-concessional, dependupon,inter strategiesand programmes Governalia, the specific ments decide upon for implementation.COOPERAflON ,ANDREG/ONAL 8/ 'NTERNAilONAL AND COORDINAI'ON 2.38 Governmentsof developedcountries and those of other countriesin a position to do so should,directly or through appropriateinternationaland regional otganizatheir tions and internationallending institutions,enhance efforts to provide developing countries with increased for technicalassistance the following: (a) Capacity-building the nation's design and imin plementation economicpolicies,upon request; of ac(b) Design and operationof efficient tax systems, and financial sectors; countingsystems (c) Promotionofentrepreneurship. institutions financialanddevelopment 2.39 International should further review their policies and programmesin development. the light of the objectiveof sustainable amongdeveloping economiccooperation 2.40 Stronger countrieshas long been acceptedas an important componentof efforts to promoteeconomicgrowth and techin development and to accelerate nologicalcapabilitiesB) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG policy changes developing in 2.42 Theabove-mentioned substanti alnati ona l ef f or t s f or countri es i nvol ve capacity-building in the areasof public administration, central banking, tax administration,savingsinstitutions and financial markets. 2.43 Particularefforts in the implementationof the four progrirmme areasidentified in this chapterare warranted in view of the especially acute environmental and countries. problemsof theleastdeveloped developmental26Comboting povertyP R O G R A M MA R E A EENABUNG THE POOR TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABTE TIVETIHOODSmunities and a democraticparticipationprocessin association with improved govemance. 3.3 Integralto suchactionis, togetherwith intemational support,the promotion of economicgrowth in developing countriesthat is both sustained and sustainable and direct action in eradicating poverty by strengthening employmentand income-generating programrnes.BASIS AC-TION FOR 3.1 Poverty is a complex multidimensionalproblem with origins in both the national and international domains.No uniform solution can be found for global application. Rather, country-specificprogrammesto tacklepoverty and intemationalefforts supportingnational effofts,aswell astheparallel processofcreatinga supportive international environment, crucialfor a solutionto this are problem. The eradicationof poverty and hunger,greater equityin incomedisribution andhumanresource development remain major challenges everywhere. The struggle povertyis the shared against responsibility all countries. of 3.2 While managing resources sustainably, environan mental policy that focusesmainly on the conservation and protectionof resources must take due accountof thosewho dependon the resources their livelihoods. for Otherwise it could have an adverseimpact both on poverty and on chancesfor long-terrnsuccess resource in and environmental conservation.Equally,a development policy that focuses mainly on increasing productionof the goodswithclut addressing sustainability theresources the of on which productionis basedwill sooneror later run into decliningproductivity,which could also have an adverse impacton poverty"Aspeciticanti-poverty strategy thereis fore one of the basic conditionsfor ensuringsustainable development. An effective strategyfor tackling the problems poverty, of development environment and simultaneously shouldbegin by focusingon resources, production and people and should cover demographicissues, enhanced healthcareand education, rightsof women, the the role of youth and of indigenous peopleand local comOBJECTIVES 3.4 The long-termobjectiveof enablingall peopleto achieve sustainable livelihoods should provide an integratingfactor that allows policiesto address issues of development, sustainableresource managementand poverty eradicationsimultaneously.The objectivesof this progratnmeareaare: (a) To provide all persons urgentlywith the opportunity to eam a sustainable livelihood; (b) To implementpoliciesand strategies that promote adequate levelsof fundingandfocuson integrated human policies,including incomegeneration, development increased local control of resources,local institutionstrengthening capacity-buildingandgreaterinvolveand mentof non-governmental organizations locallevels and of government deliverymechanisms; as (c) To developfor all poverty-sfficken areasintegrated strategiesand programmesof sound and sustainable management the environment. of resource mobilization, poverty eradicationand alleviation, employment and incomegeneration; (d) To create focusin nationaldevelopmentplans a and budgetson investmentin human capital, with special policiesandprogranunes directedat rural areas, urban the poor,women and children.ACTIVITIES 3.5 Activities that will contribute the integrated to pro-27prolivelihoods andenvironmental motion of sustainable involving tectioncover a variety of sectoralinterventions a rangeof actors,from local to global, and are essential the at everylevel,especially communityandlocal levels. Enabling actions will be necessaryat the national and internationallevels, taking full account of regional and subregionalconditions to support a locally driven and country-specific approach. In general design, the programmesshould: (a) Focuson the empowerment local andcommunity of groups through the principle of delegating authority, level to accountabilityandresources the mostappropriate and to ensurethat the programmewill be geographically ecologicallyspecific; (b) Containimmediatemeasures enablethosegroups to to alleviatepoverty and to develop sustainability; (c) Contain a long-term strategyaimed at establishing local,regional the bestpossibleconditionsfor sustainable and national developmentthat would eliminate poverty and reducethe inequalitiesbetweenvarious population groups groups. It shouldassistthe most disadvantaged - in particular,women,children and youth within those groups - and refugees. The groups will include poor fishing communities, pastoralists, artisans, smallholders, migrantsand people,indigenous communities, landless the urban informal sector. measures 3.6 The focus hereis on specificcross-cutting - in particular, in the areas of basic education, primary/matemal health care, and the advancementof women.learn(e) Establishinga network of community-based ing centres for capacity-building and sustainable development.ATED B) MANAGEMFNT-REL ACTIVITtES of with theassistance andin coopera3.8 Governments, non-govemmental tion with appropriate international, and local community organizations,should establish measures that will directly or indirectly: (a) Generate employmentandproductive remunerative occupational opportunitiescompatible with countryon specific factor endowments, a scalesufficient to take in care of prospectiveincreases the labour force and to cover backlogs; (b) With international support, where necessary, develop adequateinfrastructure,marketing systems, credit systemsand the like and the technology systems, needed supporttheaboveactionsand humanresources to widening of options for resource-poor to achieve a people. High priority shouldbe given to basiceducation and professionaltraining; (c) Provide substantial in increases economicallyeffiproductivity and measures ensurethat to cient resource population benefits in adequatemeasurefrom the local resource use: (d) Empower community organrzations people to and livelihoods; enablethem to achievesustainable (e) Setup an effectiveprimary healthcareand maternal to healthcaresystemaccessible all; l ( f ) C o n s i d e r s t r e n g t h e n i n g / d e v e l o p i n ge g a l access land resourto for land management, frameworks ces and land ownership- in particular,for women and for the protectionof tenants; (g) Rehabilitate resources, the extentpracto degraded to introduce policy measures promote susticable, and humanneeds; for tainableuseof resources basic (h) Establishnew community-based mechanisms and mechanisms enablecommunities to strengthen existing neededby the poor access resources to to gain sustained poverty; to overcometheir (i) Implementmechanisms popularparticipationfor women- in local poorpeople, particularly especially by groups,to promotesustainable development; community matter of urgency,in accordance 0) Implement, as a with country-specific conditions and legal systems, measures ensurethat women and men have the same to right to decidefreely and responsiblyon the numberand to spacingof their children and have access the informato means,asappropriate, enablethem tion, educationand right in keeping with their freedom, to exercise this dignity and personally held values, taking into account should Governments ethicaland cultural considerations.COMMUNTTTES A) EMPOWFRING developmentmust be achievedat every 3.7 Sustainable level of society.Peoples'organizations,women's groups e are organizations importantsourc s and non-governmental of innovation and action at the local level and have a stronginterestand proven ability to promote sustainable livelihoods. Governments,in cooperationwith appropriateinternationaland non-governmentalorganrzations, should support a community-driven approachto which would include, inter alia: sustainability, (a) Empowering women through full participation in decision-making; (b) Respectingthe cultural integrity and the rights of indigenouspeopleand their communities; (c) Promoting or establishinggrass-roots mechanisms to allow for the sharing of experienceand knowledge betweencommunities; (d) Giving communitiesa large measureof participaand protectionof the management tion in the sustainable in local naturalresources order to enhancetheir productive capacity;28take active stepsto implement programmesto establish preventiveand curative health facilities, and strengthen which include women-centred,women-managed,safe and effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessibleservices,as appropriate,for the responsible planningof family size,in keepingwith freedom,dignity and personallyheld values, taking into account ethical Programmes andcultural considerations. shouldfocuson providing comprehensive health care, including prenatal care, education and information on health and responsibleparenthoodand should provide the opporfully, at least during tunity for all women to breast-feed the first four months post-partum. Programmesshould fully supportwomen'sproductiveand reproductiveroles and well-being, with special attention to the need for providing equaland improvedhealthcarefor all children and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness; (k) Adopt integrated policies aiming at sustainability in the management urban centres; of (l) Undertakeactivitiesaimed at the promotion of food security and, where appropriate,food self-sufficiency within the contextof sustainable agriculture; (m) Supportresearchon and integrationof traditional methodsof productionthat have been shown to be environmentally sustainable; (n) Actively seekto recognizeand integrateinformalsector activities into the economy by removing regulations and hindrances that discriminate asainstactivities in thosesectors; (o) Cons iderm a k i n g a v a i l a b l el i n e s o f c re d i t and other facilities for the informal sectorand improved p a c c es s o land f or th e l a n d l e s s o o r s o th a t th e y can t a c quir et he m ean so f p ro d u c ti o na n d re l i a b l ea ccess to nat ur alr es ourc e sIn ma n y i n s ta n c e s p e c i alcon. s siderations women are required.Strict feasibility for appraisalsare needed for borrowers to avoid debt c r is es : (p) Provide the poor with accessto fiesh water and sanitation; (q) Provide the poor with accessto primary educati o n.D/ TNTERNAT/ONAI AND REG/ONA COO?ERAilON L AND COORD/NAT'ON 3.10 The United Nations system,through its relevant organs, organizationsand bodies, in cooperationwith Member Statesand with appropriateintemational and non-governmentalorganizations,should make poverty alleviation a major priority and should: (a) AssistGovernments, whenrequested, the formuin lation andimplementation nationalactionprogrammes of on poverty alleviationand sustainable development.Action-orientedactivities of relevanceto the above objectives, suchas poverty eradication,projectsand programmes supplemented where relevantby food aid, and support and special emphasison employment and income generation,should be given particular attention in this regard; (b) Prornotetechnical cooperationamong developing countriesfor poverty eradication activities; (c) Strengthen existingstructures the UnitedNations in system for coordination of action relating to poverty eradication, including the establishment a focal point of for information exchangeand the formulation and implementation replicablepilot projectsto combatpovof ert!, (d) In the follow-up of the implementation Agenda of 21, gle high priority to the review of the progress made in eradicatingpoverty; (e) Examine the international economic framework, including resourceflows and structural adjustment programmes,to ensurethat social and environnrental concerns addressed, in this connection, are and conduct a review of the policies of international organizations, bodiesand agencies, including financial institutions, to ensurethe continuedprovision of basic servicesto the poor and needy; (0 Promote international cooperation to addressthe root causes poverty.The development of process will not gathermomentumif developingcountriesare weighted down by externalindebtedness, development if finance is inadequate, barriersrestrictaccess marketsand if if to commodity pricesand the terms of tradein developing countriesremaindepressed./NFORMAI/ON C) DATA, AND EVALUATION 3.9 Governments shouldimprove the collectionof information on target groups and target areas in order to facilitatethe designof focused programmes activities, and with the target-group consistent needsand aspirations. Evaluation of such programmesshould be genderspecific,sincewomen ere a particularlydisadvantaged group.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OFA/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 3.l I The secretariat the Conference estimated of has the average total annualcost (19%-2m0) of implementing the activitiesof this programme be about$30 billion, to including about$15 billion from the international com-29terms.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional only andhavenot estimates tive andorder-of-magnitude This estimate overlaps beenreviewedby Ciovernments. in estimates otherpartsof Agenda2l . Actual costsand financialterms,includingany that arenon-concessional, and will dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategies programmes decideupon for implementaGovernments tion.important focuscapacto highpriority. It is particularly ity-building at the local community level in order to to support community-driven a approach sustainability mechanisms allow to and to establishand strengthen sharingof experience and knowledgebetweencomlevels. Remunity groupsat nationalandinternational quirementsfor suchactivities are considerable and are relatedto the various relevantsectorsof Agenda 2l financial and techcalling for requisiteinternational, nologicalsupport.B) CAPACITY-BUILDING for 3.12 National capacity-building implementation of the aboveactivitiesis crucial and should be eiven30consumption potterns Chonging/l'r'areas: 4.1 This chapter contains folkrwing programme the (a) Focusingon unsustainable patternsof production and consumption; (b) Developing national policies and strategies ento pattems. in consumption courage changes unsustainable patterns 4.2 Sincethe issueof changingconsumption in is very broad,it is addressed severalpartsof Agenda transportation and 21, notablythosedealingwith energy, and wastes, on and in the chapters economicinstruments The presentchaptershould the transferof technology. with chapter (Demographic 5 alsobe readin conjunction dynamicsand sustainability).P R O G R A M MA R E A S EPATTERNS A) FOCUSTNG UNSUSTATNABIE ON AND CONSU}TPTION OF PRODUCTION BASIS ACTION FOR ,1.3 Povertyandenvironmental are degradation closely intenelated. While poverty resultsin certainkinds of the environmental stress, major causeof the continued is deterioration the global environment the unsustainof particularlyin and ablepattern consumption production, of which is a matterof graveconcern, industrialized countries, povertyand imbalances. aggravating level 4.4 Measures be undertaken ttre international at to of must for theprotection enhancernent tlteenvironment and in the takefully into account currentimbalances the global patterns consumption production. of and 4.5 Specialattentionshouldbe paid to the demandfor generated unsustainable by consumpnaturalresources tion and to the efficientuseof thoseresources consistent with the goal of minimizing depletion and reducing patterns very high pollution.Although consumption areneeds of in certainpartsof the world, the basicconsumer a largesection humanityarenot beingmet. This results of in excessive lifestyles among demands unsustainable and on the richer segments, which placeimmensestress the environment. The poorer segments, meanwhile,are unable to meet food. health care. shelterand educational needs.Changing consumptionpattems will require a multiprongedstrategyfocusing on demand,meeting the basicneedsof the poor,and reducingwastage and the use of finite resources the productionprocess. in 4.6 Crowing recognitionof the imporlanceof addressing consumptionhas also not yet been matchedby an understanding irsimplications.Someeconomists questioning are of traditionalconcepts economicgrowttrandunderliningthe of importance pursuing of economic objectives takeaccount that of the full valueof naturalresource capital.More needs be to known abouttherole of consumption relationto economic in growth and populationdynamics in order to formulate coherent intemational national policies. and OBJECTIVES 4.7 Action is neededto meet the followins broad objectives: (a) To promotepatterns consumption production of and that reduceenvironmental stress and will meetthe basic needsof humanity; (b) To develop a better understanding the role of of consumptionand how to bring about more sustainable pattems. consumption ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI.R ELATED ACTIVITIES > Adopt.ing international on approach to ochieving nobleconsumption susfoi pattern s 4.8 In principle, countries should be guided by the31following basic objectives in their efforts to address and consumption lifestylesin the contextof environment and development: (a) All countriesshouldstrive to promote sustainable patterns; consumption (b) Developed shouldtakethe leadin achievcountries ing sustainable consumptionpatterns; (c) Developingcountriesshould seekto achievesustainable consumption patterns in their development process, guaranteeing provisionof basicneeds the for the patterns, parpoor, while avoiding those unsustainable ly ticul arly i n industrializedcountries,general recognized as unduly hazardous the environment,inefficient and to processes. This requires wasteful,in their development from inenhancedtechnologicaland other assistance zed countries. dustriali of 4.9 In the follow-up of the implementation Agenda madein achievingsustainable 2I thereview of progress patterns shouldbe given high priority. consumptiondependenton the Earth's finite resourcesand more in harmonywith theEarth'scarryingcapacity. This shouldbe reflectedin the evolutionof new systems nationalacof countsand otherindicators sustainable of development.c/ /NTERNAT/ONAI COOqERATION AND COORD/NAI/ON 4.12 While international review processes exist for examining economic,development and demographic factors, more attentionneedsto be paid to issues relatedto consumptionand production patternsand sustainable lifestylesand environment. 4.13 In the follow-up of the inrplementation Agenda of 21, reviewing the role and impact of unsustainable productionand consumption patternsand lifestylesand theirrelationto sustainable shouldbe given development high priority. > Finoncing and costevaluotion 4.14 The Conference secretariat estimated has that implementation this programmeis not likely to require of significantnew financialresources.B) DATA AND 'NFORMAT/ON > lJndertokingreseorch consumption on 4.10 In order to support this broad strategy,Governments,and/orprivate research and policy institutes,with of regionaland international the assistance economicand should make a concerted environmental organizations, effort to: (a) Expand or promote databases production and on for consumptionand developmethodologies analysing them; (b) Assessthe relationshipbetween production and environment, technological adaptation and consumption, innovation, economic growth and development,and demographicfactors; (c) Examine the impact of ongoing changesin the structure of modern industrial economies away from material-intensive economic growth; (d) Consider how economiescan grow and prosper while reducing the use of energy and materialsand the production of harmful materials; ( e ) I d e n t i f y b a l a n c e dp a t t e r n so f c o n s u m p t i o n worldwide which the Earlhcan supportin the long term.B) DEVETOPTNG NATTONAT POUC|ES AND STRATEGIES ENCOURAGE TO CHANGESIN UNSUSTAINABTE CONSUMPTION PATTERNSFOR BASIS ACTION a.l5 Achieving the goals of environmental quality and sustainabledevelopment will require efficiency in production patterns order and changes consumption in in to emphasize optimization resource andminimizause of tion of waste. In many instances, this will require reorientation existingproductionand consumption patof ternsthat have developed industrialsocieties in and are in turn emulatedin much of the world. 4.16 Progresscan be made by strengthening positive trends and directions that are emerging, as part of a processaimed at achieving significantchangesin the consumpti onpatternsof i ndustri es,Gove r nm ent s, households individuals. and> Developing concepts sustoinoble new economic growth of ond prosperity 4.ll Consideration should also be given to the present of economic growth and the need for new concepts conceptsof wealth and prosperitywhich allow higher of lif-estyles areless standards living throughchanged andOBJECTIVES 4.11 ln the years ahead,Governments, working with32should strive to meet the folappropriateorganizations, lowing broadobjectives: and (a) To promoteefficiencyin productionprocesses of in reducewastefulconsumption the process economic needsof growth, taking into accountthe development developingcountries; (b) To developa domesticpolicy frameworkthat will patternsof produca encourage shift to more sustainable tion and consumption: sustainable (c) To reinforceboth valuesthat encourage production and consumption patternsand policies that encouragethe transfer of environmentally sound technologiesto developingcountries.AND HOUSEHOI.DS C/ A55/SI'NG/NDIYIDUALS ENY/RONMENTALLY SOUND TO MAKE PURCHASING DECISIONS in 4.20 The recentemergence many countriesof a more public, combined conscious consumer environmentally with increasedintereston the part of someindustriesin providing environmentallysoundconsumerproducts,is a significant development that should be encouraged. Governmentsand intemational organizations,together with the private sector, should develop criteria and imof for methodologies the assessment environmental throughoutthe full life pacts and resourcerequirements Results thoseassessof cycle of productsand processes. into clearindicatorsin order mentsshouldbe transformed and to inform consumers decisionmakers. 4.21 Governments,in cooperationwith industry and expansionof other relevantgroups, should encourage reenvironmentallabelling and other environmentally to designed assist lated productinformation prografitmes to consumers make informedchoices. of 4.72 T\ey should also encourage emergence an inthe formed consumer public and assist individuals and informedchoicesby: households makeenvironmentally to (U Providinginforrnation the consequences conof on sumption choices and behaviour so as to encourage soundproductsand use of demandfor environmentally products; (b) Making consumers awareof thehealthandenvironmentalimpact of products, throughsuchmeansas conlabelling; sumerlegislationand environmental pr (c) E ncouragi ngspeci fi c consumer-ori ented osystems. grammes, suchasrecyclingand deposiVrefundACTIVITIES EFFICIENCY GREATER A) ENCOURAG'NG AND RFSOURCES IN IHE USEOF ENERGY used 4.l8 Reducingthe amountof energyandmaterials production of goods and servicescan per unit in the stress both to the alleviationof environmental contribute greatereconomicand industrialproductivityand and to with inin Governments, cooperation competitiveness. intensify efforts to use energy dustry, should therefore in and resources an economicallyefficientand environmentally soundmannerby: (a) Encouraging dissemination existingenvironof the mentallysoundtechnologies; in (b) Promotingresearch and development environmentallysoundtechnologies; (c) Assistingdevelopingcountriesto use thesetechsuited nologiesefficiently and to developtechnologies particular circumstances. to their (d) Encouraging environmentally sounduseof new the of renewable sources energy, and (e) Encouragingthe environmentallysound and susnaturalresources. tainableuseof renewableTH D ) E X E R C /S /N G A D E R S H IPR OU GH LE PURCHASING GOVERNMENI themselves also play a role in con4.23 Governments wherethe public secparticularlyin countries sumption, plays a large role in the economy and can have a tor decisions and influenceon both corporate considerable public perceptions. They should thereforereview the purchasing policiesof their agencies departments and so may improve,wherepossible. environmental the that they content of governmentprocurementpolicies, without prejudice intemational tradeprinciples. toTHEGENERAT/ON WASTES OF B) M|N|MIZING effecto 4. 19 A t t he s ameti me , s o c i e tyn e e d s d e v e l o p tive ways of dealingwith the problenrof disposingof m ount ing lev e l s o f w a s te p ro d u c ts a n d m a teri al s. and w . to G ov er nm ent s , g e th e r i th i n d u s trv h o u s e h ol ds the public, should make a concertedeffort to reduce of the generation wastesand wasteproductsby: and (a) Encouraging recycling in industrialprocesses level; at the consumer (b) Reducingwastefulpackaging products, of (c) Encouraging introduction moreenvironmenof the tally soundproducts.TOWARDS ENy/RONMENTALI.y E) MOVTNG SOUNDPR/CING 4.24 Without the stimulusof pricesand market signals33that makeclear to producersand consumers environthe mentalcostsof the consumptionof energy,materialsand natural resourcesand the generationof wastes,significant changes consumptionand productionpatterns in seemunlikely to occur in the near future. 4.25 Someprogress begunin the useof appropriate has economicinstruments influenceconsumer to behaviour. These instrumentsinclude environmental chargesand taxes, deposit/refundsystems,etc. This processshould be encouraged the light of country-specific in conditions.ness programmesand other means, such as positive advertising products of and services that utilize environmentally sound technologies encourage or sustainable production and consumptionpatterns.In the review of the implementation Agenda21, an assessment the of o1' progress achieved developingthesenationalpolicies in and strategies shouldbe given due consideration.F) RETNFORC'NG VALUES THAT SUPPORT SUSIA'NA8 CONS MPTON [F I U 4.26 Governmentsand private-sectororganizations should promote more positive attitudestowards sustainableconsumption public awarethrougheducation,MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF 4.27 This programme is concerned primarily with changesin unsustainable patternsof consumptionand productionand valuesthat encourage sustainable consumptionpatternsand lifestyies.It requiresthe comb i n e d e f f o r t s o f G o v e r n m e n t s ,c o n s u m e r sa n d producers.Particular attention should be paid to the significant role played by women and householdsas consumers and the potentialimpactsof their combined purchasing power on the economy.34Demogrophic dynomics sustoinobility ond-5. This chapter 1 contains following prograrnme the areas: (a) Developing knowledge anddisseminating concerning thelinks between demographic trendsandfactorsand development; sustainable (b) Fornrulatingintegratednational policies for env ir onm ent and d e v e l o p me n t,ta k i n g i n to a ccount demographic trendsand factors; ( c ) I m p l e m e n t i n g i n t e g r a t e d ,e n v i r o n m e n t a n d prograrrunes the local level, taking into der.'eloprnent at accountdemographic trendsand factors.PROGRAMME EAS ARAND DtSSErYilNAIlNG Al DEVETOPTNG THETINKSBETWEEN KNOIA/IEDGE CONCERNING DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND FACTORS AND NABLE DEVETOPMENT SUSTAI[ion, and development. Populationpolicy should also recognizethe role played by human beings in environmental and developmentconcerns.There is a need to increaseawareness this issueamongdecisionmakers of at all levels and to provide both better information on which to base national and internationalpolicies and a tramework againstwhich to interpretthis information. 'Ihere is a needto developstrategies mitigateboth 5.4 to the adverseimpact on the environmentof human activities and the adverse impactof environmental changeon human populations. The world's populationis expected to exceed8 billion by the year 2020. Sixty per cent of the world'spopulation while alreadylive in coastal areas, 65 per cent of cities with populations above2.5 million are located along the world coasts;severalof thern are alreadyat or below the presentsealevel.OBJECTIVES 5.5 The following objectives should be achievedas soonas practicable: (a) To incorporate demographic trendsand factorsin the global analysis environment development of issues; and (b) To developa betterunderstanding the relationships of among demographicdynamics,technology,cultural behaviour,naturalresources life supportsystems; and (c) To assess humanvulnerabilityin ecologicallysensitive areasand centresof populationto determinethe priorities for action at all levels,taking full accountof community-defined needs.FOR BASIS ACTION -5.1 Demographictrends and factors and sustainable have a synergistic der,'elopment relationship. .s.3 The growthof world population production and complacesinpatterns bined with unsustainable consumption creasingly severe stress thelife-supporting on capacities of processes our planet. These interactive affecttheuseof land, \\'ater.air, energyand other resources.Rapidly growing crties. unless well-managed,face major environmental prohlems. The increase boththe numberandsizeof cities in calis fbr greater attention issues local govemment to of and mr"rnicipal management.The human dimensions key are element-s consider thisintricatesetof relationships to in and ther shouldbe adequately takeninto consideration comin policiesfor sustainable prehensive development. Such policics shor"rld address linkages demographic ttre clf trends andfactors.resource appropriate use, technology dissemina-ACTIVITIES > Reseorch the inferoctionbefween demogrophictrends on ond foctorsond sustoinoble development 5.6 Relevant international, regional and national in-35stitutionsshould considerundertakingthe following activities: (a) Identifying the interactionsbetweendemographic natural resourcesand life support systems, processes, bearing in mind regional and subregionalvariations deriving from, inter alia,different I eveIs of deveIopment; into the trendsand t-actors (b) Integratingdemographic usingthe experchange, ongoingstudyof environmental tise of international,regional and national researchnetfirst,to studythehuman worksandof localcommunities, dimensionsof environmentalchange and, second,to identify vulnerableareas ; for (c) Identifying priority areas action and developing impact to andprogrammes mitigatetheadverse strategies and on change humanpopulations' vice of environmental versa.AND /NFORMATION c) DEVELOP'NG AWARFNESS PUBLIC i 5 . 1 0S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i cn f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d b e with physiformatfor interfacing in developed a suitable spaCompatible data. cal,biologicalandsocio-economic and and scales cross-country time-series tial andternporal infbrmation, as well as global behaviouralindicators, learningfrom local communities' shouidbe developed, and perceptions attitudes. at be should increased all ievelsconcern5.11 Awareness use ing the needto optimizethe sustainable of resources taking into acthrough efficient resourcemanagement, count the development needs of the populations of countries. developing of shouldbe increased the fundamental 5.t2 Awareness linkagesbetweenimproving the statusof women and demographicdynamics,particularly through women's healthcare primary andreproductive to access education, and s, programme economicindependence their effective, in participation all levelsof decision-making. equitable 5.13 Results of researchconcernedwith sustainable throughtechissuesshouldbe disseminated development nical reports, scientificjoumals, the media, workshops, forums or other meansso that the information can be used awareness. atall levelstoincreasepublic makers by decisionOF MEANS IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F'NANC'NG 5.7 The Conference secretariathas estirnatedthe of total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing average to programme be about$10 million the activitiesof this from the internationalcomrnunityon grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Actualcostsandfinancialterms,includGovernments. will ing any that are non-concessional, dependupon, strategiesand programmes inter alia, the specific decideupon for implementation. GovernmentsAND/ORENHANCING D) DEVELOPING AND COLLABORAI'ON ,NSI/IUIIONAICAPAC'IY of and exchange informationshould 5.14 Collaboration be increasedbetweenresearchinstitutions and internaand agencies all othersectors tional,regionalandnational (including the private sector,local communities,nonand scientific institutions) governmentalorganizations as countries, and from both the industrialized developing appropriate. 5.15 Efforts should be intensified to enhancethe t capaci ti esof nati onal and l ocal governm ent s, he in organizations private sectorand non-governmental developingcountriesto meet the growing needsfor of improvedmanagement rapidly growingurbanareas.PROGRAMMES RESEARCH B/ SIRENGIHEN'NG ENYIRONMENI LAT'ON, POPU INTEGRAIE THAT AND DEVELOPMENT analysisinto a demographic 5.8 In order to integrate and on perspective environment broadersocialscience shouldbe inresearch interdisciplinary development, creased. Internationalinstitutionsand networks of their scientiflccapacity,taking expertsshouldenhance and of full account communityexperience knowledge, gainedin multithe and shoulddisseminate experience and approaches in linking theoryto action. disciplinar,v shouldbe developed, 5.9 Bettermodellingcapabilities identifying the range of possibleoutcomesof current human activities,especiallythe interrelatedimpact of use trendsand factors,per capitaresource demographic and wealth distribution,as well as the major migration flows that may be expectedwith increasingclimatic that may change eventsandcumulativeenvironmental destroypeople'slocal livelihoods.NATIONAL INTEGRATED B) FORfrTULATING AND DEVETOPMENT' FOR ENVIRONMENT POTICIES TR,ENDS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DEMOGRAPHIC AND FACTORSBASIS ACTION FOR developmenthave 5.16 Existing plans for sustainable generallyrecognizeddemographictrendsand factors as36elementsthat have a critical influenceon consumption production,lifestylesand long-term sustainapatterns, will haveto be given bility. But in future,rrore attention to these issuesin generalpolicy formulation and the plans. do this"all countries will To designof development to the have to improve their own capacities assess environment and developmentimplicationsof their demographictrendsand f-actors. They will alsoneedto formulate and implement policies and action prograrnmes Policies to whereappropriate. shouldbedesigned address the consequences populationgrowth built into popuof lation momentum,while at the sametime incorporating transition. They measures bring about demographic to concerns and population shouldcombineenvironmental issueswithin a holistic view of developmentwhose primary goalsinclude the alleviationof povertli secure livelihoods;goodhealth;quality of life; improvement of the status and income of women and their accessto schooling andprofessional training.aswell asfulfilment and of of their personal aspirations; empowerment individuals and communities. Recognizingthat large increases the size and number of cities will occur in in underany likely populationscenadeveloping countries rio, greater attention shouldbe givento preparing the for of needs, particular womenandchildren,for improved in municipalmanagement local govenrment. andtal factorsinteractwith socio-economic factorsasa cause of migration. 5.21 Vulnerablepopulationgroups(such as rural landless workers, ethnic minorities, refugees,migrants,displaced people, women heads of household) whose changes in demographic structure may have specific impacts sustainable on development shouldbe identified. 5.22 An assessment shouldbe madeof the implications of the agestructure the populationon resource of demand and dependency burdens,ranging from educationalexpensesfor the young to health care and supportfor the elderly, and on householdincome generation. 5.23 An assessment should also be made of national populationcarryingcapacityin thecontextof satisfaction of humanneeds andsustainable development, special and attentionshouldbe given to critical resources, such as water and land, and environmentalfactors such as ecosystemhealthand biodiversity. 5.24 The impact of national demographictrends and factors on the traditional livelihoods of indigenous groups and local communities,including changesin traditional land usebecause internal populationpresof sures, shouldbe studied.B) BUILDING AND SIRENGIHENING A NAI/ONAT/NFORMATION SASE 5.25 Nationaldatabases demographic on trendsand factors andenvironmentshouldbe built and/orstrengthened, disaggregating databy ecological region(ecosystem approach),and population/environment profilesshouldbe established region. by 5.26Methodologies and instruments should be developedto identify areaswhere sustainability or is, may be,threatened the environmental by effectsof demographictrendsandfactors,incorporatingboth currentand projected demographicdata linked to natural environmentalprocesses. 5.27 Case-studies local level responses different of by groupsto demographic dynamicsshouldbe developed, particularlyin areassubjectto environmental stress and in deteriorating urbancentres. 5.2t1 Population data shouldbe disaggregated inter by, alia, sexand agein order to takeinto accountthe implicationsof the genderdivision of labour for the useand management naturalresources. ofOBJECTIVE of 5.17 Full integration populationconcemsinto national planning,policy and decision-making processes should policiesand programmes shouldbe continue. Population with full recognition women'srights. considered, ofACTIVITIES and 5.I 8 Governments otherrelevantactorscould,inter alia. undertake following activities,with appropriate the assistance from aid agencies, and report on their status of implementation to the International Conference on Populationand Developmentto be held in 1994,esF,ecially to its committeeon populationand environment.A/ ASSESS/NG tMPt-tCArlONS NAI/ONAI. THE OF IRENDS AND FACIORS DEMOGRAPH'C 5.19 The relationships between demographic trendsand factorsand environmental changeand between environmentaldegradation the components demographic and of changeshouldbe analysed. shouldbe conducted how environmen5.20 Research onCJ /NCORPORAI/NG DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES ,NIO POLICIES AND PIANS policies,account 5.29 In formulatinghumansettlements37wasteproduction and needs, shouldbe takenof resource h ec os y s t e me a l th . 5.30 The direct and induced effects of demographic programmes changes environmentand development on be and should,whereappropriate, integrated, the impact features assessed. on demographic 5 . 3 1N a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n p o l i c y g o a l s a n d p r o with nationalenvironment grammes that areconsistent plansfor sustainability and in keepand development ing with the freedom, dignity and personally held and imvalues of individuals should be established plemented. policiesfor the young 5.32 Appropriatesocio-economic and the elderly, in termsof both family and statesupport systems, shouldbe developed. for shouldbe developed 5.33 Policiesand programmes that resultfrom handlingthe varioustypesof migrations with specialattendisruptions, or induceenvironmental groups. tion to women and vulnerable for includingconcerns enconcerns, 5.34 Demographic vironmentalmigrants and displacedpeople,should be in for developincorporated the programmes sustainable and regionalinstitutions. ment o1' relevantinternational and the inte5.-15National reviews shouldbe conducted policiesin nationaldevelopment and grationof population strategies shouldbe monitorednationally. environmentParticular shouldbe given to education sectors. attention population literacy programmes, notably for women. Specialemphasisshould be placed on the linkage between these programmes,primary environmental care and the provision of primary health care and services.INSI'IUI/ONS C/ SIRENGIHEN'NG 5.38 The capacityof national,regionaland local structrends turesto deal with issuesrelatingto demographic and factorsand sustainable development shouldbe enhanced.This would involve strengthening relevant the bodiesresponsible populationissuesto enablethem for to el aboratepol i ci es consi stentw i th th e nat ional prospects for sustainabledevelopment. Cooperation noninstitutions, amongGovemments, nationalresearch governmentalorganizations and local communitiesin problemsand evaluatingpoliciesshould also assessing be enhanced. 5.39 The capacityof therelevantUnited Nationsorans, and regionalinterorganizations bodies,international and govemmental non-governmental organizations and bodies, local communities should, as appropriate,be enhancedto policieson helpcountries developsustainable development provideassistance environrequestand, as appropriate, to people. mentalmigrantsanddisplaced 5.40 Inter-agencysupport for nati onal sust ainable developmentpolicies and programmesshould be improved through better coordination of population and environment activities.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON Ai F/NANC/NG h 5. 36 T he C o n fe re n c es e c re ta ri a t a s e sti matedthe cost(1993-2000) implementing ol average total annual of to the activities thisprogramme be about$90 million from the international community on grant or concessionalterms.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, inwill depend cluding any that are non-concessional. upon, int e r a l i a . th e s p e c i fi c s tra te gi esand programmesGovernments decide upon for implementat ion.D) PROMOI'NG HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 5.41 The international regionalscientificinstitutions and should assist Governments,upon request,to include concerns regarding population/environment interacthe tions at the global, ecosystem and micro-levelsin the training of demographers and populationand environment specialists. Training should include researchon linkagesand ways to designintegrated strategies.B/ RA/S/NG AWARENESS DEMOGRAPHTC OF A ND S USIA /N A 8 T FE VE L O P M EN IIE RA C I/ON S D /N betweendemo5.37 Understanding the interactions of graphictrendsand factorsand sustainable development shouldbe increased all sectors society.Stress in of should tln be placed local andnationalaction. Demographic and sustainable developmenteducation should be coordinatedand integrated both the formal and non-formal incl rrvlPtEMENTtNG TNTEGRATED ENVIRONTVIENT AND DEVETOPMENT PROGRAM'VIES THE LOCAT AT LEVEL, TAKING INTO ACCOUNTDEMOGRAPHIC TRENDSAND FACTORSBASIS FORACTION 5.42 Population programmes are more effective when38implemented together with appropriate cross-sectoral at policies.To attainsustainability the iocal level, a new demographictrends framework is neededthat integrates health, techand factors with suchfactors as ecosystem and nology andhumansettlements, with socio-economic structures and access to resources.Population proand with socio-economic grammesshouldbe consistent developsustainable planning.Integrated environmental ment programmes should closely correlate action on demographictrends and factors with resourcemanagement activities and developmentgoals that meet the needsof the peopleconcemed.OBJECTIVE 5.43 Population programmesshould be implemented along with natural resourcemanagementand development programmes at the local level that will ensure improvethe quality use sustainable of naturalresources, of life of the people and enhanceenvironmentalquality.ACTIVITIES 5.44 Governmentsand local communities, including and national women's organizations community-based non-governmentalorganizations,consistentwith naand priorities,could, strategies tional plans,objectives, the inter alia, undertake activitiessetout below with the assistanceand cooperation of international otganizations, as appropriate.Governments could share their of in experience the implementation Agenda 2l at the International Conference on Population and Development, to be held in 1994,especiallyits committeeon populationand environment.potential suringtheinvolvementof groupswith a special development. for to act asagents changeand sustainable shouldbe placedon thoseprogrammes Specialemphasis g e encouragin sustainabl multipleobjectives, thatachieve mitigating adverseimpactsof economicdevelopment, and avoiding long-term demographictrendsand f'actors to Food security,access secure damage. environmental educainfrastructure, and essential tenure,basicshelter. health,famtion, family welfare,women'sreproductive primary programmes, reforestation ily credit schemes, should, as careandwomen'semployment environmental be appropriate, includedamongotherfactors. 5.41 An analyticalframework should be developedto develof elements sustainable identify complementary to opment policiesas well as the nationalmechanisms monitor and evaluatetheir etfbcts on population dynamics. 5.48 Specialattentionshouldbe givento the criticalrole and programmes of women in population/environment should development.Projects in achievingsustainable to of takeadvantage opportunities link social,economic gains for women and their families. and environmental Empowermentof women is essentialand should be trainingandpoliciesto accord througheducation, assured human to and improvewomen'sright and access assets, job oppormeasures, and civil rights, labour-saving Populatunities and participationin decision-rnaking. programmesmust enable women to tion/environment to mobilize themselves alleviatetheir burden and improve their capacityto participatein and benefit from should Specificmeasures development. socio-economic and male female to be undertaken closethe gapbetween illiteracyrates.FOR A A] DEVELOP'NG FRAMEWORK ACIION process shouldbe estab5.45 An effectiveconsultative groupsof society with concerned implemented lishedand of wherethe formulationand decision-making all comprogrammes basedon a nationwide are ponentsof the processdrawing on community meetings, consultative as workshopsand nationalseminars. appropriregional that viewsof womenand process shouldensure ate. This are perspectives constraints equally and men on needs, and that well reflectedin the design of programmes, The rootedin specificexperience. poor and are solutions shouldbe priority groupsin this process. underprivileged and policies for integrated Nationally determined 5.46 programmes,with special attentionto multifaceted and women,to the poorestpeopleliving in critical areas envulnerablegroupsshouldbe implemented, to otherTHAT PROGRAMMES PROMOTE B) SUPPORIING AND IRENDS CHANGES DEMOGRAPHIC IN SUS TOWARDS IAINABILITY FACIORS 5.49 Reproductivehealth programmesand services to be should, as appropriate, developedand enhanced and reducematernal and infant mortalityfrom all causes aspirations womenandmento fulfil theirpersonal enable with theirfreedomand in termsof family size,in keeping held values. dignity and personally to shouldtakeactivesteps implement, Governments 5.-50 with country-spein as a matterof urgency, accordance to measures ensure cific conditionsand legal systems, that women and rnenhave the sameright to decidefreely and responsiblyon the number and spacing of their education to childrenandto haveaccess the information, this themto exercise to as andmeans, appropriate. enable right in keepingwith their freedom,dignity and person-39ally held values,taking into accountethicaland cultural considerations. 5.51 Governments should take active stepsto implement programmesto establishand strengthen preventive and curative health facilities that include womencentred.women-managed, safe and effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessibleservices,as appropriate,for the responsible planning of family size, in keeping with freedom,dignity and personallyheld valuesand taking into accountethicaland culturalconsiderations.Programmesshould focus on providing comprehensive health care, including pre-natalcare, education and information on health and responsible parenthood, and shouldprovide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at leastduring the first four monthspost-partum. Programmes shouldfully support women'sproductiveand reproductive roles and wellbeing,with specialattentionto the needfor providing equaland improvedhealthcarefor all childrenandthe needto reducethe risk of maternaland child mortalitv and sickness. 5.52 Consistent with nationalpriorities,culturallybased information and education programmes that transmit reproductivehealthmessages men and women that are to easilyunderstood shouldbe developed.5.56 Proposalsshould be developedfor local, national and international population/environment programmes in line with specific needsfor achieving sr"rstainability. Where appropriate,institutional changesmust be implemented so that old-age security does not entirely dependon input from family members.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ FTNANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 5.57 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe averhas age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe of activitiesof this prograrnme be about $7 billion, into cluding about $3.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments.Actual costsand financial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will dependupon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmesGo'rernments decideupon for implementation.8/ RESEARCH 5.58 Research shouldbe undenaken with a view to developingspecificactionprograrnmes; itwill benecessary to establish prioritiesbetween proposed areas research. of 5.59 Socio-demographic research should be conducted on how populations respond a changingenvironment. to 5.60 Understanding socioculturaland political factors of that can positively influence acceptance appropriate of populationpolicy instruments shouldbe improved. 5.61 Surveys changes needs appropriate of in for services relatingto responsible planningof family size,reflecting variations among different socio-economicgroups and variations in diff-erentgeographicalregions, should be undertaken.C) CREATING ROPRIATE'NSI/IUI'ONAI. APPcoND/r,oNs5.53 Constituencies institutional and conditions facilito tatetheimplementation demographic of activities should, as appropriate,be fostered. This requires support and commitment from political, indigenous,religious and traditional authorities,the private sectorand the national scientific community. In developing theseappropriate institutional conditions, countries shouldcloselyinvolve established nationalmachineryfor women. 5.54 Populationassistance should be coordinated with bilateralandmultilateraldonorsto ensure that population needsand requirementsof all developing countriesare addressed,fully respecting the overall coordinating responsibility and the choice and strategiesof the recipientcountries. 5.55 Coordination shouldbe improvedat local andinternationallevels. Working practicesshouldbe enhanced in order to make optimum use of resources,draw on collectiveexperience improvethe irnplementation and of programmes. UNFPAandotherrelevant agencies should strengthen coordinationof internationalcooperation the activitieswith recipientand donor countriesin order to ensurethat adequatefunding is available to respondto growing needs.C ) H U MA N E S OU R C E V E LOP ME N T R DE AND CAPACITY-BUILDING 5.62 The areas humanresource of development and capacity-building, with particular attention theeducation to and training of women, are areasof critical importance and are a very high priority in the implementation of populationprogrammes. 5.63 Workshops to help programme and project managersto link populationprogrammes other developto ment and environmental goalsshouldbe conducted. 5.64 Educational materials, includingguides/workbooks for planners and decision makers and other actors of40programmes, population/environment/development should be developed. 5.65 Cooperationshould be developedbetweenGovernments, scientific institutions and non-govemmentalorganizationswithin the region, and similar institutions outside the region. Cooperationwith local or:ganizations engageln should be fosteredin order to raise awareness, demonstration projects and report on the experience gained. 5.66 The recofiImendationscontained in this chapter at should in no way prejudicediscussions the Interna-tional Conferenceon Population and Development in 1994, which will be the appropriateforum for dealing with population and development issues, taking into of accountthe recommendations the InternationalConand held in Mexico City in 1984,r ference Population, on for the Forward-looking Strategies the Advancementof Women,2adoptedby the World Conferenceto Review and Appraise the Achievementsof the United Nations Decadefor Women: Equality, Developmentand Peace, held in Nairobi in 1985.on of the lnternationol Conference Populotion,Mexico SolesNo. City,6-14 August 1984 lUnitedNotionspublicotion, c, E . 8 4 . X l l l . 8 lh o p .l . 2 of to Report the World Conference Reviewond Approise the Achievements the United Nofions Decode for Women: of Equolity,Developmentond Peoce, Noirobi, l5-26 July 1985 ( U n i t e d o t i o n sp u b l i c o t i o n , o l e sN o . E . 8 4 . | V . 1 0 ) ,h o p . l , N S c sect.A.'Report4lheolth humon ond Protecting promotingINTRODUCTIONP R O G R A M MA R E A S Eare 6.1 Health and development intimatelyinterconleadingto povnected.Both insufficientdevelopment resultingin overcondevelopment erty andinappropriate world population, coupledwith an expanding sumption, health problemsin can result in severeenvironmental both developingand developednations. Action items the underAgenda2l must address primary healthneeds of the world's population,sincethey are integralto the and development of achievement thegoaisof sustainable care. The linkageof health,enprimary environmental requires improvements vironmental and socio-economic efforts. Suchefforts,involving education, intersectoral public works andcommunitygroups,including housing, and religious,civic schoolsand universities businesses, are and cultural c>rganizations, aimed at enablingpeople sustainable development. to in their communities ensure Particularlyrelevantis the inclusionof preventionproand grarrrmes ratherthan relying solely on remediation ought to developplansfor priority treatment.Countries in areas this chapteq actions, drawingon the programme planningby the various which are basedon cooperative organizations non-governmental levels of government, and local communities. An appropriateintemational organization,such as WHO, should coordinatethese activities. 6.2 The fbllowing programme areasare contained in this chapter: particularlyin (a) Meeting primary healthcare needs, rural areas: (b) Control of communicable diseases; (c) Protecting groups; vulnerable (d) Meetingthe urbanhealthchallenge; pollution (e) Reducing healthrisksfrom environmental and hazards.PRITVIARY HEALTHCARENEEDS, A! 'YTEEnNG IN PARNCUTARIY RURATAREASFOR BASIS ACTION on 6.3 Healthultimatelydepends the ability to manage betweenthe physical.spirisuccessfully interaction the envir onm ent . tual , bi ol ogi cal and economi ci soci al Sound developmentis not possiblewithout a healthy activitiesaffect the population;yet most developmental environmentto some degree,which in tum causesor it Conversely, is the many healthproblems. exacerbates affects health the adversely very lack of developmentthat conditionof many people,which can be alleviatedonly The health sector cannot meet through development. on on basicneedsandobjectives its own; it is dependent while directdevelopment, economic andspiritual social, It ly contributingto suchdevelopment. is alsodependent on a healthyenvironment,including the provisionof a safewater supply and sanitationand the promotion of a attention safefood supplyandpropernutrition.Particular should be directed towards food safety, with priority complacedon the eliminationof food contamination; prehensive sustainable waterpoliciesto ensuresafe and to drinking water and sanitation precludeboth microbial and chemical contamination;and promotion of heal th educati on, i mmuni zati on and pro vision of reservices essential drugs.Educationand appropriate planningof family size,with respect gardingresponsible in for cultural,religiousand socialaspects, keepingwith freedom,dignity and personallyheld valuesand taking also into account ethical and cultural considerations, activities. contributeto theseintersectoral42OBJECTIVES 6.4 Within the overall strategyto achievehealth for all by the year 2000, the objectivesare to meet the basic healthneedsof rural, peri-urban and urbanpopulations; to provide the necessaryspecialized environmental health services;and to coordinatethe involvementof citizens,the healthsector, health-related the sectors and (business, relevant non-health sectors social,educational in andreligiousinstitutions) solutions healthproblems. to coverage shouldbe As a matterof priority,healthservice need,particuachieved populationgroupsin greatest for larly thoseliving in rural areas.(xi) Promote and strengthencommunity-based rehabilitation activities for the rural handicapped.B) SUPPORT RESEARCH MFIHODOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT (i) Establish mechanisms sustained for communityinvolvementin environmental healthactivities,including optimization of the appropriate of community finanuse cial and humanresources; (ii) Conductenvironmental healthresearch, including behaviour researchand researchon ways to increase coverage and ensure greater utilization of servicesby peripheral, underserved and vulnerablepopulations, as appropriateto good preventionservicesand healthcare; (iii) Conduct researchinto traditional knowledge of preventiveand curativehealthpractices.ACTIVITIES 6.5 National Governments and local authorities, with the supportof relevantnon-governmental organizations and international in organizations, the light of countries' specific conditionsand needs,should strengthen their healthsectorprogramrnes, with specialattention rural to needs, to:MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ FTNANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 6.6 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe averhas age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activities of this programmeto be about $40 billion, including about $5 billion fiom the international community on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. Actual costsandfinancial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategies proand grammes Governments decideuponfbr implementation.A) BU|LD MONTTORTNG BASTC HEALTH TNFRASTRUCTURES, AND PLANNING SYSTEMS: (i) Developandstrengthen primaryhealthcaresystems thatarepractical, community-based, scientifi y sound, call sociall-v" acceptableand appropriateto their needs and that meet basic health needsfor clean water. safe food and sanitation; (ii) Supportthe useand strengthening mechanisms of that irnprove coordinationbetweenhealth and related sectorsat all appropriate levels of government, and in communities and relevantorganizations; (iii) Developand implementrationaland affordable approaches theestablishment maintenance health to and of fac ilit ies : (iv) Ensureand, where appropnate, provision increase of socialservices suppon; (v) Develop strategies, including reliablehealth indicators. monitortheprogress evaluate effectiveto and the nessof healthprogrammes; (vit Explorewaysto financethe healthsystem based on the assessment the resources of neededand identify the variouslinancingalternatives; (vii) Promotehealtheducationin schools,information exchange, technicalsupportand training; (viii; Supportinitiativesfor self-management servof groups; icesby vulnerable (ix) Integrate traditional knowledge and experience into nationalhealthsystems, appropriate; as (x) Promotethe provisionsfor necessary logisticsfor outreach activities,particularlyin rural areas;B/ sC/ENTIFIC AND TECHNOLAGICAL MEANS 6.7 New approaches planningand managinghealth to caresystems facilitiesshouldbe tested. and and research on ways of integratingappropriatetechnologiesinto health infrastructures supported. The developmentof scientificallysound health technologyshould enhance adaptabilityto local needsand maintainabilityby community resources, includingthe maintenance repair and of equipment usedin healthcare.Programmes facilito tate the transferand sharingof infonnation and expertise shouldbe developed, includingcommunication methods and educational materials.C ) H U MA N E S OU R C E V E LOP MFN I R DE 6.8 Intersectoralapproachesto the reform of health personnel development shouldbe strengthened ensure to its relevance the "Health for All" stratesies. to Effortsto43skills at the distnct level shouldbe managerial enhance develthe with the aim of ensuring systematic supported, opmentandefficient operationof the basichealthsystem' with emshort,practicaltrainingprograrnmes Intensive, community phasison skills in effectivecommunication, changeshould and organization facilitationof behaviour be developedin order to preparethe local personnelof for all sectorsinvolved in social development carrying with the eduroles. In cooperation out their respective cation sector, special health education progratrunes should be developedfbcusingon the role of women in system. the health-caredwarfed by the indirect costsof the pandemic- mainly with the loss of income and decreased costsassociated productivity of the worktorce.The pandemicwill inhibit growth of the service and industrial sectorsand signifiand the cantlyincrease costsof humancapacity-building sector is particularly afretraining. The agricultural fectedwhere productionis labour-intensive.OBJECTIVES 6.12 A numberof goalshavebeenformulatedthrough forums in extensiveconsultations variousinternational relevantUnited virtually all Governments, attendedby N ati ons organi zati ons(i ncl udi ng W H O , UNI CEF UNFPA, UNESCO, UNDP and the World Bank) and a Goals (innumber of non-governmentalorganizations. limited to thoselistedbelow) are recomcluding but not mendedfor implementationby all countrieswhere they to adaptation the specific with appropriate areapplicable, countryin termsof phasing,standards, situationof each with respectfor priorities and availability of resources, in religious and social aspects, keeping with cultural, freedom,dignity and personallyheld valuesand taking Additionalgoalsthat ethicalconsiderations. into account particularlyrelevantto a country'sspecificsituation are shouldbe addedin the country'snationalplan of action the (Planof Action for Implementing World Declaration of and Protection Development Children on the Survival, actionplansshould national-level Such in the 1990s).t be coordinated and monitored from within the public Somemajor goalsare: healthsector. (a) By the year2000,to eliminateguineaworm disease (dracunculiasis); polio; (b) By the year 2000,to eradicate control onchocer(c) By the year 2000, to eff-ectively (river blindness) and leprosy; ciasis deathsby 95 per cent (d) By 1995,to redttcemeasles with by 90 per cent compared cases and reducemeasles level : s pre-immunization (e) By continued effbrts,to providehealthandhygiene to educationand to ensureuniversalaccess safedrinkingof measures excreta to sanitary access wateranduniversal waterborne diseases markedlyreducing thereby disposal, and reducing: suchas choleraand schistosomiasis from child(i) By the year2000,the numberof deaths countriesby 50 to 70 per in hood diarrhoea developing cent: of (ii; By the year 2000,the incidence childhooddiarby countries at least25 to 50 percent; rhoeain developing pro(f) By the year 2000, to initiate comprehensive mortality from acute respiratoryingrammesto reduce fectionsin childrenunderfive yearsby at leastonethird, particularlyin countrieswith high infant mortality;D) CA P AC IT Y-B U IL D IN G 6.g Govetnmentsshould consider adopting enabling of to and facilitatingstrategies promotethe participation in meetingtheir own needs,in additionto cclmmunities providing direct supportto the provisionof health-care services. A major focus should be the preparationof workers to health and health-related community-based role in communityhealtheducation' an assume active on with emphasis teamwork, socialmobilizationandthe support of other developmentworkers. National proin grammesshouldcover district health systems urban, areas,the delivery of health properi-urbanand rural and grammesat the district level, and the development services. supportclf referralDISEASES OF B) CONTROT CO,\IIVIUNICABLEFOR BASIS ACTION and of in 6.10 Advances the development vaccines chehavebroughtmanycommunicable agents motherapeutic under control. However, there remain many diseases for which environimportant communicablediseases in especially are measures indispensable. mentalcontrol water supply and sanitation. Such diseases the field of maleishmaniasis. diseases, includecholera,diarrhoeal the In all suchinstances, envilaria and schistosomiasis. eitheras an integralpart of primary measures, ronmental form outsidethe healthsector, healthcareor undertaken control componentof overall disease an indispensable togetherwith health and hygieneeducation, strategies, are and. in somecases, the only component. to to HIV infectionlevelsestimated increase 6.11 With by the year 2000, the socio-economic 30-40 million for to is impactof the pandemic expected be devastating for increasingly women and children. and all countries, they will be substantial, will be costs While directhealth(g) By the year 2000, to provide 95 per cent of the care to world's child populationwith access appropriate infectionswithin the communityand for acuterespiratory at first referral level; (h) By the year 2000, to institute anti-malaria prowheremalariapresents signia grammes all countries in ficant healthproblem andmaintainthe transmission-free statusof areasfreed from endemicmalaria; (i) By theyear 2000,to implementcontrol programmes in countrieswhere major human parasiticinfections are endemic and achieve an overall reduction in the and of other trematode prevalenceof schistosomiasis infectionsby 40 per cent and25 per cent,respectively, from a 1984baseline,as well as a markedreductionin incidence,prevalenceand intensity of filarial infections; 0) To mobilize and unify national and international efforts againstAIDS to prevent infection and to reduce and socialimpact of HIV infection; the personal with (k) To contain the resurgence tuberculosis, of particular emphasison multiple antibiotic resistant forms; (l) To accelerateresearchon improved vaccines and implementto the fullest extentpossiblethe use of vacof cinesin the prevention disease.NATION : AN C@PE C) INTERSECTORAL RATION DCOORDI (i) Secondexperienced to health professionals relevant sectors, suchasplanning,housingand agriculture; (ii) Developguidelines in foreffectivecoordination the of training, assessment risks and areasof professional development control technology; ofTHE INFLUENCE FACTORSTHAT ENVTRONMENTAL D) CONTROLOF ICABLE OF SPREAD COM/\AUN DISEASES: Apply methodsfor the preventionand control of commuincluding water supply and sanitation nicable diseases, control,waterpollution control,food quality control,integratedvectorcontrol,garbage collectionand disposaland soundirrigationpractices; environmentallyE) PRIMARY HEALTH SYSTEM: CARE (i) Strengthen programmes, with particular prevention nutrition; on and emphasis adequate balanced (ii) Strengthenearly diagnosticprogrammesand imaction; prove capacities early preventive/treatment for (iii) Reduce vulnerability HIV infectionof women the to and their offspring;FOR AND DEVELOPMENT F) SUPPORT RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (i) Intensifyand expandmultidisciplinary research, including focusedefforts on the mitigation and environmentalcontrol of tropicaldiseases; (ii) Carry out interventionstudiesto provide a solid for andto evaluate epidemiological basis controlpolicies the efficiencyof alternative approaches: (iii) Undertakestuclies the populationand among in health r,l'orkers determinethe influence of cultural. to behavioural socialfactors controlpolicies; and onACTIVITIES with 6.13 Each national Government,in accordance nationalplansfor public health,prioritiesandobjectives, a developing nationalhealthactionplan shouldconsider and support, with appropriateinternationalassistance including,at a minimum, the following components:HEALTH SYSTEMS: PUBLIC A) NATIONAL (i) Programmesto identify environmentalhazardsin diseases; of the causation communicable (ii) Monitoring systems epidemiological data to enof forecastingof the introduction, spreador sure adequate diseases; aggravation communicable of (iii) Interventionprogrammes, including measures conwith the principlesof the globalAIDS strategy; sistent (iv) Vaccines the preventionof communicable disforCASCS:AND OFTECHNOLOGY G} DEVELOPMENT DISSEMINATION (a) Developnew technologies the effectivecontrol for diseases; of communicable (iit Promote studiesto determinehow optimally to resultsfrom research: disseminate (iii) Ensuretechnical includingthe sharing assistance, of knowledge andknow-how.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF EDUCATION: TNFORMATIONHEALTH AND B) PUBLTC information on the Provide educationand disseminate and build risks of endemic communicablediseases methods forcontrol of comawareness environmental on to to municablediseases enablecommunities play a role diseases: in the control of communicable A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION has the 6.14 The Conference secretariat estimated average total annualcost ( 1993-2W0)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $4 billion, including about $900 million from the international45cofilmunity on grant or concessionalterms. These are only andhave estimates indicativeandorder-of-magnin"rde Actual costsand finot beenreviewedby Governments. will nancialterms,includinganythatarenon-concessional, and prothe specific strategies depend upon, inter alia, decideuponfor implementation. gmmmesGovemmentsME B / 5C/ F N IF tCA N D T EC H N O I.OG\C ALA N S should in6.15 Efforts to preventand control diseases social and of clude investigations the epidemiological, economic basesfor the developmentof more effective for national strategies the integratedcontrol of commuof methods environmenCost-effective nicablediseases. tal control should be adaptedto local developmental conditions.D EV R C) HUM AN E SOU R C E EL OP M EN T should 6.16 Nationaland regionaltraininginstitutions intersectoral approachesto prevention Dromote broad includingtraining diseases, andcontrolof communicable prevention andcontrol, andcommunity in epidemiology biology and the applicationof immunology,molecular new vaccines. Health educationmaterialsshould be developedfor use by community workers and for the of and treatment for of education mothers the prevention diseases the home. in diarrhoealD) CA PAC T T Y-B U IL D IN G dataon 6.17 The healthsectorshoulddevelopadequate as diseases, well asthe the distributionof communicable institutionalcapacity to respondand collaboratewith of mitigationandcorrection for othersectors prevention, hazardsthrough environmental communicabledisease protection. The advocacyat policy- and decision-makand societal ing levels should be gained,professional supportmobilized, and communitiesorganizedin developingself-reliance.be paid to the health needsof the elderly and disabled population. Approximatelyone third of AND 6.19 INFANTS CHIIDREN the world's populationare childrenunder 15 yearsold. At least l5 million of thesechildren die annuallyfrom such preventablecausesas birth trauma, birth asphyxia, acute respiratory infections, malnutrition, colnmunicable and diarrhoea.The health of children is affected diseases more severely thanotherpopulationgoups by malnutrition and adverseenvironmentalfactors,and many children risk exploitationascheaplabouror in prostitution. of As 6.20 YOUTH hasbeenthe historicalexperience all countries,youth are particularly vulnerableto the problems associatedwith economic development,which often weakenstraditional forms of social supportessenof tial for the healthydevelopment, young people. Urbanizationand changesin social moreshave increased transpregnancy sexually and substance unwanted abuse, mitted diseases, including AIDS. Currentlymore than half of all peoplealive are underthe ageof 25, and four of every five live in developingcountries. Thereforeit is is important to ensurethat historicalexperience not replicated. countries, healthstatus the 6.21 woMEN In developing of women remainsrelativelylow, and during the 1980s poverty, malnutrition and generalill-health in women were even rising. Most women in developingcountries opportunities basiceducational still do not haveadequate and they lack the meansof promoting their health,relif-e sponsibly controllingtheir reproductive andimprovstatus.Particularattention ing their socio-economic careto ensure shouldbe givento theprovisionof prenatal healthybabies. IndigeAND COMMUNITIES PEOPTE THEIR 6.22 INDIGENOUS makeup a significant nouspeopleandtheir communities percentage the global population.The outcomesof of havetended be very similarin that the to theirexperience with traditionallandshasbeen basisof their relationship fundamentallychanged.They tend to featuredisproporpovertyand lack of housing, tionatelyin unemployment, poor health.In many countries numberof indigenous the people is growing faster than the generalpopulation. Thereforeit is importantto targethealth initiativesfor people. indigenousVULNERABTE GROUPS c) PROTECTTNG FOR BASIS ACTION specific 6.1 In additionto meetingbasichealthneeds, 8 emphasishas to be given to protectingand educating vulnerablegroups,particularlyinfants,youth, women, for peopleandthe very poor asa prerequisite indigenous sustainable development.SpecialattentionshouldalsoOBJECTIVES 6.23 The general objectives of protecting vulnerable groupsare to ensurethat all suchindividualsshouldbe allowed to develop to their full potential (including to healthyphysical,mentaland spiritualdevelopment); ensure that young people can develop, establishand maintainhealthylives; to allow women to performtheir45key role in society;and to support indigenouspeople through educational,economic and technical opportunities. 6.24 Specific major goals for child survival, development and protection were agreed upon at the World Summit for Children and remain valid also for Agenda 21. Supportingand sectoralgoals cover women's health and education, nutrition, child health,water and sanitation, basic educationand children in difficult circumstances. 6.25 Governments shouldtakeactivesteps implement, to as a matterof urgency, accordance in with country-specific conditionsand legal systems, measures ensure to that women and men have the sameright to decidefreely and responsiblyon the number and spacing of their children,to haveaccess theinformation, to education and means.as appropriate, enablethem to exercisethis to right in keepingwith their freedom,dignity and personally held values,taking into accountethicaland cultural considerations. 6.26 Governments should take active stepsto implementprogrammes establish strengthen to preventive and and curativehealthfacilitieswhich includewomen-centred. women-managed, safe and effective reproductive healthcareandaffordable, accessible services, approas priate, for the responsible planning of family size, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held values and taking into account ethical and cultural considerations. Programmes shouldfocuson providing comprehensivehealth care, including pre-natal care, educationand information on health and responsible parenthoodand should provide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at leastduring the first four rnonthspost-partum.Programmes shouldfully support women's productive and reproductiveroles and wellbeing, with specialattentionto the need for providing equal and improvedhealthcare for all children and the needto reducethe risk of maternaland child mortality and sickness.piratory infections and prevention of communicabledisEASCS;(iii) Promotethe creation,amendmentand enforcement of a legal framework protectingchildren from sexualand workplace exploitation; (iv) Protect children from the effects of environmental and occupational toxic compounds;B} YOUIH: Strengthenservicesfor youth in health, education and social sectors in order to provide better information, education, counsellingand treatment specifichealth for problems, including drug abuse;c) WoMEN: (i) Involve women'sgroupsin decision-making the at national and community levels to identify health risks and incorporate health issues in national action programmeson women and development; (ii) Provideconcrete incentives encourage mainto and tain attendance women of all agesat school and adult of education courses, includinghealtheducation and training in primary, home and maternalhealth care; (iii) Carry out baseline surveys andknowledge,attitude andpracticestudies thehealthandnutritionof women on throughouttheir life cycle, especiallyas relatedto the impact of environmentaldegradationand adequate resources:D) INDIGENOUS AND PEOPLE THEIR COI4MUNITIES: (i) Strengthen,through resourcesand self-management, preventive and curativehealthservices; (ii) Integrate traditionalknowledgeand experience into healthsvstems.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTN''TES 6.21 NationalGovernments, cooperation in with local and non-governmental organizations, should initiate or programmes the following areas: enhance in A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 6.28 The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost ( 1993-2ffi0)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $3.7 billion, including about $400 million from the international communityon grant or concessional terms.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitlrde estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional,will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.A) INFANTS CHILDREN: AND (i) Strengthen basichealth-care services childrenin for the context of primary health-care delivery, including pren al care.breast-feeding, at immunization nutrition and progriimmes: (ii) Undertakewidespread adult educationon the use of oral rehydration therapy for diarrhoea,treatnent of res-47AND TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS 8' SCIENIIFIC institutions should 6.29 Educational, healthandresearch be strengthened provide supportto improve the health to of vulnerablegroups. Social research the specific on problemsof thesegroupsshouldbe expandedand methods for implementingflexible pragmaticsolutionsexplored,with emphasis preventive measures. Technical on institutions supportshouldbe providedto Govemments, for and non-governmental organizations youth, women and indigenouspeople in the health sector.DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCES 6.30 The development humanresources the health of for of children,youth and women shouldincludereinforcepromotionof interactive mentof educational institutions, methods education healthandincreased of mass of for use mediain disseminating informationto the targetgroups. This requiresthe training of more community health workers, nurses,midwives, physicians,social scientists and educators, education mothers, the families of and communitiesand the strengthening ministries of health,populationetc. of education,governments provide the environmental to health services that the peopleneed. All too often,urbandevelopmentis associated destructive with effects thephysical on environment theresource and needed sustainable for base pollution in urbanareasis development. Environmental associated with excessmorbidity and mortality. Overcrowding and inadequate housing contributeto respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, meningitisand other diseases. urban environments, In many factorsthat affect humanhealthareoutside healthsector. Improvements the in urban health thereforewill depend on coordinated actionby all levelsof government. healthcareproviders, businesses, religiousgroups,socialand educational institutions citizens. andOBJECTIVES 6.33 Thehealthandwell-being all urbandwellers of must be improvedso that they cancontribute economicand to socialdevelopment. The globalobjectiveis to achievea 10to 40 per centirnprovement healthindicators the in by year 2000. The same rate of improvementshould be achievedfor environmental, housingand healthservice indicators. Theseincludethedevelopment quantitative of objectives f-or infant mortality, maternal mortality, percentage low-birth-weight of newbomsand specificindicators(e.g.tuberculosis an indicatorof crowdedhousas ing, diarrhoeaidiseases indicators inadequate as of water ratesof industrialand transportation and sanitation, acpossible cidents thatindicate opportunities prevention for of injury, and social problems such as drug abuse, violenceand crime that indicateunderlyingsocialdisorders).D) CAPACTTY-BU\LD\NG (i) 6.31 Governments shouldpromote, wherenecessary: the organization of national, intercountry and interregional symposia and other meetings the exchange for of informationamongagencies groupsconcerned and with the health of children, youth, women and indigenous people,and (ii) women's organizations, youth groups people's andindigenous organizations facilitatehealth to and consult them on the creation,amendment and enforcement legal frameworksto ensure healthyenviof a ronment for children. vouth. women and indisenous peoples.ACTIVITIES 6.34 Local authorities, with the appropriate supportof national Governments and intemation organizations, al shouldbe encouraged take effectivemeasures into to itiate or strengthen tollowing activities: theD) ftTEETTNG URBAN HEATTH THE CHATTENGE BASIS ACTION FOR 632 For hundreds millions of people, poorliving of the conditions in urban and peri-urbanareasare destroying lives,health,and socialandmoral values.Urban growth hasoutstripped society's capacityto meethumanneeds, leavinghundredsof millions of peoplewith inadequate incomes,diets, housing and services. Urban growth exposespopulationsto seriousenvironmental hazards and has outstripped capacityof municipaland local theA) DEVELOP TMPLEMENT AND MUNtCtpAL LOCAL ANDHEALTH PLANS:(i) Establishor strengthen intersectoral committees at both the politicai and technicallevel, includingactive collaborationon linkageswith scientific,cultural,religious. rnedical, business, socialand other city institutions,usingnetworkingalrangements; (ii) Adopt or strengthenrnunicipal or local "enabling "doing with" ratherthan"doing sffategies" emphasize that for" and createsupportive environments health; for (iii) Ensurethat public healttreducation schools, in workplace,massmediaetc.is providedor strengthened;48(iv) Encourage communitiesto developpersonalskills of and awareness primary health care; (v) Promoteand strengthen rehabilicommunity-based tation activitiesfor the urbanandperi-urbandisabledand the elderly;training of municipal staff requiredfor healthy city proBasic and in-servicetraining of environmental cesses. healthpersonnel will alsobe needed.D) CAPACITY.BUILDING WHERE NECESSARY EXTSTTNG THE HEALTH, SOCTAL B) SURVEY IN INCLUDING ANDENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONSCITIES, DIFFERENCES; DOCUMENTATION OFINTRA-URBAN 6.38 The programmeis aimed towards improved planning and management capabilities the municipaland in local governmentand its partners centralGovernment, in the private sectorand universities. Capacitydevelopment shouldbe focusedon obtaining sufficient information, improvingcoordination mechanisms linking alt the key actors, making betteruseof availableinstruments and and resources implementation. forHEALTH C) STRENGTHEN ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES: (i) Adopt healthimpact and environmental impact asprocedures; sessment (ii) Providebasic and in-servicetraining for new and existingpersonnel;El R.EDUCTNG HEATTH R|SKSFROM FOR POLLUTIONAND HAZARDS AND D} ESTABUSH MAINTAIN NFIWORKS COTIABOR,ATION ENVIRONMENTAL CITY PRACNCE. ANDEXCHANGEMODELS GOOD OF OF BASIS ACTION FOR MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF Al F/NANCTNG AND COSTEVALUATTON has 6.35 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe average total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $222 million, includingabout$22 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicaonly andhavenot tive and order-of-magnitude estimates Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments. will cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, depend upon, inter alia, ttre specifrc strategies and pro. grammes decideupon for implementation. Govemments 6.39 In many locations around the world the general environment(air, water and land),workplaces and even individual drvellingsare so badly polluted that the health of hundreds millions of peopleis adversely of affected. This is, inter alia, due to pastand present developments in consumption production pattems in and and lifestyles, energyproductionand use.in industry,in transportation protection. etc.,with little or no regardfor environmental There have been notableimprovements some counin tries,but deterioration theenvironment of continues. The ability of countriesto tackle pollution and health problems is greatly restrainedbecause lack of resources. of Pollutioncontrol andhealthprotectionmeasures haveoften not kept pace with economicdevelopment. Considerable development-related environmental healthhazards existin thenewly industrializing countries. Furthermore, recent the analysisof WHO hasclearly established interdependthe encearnongthe factorsof health,environment and developmentand has revealedthat most countriesare lacking such integration as would lead to an effective pollution control mechanism.2Withort prejudiceto suchcriteria as may be agreedupon by the internationalcommunity,or to standards which will have to be determinednationally, it will beessential all cases considerthe in to systems values of prevailingin eachcounty andtheextent theapplicability of of standards are valid for the most advanced that countries but may be inappropriate of unwarranted and socialcostfor the developing countries.8/ SC/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOLOG|CAL A4EANS 6.36 Decision-making models should be further developedandmore widely usedto assess costsand the the health and environment impactsof alternative technolin Improvement urbandevelopment ogiesand strategies. requires and management betternationaland municipal on standardized indicators. Destatistics based practical, velopmentof methodsis a priority for the measurement variations healthstatus in of intra-urban intra-district and conditions. and for the application of and environmental this informationin planningand management.RF c ) HUM A N S O U R C ES EL OP M EN T D EV must supplythe orientation 6.37 Programmes and basicOBJECTIVES 6.40 The overall objective is to minimize hazardsand49maintain the environmentto a degreethat human health and safetyis not impairedor endangered yet encourand agedevelopment proceed.Specificprogrammeobjecto tives are: (a) By the year 2000, to incorporateappropriateenvironmental and health safeguards part of national deas velopmentprogrammes all countries; in (b) By the year 2000,to establish, appropriate, as adequate national infrastructureand programmesfor preventingenvironmental i nj ury,hazardsurveiIanceandthe I basisfor abatement all countries; in (c) By the year 2000,to establish, appropriate, as integrated programmesfbr tackling pollution at the source andat thedisposal site,rvitha focuson abatement actions in all countriesl (d) To identify and compile,as appropriate, necesthe sary statisticalinformation on health ef'fectsto support cost/benefit analysi including environmental s, healthimpact assessment pollution control, preventionand for abatement measures.D) PESTTCTDES: Develop mechanisms control the distributionand use to of pesticidesin order to minimize the risks to human healthby transportation, storage, application residual and effectsof pesticides usedin agriculture and preservation of wood;E) SOLID WASTE: (i) Develop appropriate solid wastedisposaltechnologieson the basisof healthrisk assessment: (ii) Developappropriate solid wastedisposal capacities in largecities;F) HUMAN SETTLEMENTS: Developprogrammes irnprovinghealthconditions for in human settlements, particularwithin slumsand nonin tenuredsettlements, the basisof health risk assesson ment;ACTIVITIES 6.41 Nationallydetermined actionprogrammes, with internationalassistance, supportand coordination, where necessary, this areashouldinclude: inG) NOTSE: Develop criteria for maximum permitted safe noise exposurelevelsand promotenoiseassessment control and as part of environmentalhealth programmes;A) URBAN POLLUTTON: AtR (i) Develop appropriate pollution control technologyon the basisof risk assessment epidemiological and research for the introductionof environmentally soundproduction processes suitable and safemasstransport; (ii) Develop air pollution control capacitiesin large cities,emphasizing enforcement programmes and using monitoringnetworks,as appropriate;H) roNtztNc ANDNON-|ON|Z|NG RAD|AT|ON: Developand implementappropriate nationallegislation. standardsand enforcement procedureson the basis of existinginternational guidelines;t) EFFECTS OFULTRAVTOLET RAD|ATION: (i) Undertake,as a rnatter of urgency,researchon the effects on human health of the increasingultraviolet radiationreachingthe earth'ssurfaceas a consequence of depletionof the stratospheric ozonelayer: (ii) On thebasisof the outcome thisresearch, of consicler taking appropriateremedial measuresto mitigate the above-mentioned effectson humanbeings:B) TNDOOR POLLUTTON: AtR (i) Supportresearch and developprogrammes apfor plying prevention controlmethods reducing and to indoor air pollution.includingthe provisionof economicincentives for the installation appropriate of technology; (ii) Develop and implement health educationcampaigns, particuliulyin developing countries, reduce to the healthimpactof domestic of biomass use and coal:c) WATER POLLUTTON: (i) Develop appropnatewater pollution control technologies the basisof healthrisk assessment; on (ii; Develop water pollution control capacities large in c it ies :J) INDUSTRY ENERGY AND PRODUCTION: (i) Establishenvironmental health impact assessment procedures the planning and developmentof new for industries and energyfacilities; (ii) Incorporateappropriatehealth risk analysisin all nationalprogrammes pollution control and managefor ment,with particular emphasis toxic compounds on such as lead: (iii) Establish industrial hygieneprogrammes all major in50industries for the surveillanceof workers' exposureto healthhazards; (v) Promote introduction environmentally the of sound technologies within the industryand energysectors;8/ SC/ENI/F'C AND IECHNOI.OGICAL MEANS 6.43 Although technologyto preventor abatepollution is readily availablefor a largenumberof problems, for programmeand policy developmelttcountriesshould undertakeresearchwithin an intersectoralframework. Sucheffortsshouldincludecollaboration with the businesssector.Cost/effect analysis and environmental impact assessment methodsshould be developedthrough cooperativeinternationalprograffLmes appliedto the and settingof prioritiesandstrategies relationto healthand in development. 6.44 In the activitieslisted ln paragraph 6.41 (a) to (m) above,developingcountryeffortsshouldbe facilitatedby access and ffansferof technology, to know-how and information,from the repositories suchknowledgeandtechof nologies, conformitywith chapter34. inK) MONTTORTNG AND ASSESSMENT: Establish, appropriate, as adequate environmental monitoring capacities the surveillance environmental for of quality and the healthstatus populations; ofL}INJURY MONITORING REDUCTION: AND (i) Support, appropriate, development systems as the of to monitor the incidenceand causeof injury to allow weII -targe d intervention/pre te vention strateg s; ie (i i) Dev elop, in a c c o rd a n c ew i th n a ti o n a l pl ans, strategies all sectors(industry,traffic and others)conin sistentwith the WHO safecities and safecommunities programmes, reduce the frequencyand severity of to injury; (iii) Emphasize preventivestrategies reduceoccupato tionallyderiveddiseases diseases and caused environby mentalandoccupational toxinsto enhance workersafety;C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT6.45 Comprehensive national strategies should be designed to overcome the lack of qualified human resources. which is a major impedimentto progress in dealing with environmentalhealth hazards.Training and healthofficials at all M) RESEARCH PROMOTION METHODOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT: shouldinclude environmental levelsfrom managers inspectors. to Moreemphasis needs (i) Supportthe development new methodsfor the of to be placedon including the subjectof environmental quantitative assessment healthbenefitsand costsasof healthin the curriculaof secondary schoolsand universociated with differentpollution control strategies; sitiesand on educating public. the (ii) Develop and carry out interdisciplinary research on the combinedhealth eff'ects exposureto multiple of environmental hazards, includingepidemiological inD) CAPACITY-BUILDING vestigations long-term exposures low levels of of to pollutantsand the use of biological markerscapable 6.46 Each country shoulddevelopthe knowledgeand of estimatinghuman exposures, adverseeffects and practical skills to foreseeand identify environmental susceptibility environmental to agents. healthhazards, thecapacity reduce risks.Basic and to the capacity requirements must include knowledge about environmental healthproblems awareness thepart and on MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF of leaders, citizensand specialists; operational mechanisms fbr intersectoral A/ FiNANC/NG and intergovernmental AND COSTEVALUATTON cooperation in development planning and management and in combatingpollution;arrangements involving private for 6.42 The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the and community interests dealing with social issues; in age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of the delegationof authorityand distributionof resources to activities of this programme to be about $3 billion, intermediate and local levelsof government provide to including about million from theinternational com$115 front-line capabilitiesto meet environmentalhealth munity on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicaneeds. tive andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. Actual costsand financial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will dependupon. inter alia. the specificstrategies proand grammesGovernments decideupon for implementation.1' 2a/u/025,^ . r . lonnex.R e p o r t o f t h e W H O C o m m i s s i o no n H e o l t h o n d E n v i r o n m e n t (Genevo, forthcoming).5tdevelopment humon setilement sustoinoble PromotingINTRODUCTIONpatthe consumption countrics. 1.1 In industrializ.ed the stressing globalecosystem, ternsof citiesareseverely world needmoreraw in while settlements the developing simply to material,energy,and econornicdevelopment overcomebasiceconomicand socialproblems. Human in conditions manypartsof theworld, particusettlement mainly are larly the developingcountries, deteriorating in as a result of the low levels of investment the sector in to attributable the overall resourceconstraints these for countries.In the low-incomecountries which recent data are available,an averageof clnly 5.6 per cent of c ent r al go v e rn m e n te x p e n d i tu rew e n t to housi ng, by socialsecurityand welfare.r Expenditure amenities. is support andflnanceorganizations equally international only I per centof the UnitedNations low. For example, in expenditures 1988went total grant-financed system's while in 1991,loansfrom the to human settlements,' AssociDevelopment World Bank and the International and water supplyand ation (IDA) for urbandevelopment to amounted 5.5 and 5.4 per cent,respectively, sewerage of their total lending.' 7.2 On the otherhand,availableinformationindicates activitiesin the humansettlethat technicalcooperation public and private rnent sector generateconsiderable sectorinvestment.For example,every dollar of UNDP on expenditure humansettlements technical cooperation of a in 1988generated follow-up investment $122,the of highestof all UNDP sectors assistance." 7.3 This is the foundationof the "enablingapproach" advocatedfor the human settlementsector. External will help to generatethe internal resources assistance needed improvethe living and working environments to of all peopleby the year 2000 andbeyond,includingthe group. growingnumberof unemployed the no-incomeimplicationsof urban At the sametime the environmental in developmentshould be recognizedand addressed an integrated fashion by all countries, with high priority being given to the needsof the urban and rural poor, the unemployedand the growing number of peoplewithout anv source income. ofHUMAN OBJECTIVE SETTLEMENT objectiveis to im7.4 The overall human settlement prove the social,economicand environmentalquality of and human settlements the living and working environmentsof all people,in particularthe urbanandrural poor. cooperon shouldbe based technical Suchimprovement among the public, private ation activities,partnerships in and andcommunitysectors participation thedecisionmaking processby community groupsand specialinterpeople, elderly the estgroupssuchaswomen.indigenous shouldform the core and the disabled.Theseapproaches In principles nationalsettlement strategies. developing of countries will need to set priorities these strategies, among the eight programme areas in this chapter in takwith their nationalplansand objectives, accordance ing fully into account their social and cultural capacountriesshouldmake appropriate bilities. Furthermore, on provision to monitor the impact of their strategies sed marginalizedand di senfranchi groups,with particular referenceto the needsof women. 7.5 The prograrrune areasincluded in this chapterare: (a) Providing adequate shelterfor all; (b) Improving human settlement management; (c) Promotingsustainable planningand manland-use agement; (d) Promotingthe integratedprovision of environmental infrastructure: water. sanitation.drainageand solidwastemanagement: (e) Promotingsustainable systems energyandtransport in humansettlements:52(f) Promoting human settlementplanning and management in disaster-prone areas; (g) Promotingsustainable construction industryactivities; (h) Promotinghumanresource development capacand ity-buildingfor human settlement development.P R O G R A M MA R E A S EA) PROV|DTNG ADEQUATE SHETTER ALr FOR BASIS ACTION FOR 7.6 Accessto safeand healthyshelter essential a is to person's physical,psychological, socialand economic well-beingand shouldbe a fundamental part of national and intemationalaction. The right to adequate housing as a basic human right is enshrined the Universal in Declaration HumanRightsandthe lntemational of Covenant on Economic,Socialand Cultural Rights. Despite this, it is estimatedthat at the presenttime, at least I billion people do not have accessto saf-e and healthy shelterand that if appropriate action is not taken, this nurnber will increasedramatically by the end of the centuryand beyond. 7.7 A major globalprogramme address problem to this is the Global Strategy for Shelter ro rhe Year 2000, adoptedby the General Assembly in December 1988 (resolution 43ll8l, annex). Despiteits widespread endorsement, Strategyneedsa much greaterlevel of the politicalandfinancialsupport enable to reachits goal to it of facilitatingadequate shelterfor all by rhe end of the centuryand beyond.OBJECTIVE 7.8 The objective is to achieve adequateshelterfor rapidly growing populationsand for the cuffently deprivedurbanandruralpoorthroughanenabling approach to shelter development improvement and thatis environmentallysound.ACTIVITIES 7.9 The following activitiesshouldbe undertaken: (a) As a first step towardsthe goal of providing adequateshelter all, all countriesshouldtake immediate for measures provideshelter their homeless to to poor,while the internationalcommunity and financial institutions should undertakeactions to supportthe ef'fortsof the developingcountries provide shelter the poor; to to (b) All countriesshould adopt and/or strengthen na-tional shelterstrategies, with targetsbased.as appropriate,on the principlesand recofiunendations containedin the Global Strategyfor Shelterto the Year 2000. people should be protectedby law againstunfair eviction from their homesor land; (c) All countriesshould, as appropriate, support the shelterefforts the urbanandrural poor,theunemployed of and the no-income group by adopting and/or adapting existingcodesand regulations, facilitatetheir access to to land,financeand low-costbuilding materials, and by actively promoting the regularizationand upgrading of informal settlements and urban slums as an expedient measure and pragmatic solution to the urban shelter deficit; (d) All countriesshould,as appropriate, facilitate accessof urban and rural poor to shelterby adoptingand utilizing housingand financeschemes and new innovative mechanisms adapted their circumstances; to (e) All counties should supportand develop environmentally compatible shelter strategiesat national, state/provincialand municipal levels through parnrerships amongthe private,public andcommunitysectors with and the supportof community-based organizations; (f,) All countries,especiallydevelopingones,should, as appropriate, formulate and implementprogrammes to reducethe impact of the phenomenonof rural to urban drift by improving rural living conditions; (g) All countries,where appropriate, should develop andimplement resettlement programmes address that the specific problems of displacedpopularionsin rheir respective countries; (h) All countries should.asappropriate, document and monitor the implementationof their national shelter strategies using,inter alia, the monitoringguidelines by adoptedby the Comrnission Human Settlements on and theshelterperformance indicators beingproducedjointly by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)and the World Bank; (i) Bilateral and multilateral cooperationshould be strengthened order to supportthe implementation in of the nationalshelterstrategies developing of countries; reports coveringnational actionand 0) Globalprogress the supportactivitiesof international organizations and bilateraldonorsshouldbe produced anddisseminated on a biennial basis,as requested the Global Strategyfor in Shelterto the Year 2000.MEANS IMPIEMENTATION OF ,A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALaJATTON 7.iO The Conference secretiuiat estimated averhas the age total annualcost ( 1993-2(nU of implementingthe53activities of this programme to be about $75 billion, comincluding about$10 billion from the international are indicaterms.These munity on grant or concessional only and have not estimates tive and order-of-magnitude beenreviewedby Govemments.Actual costsandfinanwill cial terms,includingany that arenon-concessional, and prodependupon, inter alia, the specific strategies decideupon for implementation' grammesGovernmentstheir ability to improvethe living tries,in orderto enhance and the especially marginalized conditionsof residents, therebycontributingto the achievement disenfranchised, goals. of nationaleconomicdevelopmentACTIVITIES MANAGFMENI URBAN A) IMPROV/NG lnanage7.16 Oneexistingframeworkfor strengthening D evel opm entPr oment i s i n the U ni ted N ati ons Bank/United Nations Centre for Human grammeNVorld Settlements(Habitat) Urban Management Programme (UMP), a concertedglobal effort to assistdeveloping issues. Its urban management countriesin addressing countries to all interested coverageshouldbe extended All countries should' as during the period 1993-2000. plans,objecwith national and appropriate in accordance of the assistance non-govtives and prioritiesand with of and representatives local ernmenfal organizations following activities at the naauthorities,undertakethe and tional, state/provincial local levels,with the assistand supportagencies: anceof relevantprogrammes guideurban management (a) Adopting and applying urban environmanagement, lines in the areasof land infrastructuremanagementand mental management, administration; municipalfi nanceand (b) Accelerating efforts to reduce urban poverty including: througha numberof actions, (i) Generating employmentfor the urbanpoor,particularly women, through the provision,improvementand and and of maintenance urbaninfrastructure services the such in activities theinformalsector, of support economic and small cofitmerce; services recycling, as repairs, to (ii) Providing specificassistance the poorestof the inter alia, the creation of social urban poor through, in infrastructure order to reducehunger and homelesscommunityservices; ness,andthe provisionof adequate comof the establishment indigenous (iii) Encouraging -basedorganization private v oluntary or ganrzas, munity entitiesthat tions and other forms of non-governmental the efforts to reducepoverty and imcan contributeto prove the quality of life for low-incomefamilies; to (c) Adopting innovativecity planningstrategies adby: and socialissues dressenvironmental the on, (i) Reducing subsidies andrecovering full costs and other services of high standard of, environmental (e.g. water supply, sanitation,waste collection,roads' providedto higher incomeneightelecommunications) bourhoods; and service (ii) Improving the level of infrastructure provisionin poorerurbanareas; for local strategies improvingthequality (d) DevelopingMEANS AND TECHNOLOGICAL 8] SCIENTFrc underthis headingare addressed 7.1I The requirements in each of the other programme areas included in the presentchapter.AND DEVELOPMENI RESOURCE C) HUMAN CAPACITY.BUILDING should 7.12 Developedcountriesand funding agencies to developingcountriesin provide specific assistance to an arJopting enablingapproach the provision of shelter no-income group, and covering for all, including the institutionsand training activitiesfor governresearch andnon-govcommunities ment officials,professionals, local caand by strengthening ernmental organrzations technologies. of appropriate pacity for the development B) IMPROVING HUrtiAN sErrlrMENT T ANAGEMEM FOR BASIS ACTION 7.13 By the turn of the century,the majority of the w wor ld' sp o p u l a ti o n i l l b e l i v i n g i n c i ti e s.W hi l e urban particularlyin developingcountries'are settlements, showing many of the symptomsof the global environgenerate crisis,they nevertheless mentanddevelopment 60 per cent of gross national product and' if properly can developthe capacityto sustaintheir promanaged, of ductivity,improvetheliving conditions theirresidents way' in and managenaturalresources a sustainable 7.14 Some metropolitanareas extend over the bounentities dariesof severalpolitical and/oradministrative eventhoughthey conform (counties and municipalities) this urbansystem.In manycases political to a continuous hinders the implementationof compreheterogeneity programmes. management hensiveenvironmentalOBJECTIVE management 7.15 The objectiveis to ensuresustainable counpafticularlyin developing of all urbansettlements,54of life andtheenvironment, integrating decisions land on use and land management, investingin the public and private sectorsand mobilizing human and materialresources, therebypromotingemploymentgeneration that is environmentally soundandprotective humanhealth. of8/ STRENGTHENING UREAN DATA SySIEMS 7.17 During the period 1993-2000 countriesshould all undertake, with the active participationof the business sectoras appropriate, pilot projectsin selected cities for the collection,analysis and subsequent dissemination of urbandata,includingenvironmental impact analysis, at the local, state/provincial, national and international levels and the establishment city data management of capabilities.5 United Nations organizations, such as Habitat, UNEP and UNDP, could provide technical adviceand model datamanagement systems.C) ENCOURAGING /NIERMEDIATE DEVELOPMENT CITY 7.I 8 In orderto relievepressure largeurbanagglomeron ations of developingcountries,policies and strategies shouldbe implemented towardsthe development inof termediate cities that createemploymentopportunities for unemployedlabour in the rural areasand support rural-based economicactivities,althoughsound urban management essential ensure is to thaturbansprawldoes not expandresource degradation over an everwider land area and increasepressures convert open spaceand to agriculturaUbuffer landsfor development. 7.l9 Thereforeall countries should,asappropriate, conduct reviews of urbanization processes and policies in orderto assess environmental the impactsof growth and apply urbanplanningand management approaches specifically suited to the needs,resourcecapabilitiesand characteri sticsof their growingintermediate-si cities. zed As appropriate, theyshouldalsoconcentrate activities on aimed at facilitating the transitionfrom rural to urban lifestylesand settlement patternsand at promoting the development small-scale of economicactivities, particularly the productionof food, to support local income generation the productionof intermediate and goodsand sen,ices rural hinterlands. for 7.20 All cities.particularly thosecharacterized severe by sustainable development problems,should,in accordance u,ith nationallaws, rules and regulations, develop and strengthen programmes aimed at addressing such problems andguidingtheir development alonga sustainable path. Some internationalinitiatives in supportof suchefforts.as in the Sustainable Cities prosrammeofHabitat and the Healthy Cities programme of WHO, shouldbe intensified. Additionalinitiatives involving the World Bank, the regional developmentbanks and bilateral agencies, well as other interested as stakeholders. particularly internationaland nationalrepresentatives of local authorities,should be strengthened and coordinated.Individual citiesshould,as appropriate: (a) Institutionalize aparticipatoryapproachto sustainableurbandevelopment, based a continuous on dialogue betweenthe actors involved in urban developrnent(the public sector, privatesector communities), and especially women and indigenous people; (b) Improve the urban environment promoting soby cial organization and environmental awareness through the participation local communitiesin the identificaof tion of public servicesneeds,the provision of urban infrastructure, enhancement public amenities the of and the protectionand/or rehabilitarionof older buildings, historicprecincts otherculturalartifacts.In addition, and "greenworks" programmes shouldbe activated create to self-sustaining human development activitiesand both formal and informal employmentopportunitiesfor lowincomeurbanresidents; (c) Strengthen capacities their local governing the of bodies to deal more effectively with the broad range of developmental environmental and challenges associated with rapid and soundurbangrowth throughcomprehensiveapprdaches planningthatrecognize individual to the needs citiesandarebased ecologically of on soundurban designpractices; (d) Participatein international"sustainable city networks" to exchangeexperiences and mobilize national and international technicaland financialsupport; (e) Promotethe formulationof environmentally sound andculturallysensitive tourismprogrammes a strategy as for sustainabledevelopmentof urban and rural settlementsand as a way of decentralizingurban development and reducingdiscrepancies amongregions; (f) Establishmechanisms, with the assistance releof vant internationalagencies,to mobilize resources for local initiativesto improveenvironmental quality; (g) Empowercommunitygroups,non-governmental organizationsand individuals to assumethe authority and responsibility rnanaging enhancing for and theirimmediate environmentthrough participatorytools, techniques and approaches embodied theconcept environmental in of care. 7.21 Citiesof all countries shouldreinforcecooperation amongthemselves citiesof the developed and countries, undertheaegisof non-governmental organizations active in this field, such as the InternationalUnion of Local Authorities(IULA), the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives(ICLEI) and the World Federation of Twin Cities.55OF MEANS IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F'NANC/NG has 1.22 The Conferencesecretariat estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activities of this programmeto be about $100 billion, comincludingabout$ 15billion from theinternational terms.Theseare inmunity on grant or concessional estimatesonly and dicative and order-of-magnitude Actual costs have not beenreviewedby Governments. andfinancialterms.includingany thatarenon-concess ional, wil l d e p e n d u p o n , i n te r a l i a . the speci fi c decideupon Governments and strategies programmes for implementation.IAND-USE SUSTAINABLE c) PROMOTTNG PTANNING AND }TANAGEMENTFOR BASIS ACTION component is to 7.27 Access land resources an essential are low-impactlifestyles.Land resources of sustainable the basis for (human) living systemsand provide soil, energy,water and the opportunity for all human activity. to access land is rendered In rapidly growing urbanareas, increasingly difficult by the conflicting demandsof industry, housing, commerce, agriculture, land tenure the Furthermore, and the needfor openspaces. structures rising costsof urban land preventthe poor from gaining accessto suitable land. In rural areas,unsustainable practices, suchas the exploitationof marginallandsand the encroachmenton forests and ecologically fragile areasby commercialinterestsand landlessrural populaas degradation, well as in tions,resultin environmental diminishing returnsfor impoverishedrural settlers.AND DEVELOPMENI RESOURCE B) HUMAN CAPACITY-BUILDING in1.23 Developingcountriesshould,with appropriate considerfocusingon trainingand assistance, ternational adtechnicians, developinga cadreof urbanmanagers, who can ministratorsand other relevant stakeholders manageenvironmentallysound urban desuccessfully velopmentand growth and are equippedwith the skills to necessary analyseand adapt the innovative experithe encesof other cities.For this purpose, full rangeof training methods__ from formal educationto the useof the mass rnedia - should be utilized, as well as the "learningby doing" option. tech7.24 Developingcountriesshouldalso encourage throughjoint efforts by nological training and research donors, non-governmentalorganizationsand private in business such areasas the reductionof waste,water quality, saving of energy,safe productionof chemicals and lesspollutingtranspoftation. activitiescarriedout by all coun7.25 Capacity-building above,shouldgo beyondthe as tries,assisted suggested training of individualsand functionalgroupsto include routines, interadministrative arrangements, institutional proinformationflows andconsultative linkages, agencyCCSSCS.OBJECTIVE 7.28 Theobjectiveis to providefor theland requirements of human settlementdevelopmentthrough environmentally soundphysicalplanningandlandusesoasto ensure and, where appropriate, to access land to all households the encouragementof communally and collectively land.6 Particularattentionshould owned and rnanaged peoplefor paidto the needs womenandindigenous of be economicand culturalreasons. ACTIVITIES underas shouldconsider, appropriate, 7.29 Allcountries nationalinventoryof their land taking a comprehensive resources order to establisha land information system in will be classifiedaccordingto in which land resources their most appropriateusesand environmentallyfragile areas will be identified for special or disaster-prone protectionmeasures. 7 . 3 0S u b s e q u e n t l ya l l c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r , plansto management developingnationalland-resource and utilizationand,to guide land-resource development that end, should: (a) Establish,as appropriate,national legislation to guidethe implementation public policiesfor environof mentally sound urban development,land utilization, housing and for the improved managementof urban expansion; (b) Create,where appropriate, efficient and accessible land markets that meet coffImunity developmentneeds by, inter alia. improving land registry systemsand procedures land transactions; in streamlining7. 26 I n ad d i ti o n , i n te rn a ti o n a le ffo rts , s uch as the with in Programme, cooperation Urban Management shouldcontinueto multilateraland bilateralagencies, assistthe developingcountriesin their efforts to dev elop a pa rti c i p a to ry s tru c tu re b y mo bi l i zi ng the non-governmenof humanresources theprivatesector, and tal organizations the poor,particularlywomenand the disadvantaged.56(c) Develop fiscal incentivesand land-usecontrol measures, including land-useplanning solutionsfor a more rationaland environmentally sounduseof limited land resources; (d) Encourage partnerships amongthe public, private and community sectorsin managingland resources for humansettlements development; (e) Strengthencommunity-based protecland-resource practices existingurbanand rural settlements; in tion (f) Establishappropriate forms of land tenurcthat provide securityof tenurefor all land-users, especiallyinpeople, women,local digenous the communities, low-income urbandwellersand the rural poor; (g) Accelerate efforts to promoteaccess land by the to urban and rural poor, including credit schemesfor the purchase land and for building/acquiring improving of or safeand healthyshelterand infiastructure services; (h) Develop and support the implementationof improved land-management practicesthat deal comprehensively with potentially competing land requirementsfor agriculture, industry,transport, urbandevelopment,greenspaces, preserves othervital needs; and (i) Promoteunderstanding amongpolicy makersof the adverse consequences unplanned of settlements enviin rorunentallyvulnerableareasand of the appropriatenapolicies retional and local land-useand settlements quiredfor this purpose. 7.31 At the internationallevel, global coordinationof land-resource management activitiesshouldbe strengthened by the variousbilateral and multilateralagencies and programmes, suchas UNDP, FAO, the World Bank, the regionaldevelopment banks,other interested organizations andthe UNDPAVoTId Bank/Habitat UrbanManProgramme, actionshouldbe takento proagement and motethetransfer applicable of experience sustainable on land-management practicesto and among developing countries.B/ SC'ENI/F/C AND TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS 7.33 All countries,particularly developing countries, aloneor in regionalor subregional groupings, shouldbe given accessto modern techniquesof land-resource management, suchasgeographical informationsystems, photography/imagery otherremote-sensins satellite and technologies.C) HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI AND CAPACITY-BUILDING 7.34 Environmentally focused trainingactivities susin tai nabl e l and-resources anni ng and managem elt t pl should be undertaken all countries,with developing in countriesbeing given assistance through international supportand funding agencies orderto: in (a) Strengthen capacity national, the of state/provincial and local educational research and training institutions to provide formal training of land-management techniciansand professionals; (b) Facilitatethe organizational review of government ministries and agencies responsible land questions, for in order to devise more etficient mechanisrns landof resource management, carry out periodicin-service and refreshercoursesfor the managersand staff of such ministries and agencies orderto familiarizethem with in up-to-date land-resource-management gie technolo s; (c) Where appropriate,provide such agencieswith modern equipment, such as computer hardware and softwareand surveyequipment; (d) Strengthen existing programmes and promote an intemationaland interregional exchange information of and experience land management in throughthe establishmentof professional associations land-managein ment sciences related and activities, suchas workshops and seminars.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 7 .32 T he Conf ere n c es e c re ta ri a h a s e s ti ma tedthe t ) a v er age ot al ann u a lc o s t (1 9 9 3 -2 0 0 0o f i mp l e mentt ing the activities of this programmeto be about $3 b i llion.inc ludinga b o u t$ 3 0 0m i l l i o n fro m th e i n ternati o nal c om m uni ty o n g ra n t o r c o n c e s s i o n ate rms. l Theseareindicativeandorder-of-rnagnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costsandfinancialterms,includingany that are non-concessional. will depend upon, inter alia, the sp ec if ic s t r at eg i e sa n d p ro g ra m m e sG o v e rn m ents d e c ideupon f or im p l e me n ta ti o n . pROVtStONOF D) PROMOTTNG THETNTEGRATED ENVIRONI ENTAI INFRASTRUCTURE: WATER, SANITATION,DRAINAGEAND SOTID-WASTE MANAGEMENTBASIS ACTION FOR 7.35 The sustainability urbandevelopment defined of is by many parameters relatingto the availabilityof water supplies, quality and the provisionof environmental air infrastructure sanitation for and wastemanagement. As a resultof the densityof users, urbanization, properly if managed, offers uniqueopportunities the supply of for\7environmentalinfrastructurethrough adesustainable quate pricing policies, educationalprogrammesand that are economicallyand mechanisms equitableaccess environmentallysound.In most developingcountries, inand lack of environmental however,the inadequacy ill-healthand for is frastructure responsible widespread deathseachyear.In those a large numberof preventable are set to worsen due to growing countriescclnditions needs that exceed the capacity of Governmentsto respondadequateiy. to approach the provisionof environ1.36 An integrated in mentally soundintiastructurein human settlements. particularfor the urbanand rural poor, is an investment that can improvethe quality development in sustainable productivity,improvehealthand reduce of life, increase the burden of investmentsin curative medicine and povertyalleviation. would be 7.37 Most of the activitieswhosemanagement are covered in improved by an integrated approach. Agenda 2l as follows: chapters6 (Protectingand promoting human health conditions),9 (Protectingthe atmosphere),18 (Protectingthe qualitv and supply of and 21 (Environmentallysound freshwaterresources) issues). and sewage-related of management solid wastesOBJECTIVE the 7.38 The objectiveis to ensure provisionof adequate facilitiesin all settlements infrastructure environmental by the year 2025. The achievementof this objective would requirethat all developingcountriesincorporate to programmes build thenecesin theirnationalstrategies human resourcecapacity sary technical,flnancial and and aimed at ensuringbetterintegrationof infrastructure planningby the year 2000. environmentalengagedin The activitiesof all agencies strengthened. providing environmental infrastructure should, where possible,reflect an ecosystemor metropolitan area apand should include monitoring, proach to settlements of transfer appropricapacity-building, appliedresearch, ate technology and technical cooperation among the rangeof programmeactivities. at 7.40 Developingcountriesshouldbe assisted the naapproach tional and local levelsin adoptingan integrated drainsanitation, energy, to theprovisionof watersupply. and management, externalfunding age and solid-waste agencies shouldensurethat this approachis appliedin improvement infiastructure particularto environmental basedon regulationsand standin informal settlements ards that take into account the living conditions and to resources the communities be served. of adoptthe fol7.41 All countriesshould,as appropriate, lowing principles for the provision of environmental infrastructure: avoid (a) Adopt policiesthatminimizeif not altogether wheneverpossible; damage, environmental by (b) Ensurethat relevantdecisions preceded enare and vironmentalimpact assessments also take into account the costsof any ecologicalconsequences; (c) Promote developmentin accordancewith indigenous practices and adopt technologies appropriate to local conditions; (d) Promote the policiesaimedat recovering actualcost while at the sametime recognizof infrastructureservices, (including subing the need to find suitableapproaches to sidies)to extendbasicservices all households; probiems that (e) Seekjointsolutions environmental to affectseverallocalities. 7.42 The disseminationof information from existing among prograrnmes shouldbe facilitatedandencouraged countries and local institutions. interestedACTIVITIES suitthe 7.39 All countriesshouldassess environmental develop in ability of infrastructure human settlements, of management waste,and nationalgoalsfor sustainable to soundtechnology ensure implementenvironmentally humanhealthandqualityof life are thattheenvironment, infrastructure and environmental protected.Settlement human designedtcl promotean integrated programmes approachto the planning, development, settlements of and management environmentalinframaintenance (watersupply,sanitation, solid-waste drainage, structure with shouldbe strengthened theassistance management) of bilateral and multilateral agencies.Coordination from interand amongtheseagencies with collaboration of nationalandnationalrepresentatives local authorities, the privatesectorand communitygroupsshouldalsobeMEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANCING has secretariat estimatedmost of 7.43 The Conference the costs of implementing the activities of this proestimatesthe gramme in other chapters. The secretariat assistof cost(1993-2000) technical total annual average ancefrom the internationalcomrnunity on grant or concessionalterms to be about $50 million. These are estimatesonly and indicative and order-of-magnitude have not beenreviewedby Govemments.Actual costs and financial terms,including any that are non-concesupon,inter olia,the specificstrategies sional,will depend and programmes Governmentsdecide upon fbr implementation.58ME,ANS AND IECHNOI.OGICAL 8' SC'ENIIFIC within theexistmeans 7.44 Scientificandtechnological programmes should be coordinated wherever ing possibleand should: (a) Accelerate in research the areaofintegratedpolicies s ture programme andprojects ntal infrastruc of environme on cost/benefitanalysisand overall environmental based impact; "effective demand", (b) Promotemethodsof assessing data as criteria environmentand development utilizing for selectingtechnology.AND DEVELOPMFNT C) HUMANRESOURCE CAPACITY-BUILDING and 7..15With the assistance supportof funding agencies, undertaketraining and all countriesshould,as appropriate, aimed at: popularparticipationprogrammes and (a) Raising awareness the means,approaches of benefitsof the provision of environmentalinfrastructure people,women, amongindigenous facilities,especially low-income groupsand the poor; with adequate ft) Developinga cadreof professionals skills in integratedinfrastructuralservice planning and environmentally maintenanceof resource-efficient, systems; soundand socially acceptable (c) Strengtheningthe institutional capacity of local in authoritiesand administrators the integratedprovision of adequateinfrastructure servicesin partnershipwith local communitiesand the private sector; (d) Adopting appropriatelegal and regulatory instruto anangements, extend ments,includingcross-subsidy the benefits clf adequateand affordable environmental populationgroups,especially to infrastructure unserved the poor.priority in any action taken to protectthe urban environment. 7.47 Developed countries,as the largest consumersof energy,are faced with the need for energyplanning and sources promotingrenewable andalternate management, of current of energy,and evaluatingthe life-cycle costs systemsand practicesas a result of which many metropolitan areas are suffering from pervasive air quality problemsrelatedto ozone,particulatemattersandcarbon havemuch to do with technologimonoxide.The causes fuel and cal inadequacies with anincreasing consumption and generated inefficiencies, high demographic indusby and a rapid expansionin the number trial concentrations of motor vehicles. 7.48 Transport accountsfor about 30 per cent of commercial energyconsumptionand for about60 per cent of In of totalglobalconsumption liquid petroleum. developrapid motorization andinsufficientinvesting countries, planning, traffic management ments in urban-transport and infrastructure are creating increasing problems in and injury, health,noise,congestion terms of accidents and loss of productivity similar to those occurring in AII many developed countries. of theseproblemshavea severe impact on urban populations, particularly the low-incomeand no-incomegroups.OBJECNVES are 7.49 The objectives to extendthe provisionof more energy-efficienttechnology and alternative/renewable and to reduce negative energy for human settlements impactsof energyproductionand use on human health and on the environment.ACTIVITIES 7.50 The principal activitiesrelevantto this programme area are included in chapter9 (Protectionof the atmosphere), programme area B, subprogramme I (Energy and subprodevelopment, efficiency and consumption) (Transportation). gramme 2 approachto human settlements 7.51 A comprehensive shouldincludethepromotionof sustainable development in as energydevelopment all countries, tollows:ENERGYAND El PROIIOTING SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTSYSTEMSIN HUftIAN SETITE'VIENTS FOR BASIS ACTION en7.46 N{ost of the commercialand non-commercial todayis usedin andforhumansettlements, ergyproduced percentage it is usedby thehousehold of anda substantial facedwith the are Developingcountries at present sector. need to increasetheir energy production to accelerate of and development raisethe living standards their populations,while at the sametime reducingenergyproducpollution. Increasingthe tion costs and energy-related efficiency of energy use to reduceits polluting effects and to promote the use of renewableenergiesmust be alN PARTICULAR, SHOULD: A) DEVELOPING COUNTRTES, (i) Formulatenationalactionprograrnmes prolnoteand to with supportreaftbrestation nationalforestregeneration and provision of the biornass a view to achievingsustained and energyneeds the low-incomegroupsin urbanareas of women and children; the rural poor,in particular (ii) Formulatenational action programlnesto promote59and renewable integrateddevelopmentof energy-saving energy technologies,particularly for the use of solar, hydro, wind and biomasssources; of (iii) Promotewide dissemination commercialization and through suitablemeasures, renewableenergy technologies inter alia, fiscal andtechnologytransfermechanisms; directed (iv ) Cany out information andtrainingprogftImmes and at manufacturers usersin orderto promoteenergy-saving appliances; techniques energy-efficient andDONORS AND ORGANTZATIONS BILATERAL B) TNTERNATTONAL SHOULD: (i) Supportdeveloping national counfies in implementing use in energyprogrammes order to achievewidespread of particuand energy-saving renewableenergytechnologies, andhydro sources; larly ttreuseof solar,wind, biomass (ii) Provide access research and developmentresults to efficiencylevelsin humansettleenergy-use to increase ments. 7.52 Promoting efficient and environmentally sound urban transport systems in all countries should be a planningand to approach urban-transport comprehensive To management. this end, all countriesshould: (a) Integrate land-use and transportationplanning to encouragedevelopment pattems that reduce transport demand; (b) Adopt urban-transport programmesfavouring highoccupancypublic transportin countries,asappropriate; (c) Encouragenon-motonzed modes of transport by providing safe cycleways and footways in urban and suburbancentresin countries,as appropriate; (d) Devoteparticularattentionto effectivetraffic manandmainefficientoperationof public transport agement, tenanceof transportinfrastructure ; (e) Promotetheexchange informationamongcounfies of of and representatives local and metropolitanareas; (0 Re-evaluate presentconsumptionand producthe tion patternsin order to reduce the use of energy and national resources.transport professionalsand institutions, all countries should, appropriate: as (a) Provide on-the-joband other training of governand managers traffic engineers ment officials,planners, section: and involved in the energy-service transport (b) Raise public awareness the environmental imof pacts of transport and travel behaviour through mass and media campaignsand supportfor non-governmental community initiatives promoting the use of non-motorized transport, shared driving and improved traffic safetymeasures; (c) Strengthen regional,national,state/provincial, and private sector institutionsthat provide educationand planning training on energyserviceand urbantransport and management.PIANNING F) PROMOTINGHUMAN SETTTEMENT AREAS IN AND 'TAANAGEIAENT DISASTER.PRONE FOR BASIS ACTION 7.55 Natural disasters causeloss of life, disruptionof economicactivitiesand urbanproductivity,particularly for highly susceptible low-incomegroups,and environmental damage,such as loss of fertile agriculturalland and can lead to of and contamination water resources, of major resettlement populations. Over the past two to some3 mildecades, they are estimated have caused lion deaths and affected800 million people.Global economic losseshave been estimated the Office of the by United NationsDisasterRelief Coordinatorto be in the rangeof $30 billion to $50 billion per year. pro7.56 The GeneralAssembly,in resolutton441236, Decadefor Natural claimedthe I 990sasthe International Redr.rction. goalsof the DecadeT The bearrelevDisaster programme present area. anceto the objectives 01'the the 7.57 ln addition.there is an urgentneedto address preventionand reductionof man-made disasters and/or unsafenuclear caused inter a/ia, industries, by. disasters power generationand toxic wastes(see chapter 6 of Agenda l). 2MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATIONA/ F'NANC/NG,ANDCOSTEVALUATION has the 7.53 The Conference secretariat estimated costs of this programme in of implementing the activities of chapter9 (Protection the atmosphere). AND DEVELOPMENI RESOURCE B) HUMAN CAPACITY-BUILDING 7.54 ln orderto enhance skills of energyserviceand theOBJECTIVE in all 7.58 The objectiveis to enable countries, particular to those that are disaster-prone, mitigate the negative on impact of natural and man-madedisasters human nationaleconomies and the environment. settlements,ACTIVITIES under 7.59 Three distinct areasof activity are fbreseen of this programme area,namely, development a "culthe60planning and post-disaster ture of safety", pre-disaster reconstruction.A OF A) DEVELOP'NG CULTURE SAFETY 7.60 To promote a "culture of safety" in all countries. the fclllowing especially those that are disaster-prone, activitiesshouldbe carriedout: (a) Completingnationaland local studies thenature on and occurrenceof natural disasters,their impact on peopleandeconomicactivities, effectsof inadequate the areas, and the and land usein hazard-prone construction pre-disaster of socialandeconomicadvantages adequate planning; (b) Implementing nationwide and local awareness campaignsthrough all availablemedia, translatingthe above knowledge into information easily comprehensible to the generalpublic and to the populationsdirectly exposed hazards; to (c) Strengthening and/ordevelopingglobal, regional, to nationaland local early warning systems alert populationsto impendingdisasters; (d) Identifyingindustriallybased environmental disaster areas at the national and internationallevels and implementingstrategies aimed at the rehabilitationof through,inter alia: theseareas (i) Restructuring the economic activitiesand proof in sound moting new job opportunities environmentally sectors; (ii) Promotingclose collaborationbetweengovernmental and local authorities,local communitiesand organi zationsand privatebusiness non-governmental ; (iii) Developing conandenforcingstrictenvironmental trol standards.(c) Redirecting inappropriate new development and human settlements areasnot prone to hazards; to (d) Preparing guidelines on location, design and operation of potentially hazardous industries and activities; (e) Developingtools (legal,economicetc.) to encourincluding meansof age disaster-sensitive development, that limitationson development optionsarenot ensuring punitive to owners,or incorporate meansof alternative compensation; (0 Further developing and disseminatinginfbrmation on disaster-resistant building materials and construction technologies buildingsand public works in general; for (g) Developing training programmesfor contractors methods. and builderson disaster-resistant construction Some programmes should be directed particularly to smallenterprises, which build thegreatmajority of housing andothersmallbuildingsin thedeveloping countries, which build their own aswell asto the rural populations, houses: (h) Developing training programmes for emergency site managers,non-governmental organizations and community groups which cover all aspects disaster of mitigation, including urban searchand rescue,emergency comtnunications, early warning techniques, and pre-disaster planning ; (i) Developing procedures practices enable local and to communities to receive information about hazardous installationsor situationsin these areas,and facilitate their participationin early warning and disasterabateprocedures plans; ment and response and Preparing action plans fbr the reconstructionof 0) settlements, the of especially reconstruction community lifelines.PRE-DTSASTER PT.ANNING B) DEVELOPING planning shouldform an integralpart 7.61 Pre-disaster planningin all countries.The folof human settlement included: lowing shouldbe (a) Undertakingcompletemulti-hazardresearch into of human settlements and settlerisk and vulnerability includingwaterand sewerage, comment infrastructure, networks,as one type of municationand transportation (e.g., vulnerabilityto another risk reduction may increase house madeof wood will be more an earthquake-resistant vulnerableto wind storms); (b) Developing methodologies for determining risk and and vulnerabilitywithin specifichumansettlements incorporatingrisk and vulnerability reductioninto the process; planningand management humansettlementPOSI-DTSASTER c) TN|T|ATTNG RECONSTRUCT/ON AND REHA PTANN'NG BILITATION 1.62 The international community,as a major partnerin post-reconstruction rehabi and litation.shoul ensurethat d involvedderivethe greatest benefits from the the countries funds allocated undertaking following activities: the by (a) Carrying out research past experiences the on on of reconstrucsocialand economicaspects post-disaster tion and adoptingeffectivestrategies guidelines and for post-disaster reconstruction, with particular on emphasis development-focused strategies the allocation of in scarcereconstruction resources, on the opportunities and provides to introduce reconstruction that post-disaster patterns; sustainable settlement (b) Preparingand disserninating internationalguidelines for adaptation nationaland local needs; to6l(c) Supporting to effclrts nationalGovernments initiate of planning,with pafiicipationof affectedcomcontingency saster reconstmction rehabilitation. eurd munities. post-dr forMEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION AI FINANC/NG has the 7.63 The Conf'erence secretariat estimated aver( 1993-2000) implementing age total annualcost of the activities this programme be about$50 rnillion from of to the internationalcotnmunity on grant or concessional terms.Theseare indicativeand order-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. by Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are will depend upon, inter alia, the non-concessional, specificstrategies programmes and Governments decide upon for implenrentation.the achievement the nationalsocio-econornic of development goals of providing shelter,infrastructureand employment.However. they can be a ma.iorsourceof environmental darnage throughdepietionof'the natural resource base, degradation fragileec-o-zones, of chemical pollution and the use of building materialsharmful to humanhealth.OBJECTIVES 7.68 The objectives are,first, to adoptpoliciesandtechnologiesand to exchange informationon them in order to enablethe construction sectorto meet human settlement development goals,while avoiding harmful sideeffects on human health and on the biosphere,and, second, enhance employment-generation to the capacity of the construction sector.Governments shouldwork in close collaborationwith the private sectorin achievins theseobjectives.8/ 5C/ E N IF tC D T EC H N O T .OG\C AL N S AN ME A 7.64 Scientists engineers specializing thisfield rn and in both developingand developed countriesshould collaboratewith urban and regional plannersin order to providethebasicknowledge andmeans mitigatelosses to owing to disasters well as environmentally as inappropriatedevelopment.ACTIVITIES 7.69 All countriesshould,as appropriate and in accordancewith nationalplans,objectives and priorities: (a) Establishand strengthen the indigenousbuilding materials industry,based, much as possible, inputs as on of locallyavailable natural resources; (b) Formulateprogrammes enhancethe utilization to of localmaterials theconstruction by sectorbyexpanding technicalsuppoftand incentiveschernes increasing for thecapabilities economic and viability of small-scale and informal operatives which make use of thesematerials and traditionalconstruction techniques; (c) Adopt standardsand other regulatory measures which promote the increaseduse of energy-efficient designsand technologies and sustainable utilization of natural resources an economicallvand environmenin tally appropriate way, (d) Formulate policiesandintroduce appropriate land-use planning regulationsspeciallyaimed at the protectionof eco-sensitive zones against physical disruption construcby tion and cons0uction-related activities; (e) Promotethe use of labour-intensive construction and maintenance technologies which generate employment in the constructionsectorfor the underemployed labourforce found in mostlargecities,while at the same time promotingthedeveloplnent skills in theconstrucof tion sector: (f) Developpoliciesandpractices reachtheintormal to sector and sel f-hel p housi ng bui l ders by adopt ing measures increase affordabilityol-buildingmaterito the als on the part of the urbanandrural poor,through,inler uliu, credit schemes and bulk procurement buildins ofDE AI C) HUM A NR E SOU R C E VE L O P M ENND CA P A CI TY-B U IL D IN G 7.65 Developing countries shouldconducttrainingprogrammes disaster-rcsistant on construction methods for who buildthe majorityof houscontractors builders, and ing in the developing countries. This should focuson the sn-rall business which build the majority of enterprises housingin the developingcountries. 1. 66 T r ain i n g p ro g ra mme ss h o u l d b e extendedto governmentofficials and plannersand contmunityand non-govemmental organizations cover all aspects to of disaster rnitigation, such as early warning techniques, pr e- dis as tep l a n n i n ga n c lc o n s tru c ti o n, r post-di saster constnrctron rehabi and litation.G) PROMOTTNG SUSTATNABTE CONSTRUCTTON ACTIVITIES INDUSTRYFORACTION BASIS 7.67 The activities of the construction sector are vital tcr62materialsfor sale to small-scalebuilders and comrnunities. 7.70 All countriesshould: (a) Promotethe free exchangeof information on the of and entirerangeof environmental healthaspects conand dissemination struction,including the development on of databases the adverse environmental effects of effortsof the throughthecollaborative buildingmaterials privateand public sectors; (b) Promotethe development and dissemination of and health efdatabases the adverseenvironmental c-rn and introducelegislationand fectsof building materials financial incentivesto promote recycling of energyindustryand conin intensive materials the construction producof servation wasteenergyin building-materials tion methods; (c) Promotethe use of economicinstruments, such as product charges, discourage use of construction the to materialsand productsthat createpollution during their life cycle; (d) Promote information exchangeand appropriate with particular technologytransferamongall countries. manageattentionto developingcountries,for resource ment in construction,particularly for non-renewable resources: (e) Promote researchin constructionindustriesand institurelatedactivities,and establishand strengthen tions in this sector.s v a r i e t yo f t r a i n i n gm e t h o d sT h e s ec o u n t r i e s h o u l d . s i a l s o b e a s s i s t e d n d e v e l o p i n gp r o g r a m r n e t o e n a c o L l r a gte e u s eo f n o n - w a s t c n dc l e a nt ec h n o l c l g i e s h transferof technol ogl ,. through appropri ate 7 . 7 3 G e n e r a l e d t r c a t i o np r o g r a m n r e ss h o u l d b e to in as developed all countries, appropriate, increase technologies. builderawareness available of sustainable 1.14 Local authoritiesare called upon to play a piouse of envineeringrole in promoting the increased ronmental l y sound l di ngmateri al s construct ion and bui procur ec.g., technol ogi es, by pursui ng i nnovati ve an ment pol i cy.HUrylAN RESOURCE H) PROMOTTNG DEVETOPMENT AND CAPACITY.BUILDING HUMAN FOR NTs SETTTEME DEVELOPMENT FOR BASIS ACTION in 7.75 Most countries, additionto shortcomings the in of availability specializeexpertise the areas housof in d infraing, settlement management, land management, structure. construction, and pre-disasenergy.transport, ter planningandreconstruction, threecross-sectoral face human resolrrcedevelopmentand capacity-building shortfalls. First is the absence an enablingpolicy of and environmentcapableof integratingthe resources activitiesof the public sector, privatesectorand the the or second the weakness is of community, socialsector: institutions; third and specialized trainingand research is the insufficientcapacityfor technicaltraining a:rd for both assistance low-income cclmmunities. urbanand rural.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON Ai F/NANC/NG the has secretariat estimated aver7.7| The Conference age total annual cost ( 1993-2000)of implementing the activities of this prograrnmeto be about $40 billion, comincluding about $4 billion from the international terms.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional only and havenot estimates tive andorder-of-magnitude Actual costsandfinanbeenreviewedby Governments. will cial terms,includingany thatarenon-concessional, and dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategies prograrnmes decideuponfor implementation. GovernmentsOBJECTIVE 'fhe I .16 objective is to irnprove hurnan resourcedevelopment and capacity-building in all countriesby enhancing the personal and institutional capacity of all actors, parlicularly indigenous people and women, involved in human settlement development. In this regard, account should be taken of traditional cultural practicesof indigenous people and their relationshipto the environment.AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI B) HUMAN CAPACITY.BUILDING d s 7. 72 Der elopin gc o u n tri e s h o u l db e a s s i s te b,vi nterthe in nationalsupport andfundingagencies upgrading capacities the smallentreof technicaland managerial preneur and the vocational skills of operativesand in supervisors the building materialsindustry,using aACTIVITIES 7 . 7 1 S p e c i f i c h u m a n r e s o u r c ed e v e l o p r n e n a n d t havebeenbuilt into eachof capacity-building activities the programmeareasof this chapter. More gencrally, however,additional stepsshouldbe takento reinforce those activities. In order to do so, all countries, as appropriate, action: shouldtakethe follor.ving63(a) Strengthening development human resources of the and of capacitiesof public sector institutionsthrough so cooperation as and technicalassistance international in improvement to achieveby the year 2000 substantial activities; the efficiencyof governmental (b) Creatingan enablingpolicy environmentsupportive of the partnershipbetween the public, private and communitysectors; (c) Providing enhanced training and technicalassistance to institutionsproviding training for technicians, and elected professionals administrators, appointed, and and professionalmembers of local govemmentsand priority training their capacityto address strengthening needs,particularly in regard to social, economic and developenvironmentalaspectsof human settlements ment; (d) Providing direct assistance human settlement for at development the communitylevel, inter alia,by: (i) for and Strengthening promoting prograrnmes social of of mobilizationandraisingawareness thepotential women activities; andyouth in humansettlements (ii) Facilitatingcoordination the activitiesof women, of organiyouth, community groupsand non-govemmental development; zationsin humansettlements (iii) Promotingresearch women's programmes and on madewith a view other groups,and evaluatingprogress and needed assistance; to identifyingbottlenecks (e) Promotingthe inclusionof integrated environmengovernment general activities. into local tal management and non-govern7.78 Both internationalorgamzations mentalorganizations shouldsupportthe aboveactivities training instituby, inter alia, stengtheningsubregional providingupdated and raining materials disseminattions, and capacityhumanresource of ing the results successful s, programmes projects. and building activitieME A A B J sC /E N i l FtC N D TE C H N OT.OG| C A L NS 7.80 Both formal trainingand non-formaltypesof human prograrnmes and capacity-building resource development should be combined,and use should be made of usereurd up-to-date trainingmaterials oriented trainingmethods, systems. modernaudio-visual communication'No or expenditure on oggregote figures ore ovoiloble internol However, officioldevelopment ossistonce humonsettlements. on Report,1991, for 16 doto ovoiioblein the World Development of showthotthepercentoge centrol low-income developing countries omenities sociolsecurity ond government expenditure housing, on .|5.1 witho highof for 5.6 ond welfore l9B9 overoged percent, percentin thecoseof SriLonko, whichhosemborked o vigorous on during thesome housing progromme.OECD In indushiolized countries, on government expenditure housing, yeor,the percentoge centrol of ronged fromo minimum of omenities sociol ond security welfore ond withon overoge of 29.3 per centto o moximum 49.4 per cent, of Report, 1991, World 39 per cent {World Bonk, World Development D.C., toble Development Indicotors, I 1 iWoshington, l99l)1. 2See for ond the report of the Director-Generol Development preliminory stocontoining Internotionol Economic Cooperotion Notions system tisticol of dotoon operotionol octivities theUnited for I 988 lA/ 44/324-E/ 1989/ 106/ Add.4,onnex). 3world D.C., I 99.l). I Bonk, Annu Report,99 I (Woshington, al aUNOp, "Reported reloted UNDPasto investment commitments proiects,988", tobleI , "sectorol of sisted 1 distribution investment c o m m i t m e in t I 9 8 8 - l9 8 9 " . n 5 'A (CDP), pilotprogromme thlstype,theCiiy DotoProgromme of Centre Humon is olreodyin operoiion the UnitedNotions in on (Hobitot), ond Settlements oimedot theproduction disseminotion opplicotion softwore to porticipoting citiesof microcomputer notionol process retrieve dotofor locol, city designed store, to ond o o n d i n t e r n o t i o ne xl c h o n g o n d d i s s e m i n o t i o n . e 6This policies, which monogement for lond+esource colls integroted in ore olso oddressed chopterl0 of Agendo 2 1 (lntegroted of to opprooch plonning ond monogement londresources). ZTh" gool, of the Internotionol Decodefor Noturol Disoster Assembiy resolution Reduction, out in ihe onnexto Generol set 44/236, ore os follows: (o)Toimprove copocity eochcountry mitigote effects to the of the of poyingspeciol noturol ottendisosters expeditiously effectively, ond in of tion to ossisting developing countries the ossessment disoster worning systems potentiol in theestoblishment of eorly domoge ond whenond whereneeded; ond disosier-resisiont structures (b)To devise for guidelines strotegies opplying oppropriote ond tokinginto occount scientific technicol ond knowledge, existing theculturol ond economic diversity omongnotions; (c) Tofoster endeovours oimed closing ot scientific engineering ond loss in in criticolgops knowledge orderto reduce of lifeondproperty; (d)Todisseminote informotion reloted ond new technicol existing prediction mitigotion noturol ond of to meosures forthe ossessment, disosters; (e)Todevelop prediction, prevention for meosures thecssessment, progrommes technithrough of ond mitigotion noturol of disosiers proiects, tronsfer, demonstrotion col ossistonce technology ond ond toiloredto specific disosters ond troining, ond educotion progrommes. of locotions, io evoluote effectivenessthose the ondIMEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F/NANC/NG the has 7.79 The Conference secretariat estimated average total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe to of activities this programme be about$65 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiterms.Theseare indicativeand order-of--magnitude by mates only andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are will depend upon, inter alia, the non-concessional, decide Governments and specificstrategies progranunes upon for implementation.64ond environment development Integroting in decision-mokingINTRODUCTIONareas: the 8.1 This chapter contains following programme (a) lntegrating environmentand developmentat the levels; policy, planningand management ( b) P r ov iding a n e ffe c ti v e l e g a l a n d re g ul atory framework, (c) Making eftectiveuseof economicinstruments and marketand otherincentives; (d) Establishing for environmental systems integrated accountine. and economicP R O G R A M MA R E A S EENVIRONI ENTAND A) TNTEGRATING AT DEVETOPfrIENT THE POLICY,PTANNING AND ftTANAGEMENT LEVETS BASIS ACTION FOR in 8.2 Prevailing systemsfor decision-making many economic.socialand environcountries tend to separate mental factorsat the policy, planningand management of the levels.This influences actions all groupsin society, industry and individuals,and including Governments, for hasimportantimplications the efficiencyandsustainAn ability of development. adjustmentor even a funin damentalreshaping decision-making, the light of of if conditions,may be necessary envicountry-specific is ronment and development to be put at the centreof , ec onom ic and p o l i ti c a l d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g i n effect achieving a full integrationof thesefactors.In recent years,someGovemments have alsobegunto make sig-of in structures governnificantchanges the institutional of consideration mentin orderto enable more systematic when decisions madeon economic, are the environment trade social, fiscal, energy,agricultural,transpoftation, of and otherpolicies,aswell asthe implications policies in theseareasfor the environment. New torms of diafor betterintelogue arealsobeingdeveloped achieving industry, grationamongnationaland local government, groups and the public in the science,environmental processof developingeffectiveapproaches environto The responsibility bringing for ment and development. with in aboutchanges with Governments partnership lies private sectorand local authorities, in collaboand the ration with national.regionaland internationalorganizations, including in particular UNEP, UNDP and the World Bank. Exchange experience between countries of be significant. Nationalplans,goalsand objeccan also tives,nationalrules,regulations law, andthe specific and situationsin which difl-erent countriesare placedare the takesplace. overallframeworkin which suchintegration it In this context, mustbe bornein mind thatenvironmenmay posesevere economicand socialcosts tal standards if they are uniformly appliedin developing countries.OBJECIMES 8.3 The overall objectiveis to improve or restructure the decision-makingprocessso that considerationof issuesis fully intesocio-economic and environmental grated and a broaderrange of public participationaswill develop sured.With theunderstanding countries that prioritiesin accordance with their prevailing their own conditions, needs,national plans, policies and programmes, following objectives proposed: are the (a) To conducta nationalreview of economic,sectoral policies, andenvironmental strategies plansto ensure and the progressi vei ntegrati on of envi ronmentaland developmental issues;65(b) To strengtheninstitutional structuresto allow the full integrationof environmentaland developmentalissues,at all levelsof decision-making; (c) To developor improve mechanisms facilitate the to groupsandorganindividuals, involvement concerned of at izationsin decision-making all levels; (d) To establish to domesticallydeterminedprocedures int egr at e e n v i ro n m e n t a n d d e v e l o p m e nti ssues i n decision-making.(0 Ensuringaccess the public to relevantinfbrmaby of tion, facilitatingthe reception public viewsandallowing for effective participation.SYSIEMS PI.ANN'NG B) IMPROVING AND MANAGEMENI to approach decision8.5 To supporta more integrated usedto and analyticalmethods making,the datasystems processes may needto be supportsuchdecision-making whereapproin improved. Governments, collaboration, priate, with national and international orgamzations, shouldreview the statusof their planningand managemodif , t "and ment systems and, w here necessary, strengthenproceduresso as to facilitate the integrated considerationof social, economic and environmental issues.Countrieswill develop their own priorities in accordancewith their national plans, policies and programmes the following activities: for (a) Improving the use of data and information at all making systematic stages planningand management, of and simultaneous of social,economic,developnienuse tal, ecologicaland environmental data;analysisshoulcl stressinteractionsand synergisms;a broad range of analytical methods shouldbe encouraged asto provide so variouspointsof view; (b) Adopting comprehensive analyticalprocedures for prior and simultaneous of assessment the impacts of including the impactswithin and among the decisions, spheres; theseproeconomic,socialand environmental projectlevelto policies cedures shouldextendbeyondthe analysisshould also include assessand programmes; ment of costs,benefitsand risks; (c) Adopting flexible and integrativeplanning approaches that allow the consideration rnultiplegcials of and enable adjustmentof changing needs;integrative level can areaapproaches the ecosystem watershed at or assist this approach: in (d) Adoptingintegrated parlicumanagement systenrs. larly for the management naturalresources: of traditional methodsshouldbe studied or indigenous and considered wherever they have proved effective: \ /omen's traditionalrolesshouldnot be marginalized a resultof the as introductionof new management systems; (e) Adopting integrated to deapproaches sustainable velopmentat theregionallevel,includingtransbclundarv areas,subjectto the requirements particularcircunrof stances necds; and (D Using policy instruments(legal/r"egulatorl' and seekeconomic) a tool for planning as andmanagement. ing incorporation efficiencycriteriain decisions: inof struments shouldbe regularlyreviewedand adapted to ensurethat they continueto be effective;ACTIVITIES -MAKING PROCESSES DECISiON A) IMPROYING and 8.4 The primary needis to integrateenvironrnental processes.To do this, decision-making developmental Governmentsshould conduct a national review and, of where appropriate,improve the processes decisionmaking so as to achieve the progressiveintegration of issues the pursuit in and economic,scrcial environmental that is economicallyefficient, socially of development equitable and responsibleand environmentally sound. will developtheir own prioritiesin accordance Countries with their national plans, policies and programmesfor the following activities: (a) Ensuring the integration of economic, social and in at environmental considerations decision-making all in all ministries; levelsand (b) Adopting a domesticallyformulated policy framework that reflectsa long-termperspective and cross-sectaking account toral approach the basisfor decisions, as of the linkagesbetween and within the variouspolitical, issuesinvolved in economic,social and environmental process; the development (c) Establishingdomestically determinedways and of meansto ensurethe coherence sectoral,economic, policies,plans and policy insocial and environmental struments,including fiscal measuresand the budget: these mechanisms should apply at various levels and bring together those interested in the development process; (d) Monitoring and evaluatingthe development process regularreviewsof the state systematically conducting and development, economic and social of human resources and trendsand the stateof the environment and conditions naturalresources: could be complemented annual this by environmentand developmentreviews, with a view to by sustainable developmentachievements the assessing varioussectors departments govemment; and of (e) Ensuringtransparency and accountabilityfor, of, theenvironmental implications economicandsectoral of policies;66responsi(g) Delegating planning and management bilities to the lowestlevel of public authorityconsistent of with el'fectiveaction; irt peuticularthe advantages by for opportunities participation and cff'ective equitable wornenshouldbe discussed; procedures involving local comfor (h) Estatrlishing and planningfor environmental in rnunities contingency and maintainingan open exchange industrialaccidents, clf informationon local hazards.decide Governments and specificstrategies programmes for implementation. uponAND ENY'RONMENI B] RESEARCH'NG CI'ONS DEV LOP E MENI INTERA in 8.9 Governments, collaborationwith thenationaland international scientific community and in cooperation as with internationalorganizations, appropriate,should intensify efforts to clarify the interactionsbetweenand within social, economic and environmental considerwith the explicit shouldbe undertaken ations. Research objective of assistingpolicy decisionsand providing practices. on reconunendations improving managementAND /NFORMAT/ON c) DATA for could developsystems monitoringand 8.6 Countries of evalr.ration progresstowards achieving sustainable changes that measure by development adoptingindicators dimensions. socialandenvironmental across economic,AND IRA'N/NG EDUCATION C' ENHANC'NG FOR A D) ADOFTING NAnONAL STRATEGY B SUSIA/NALE DEVELOPMENT where appropriate, in 8.7 Governments" cooperation, shouldadopta national with international orgamzations, on, based inter alia, development for strategy sustainable takenat theConf'erence, of the irnplenrcntation decisions should of in particularly respect Agenda2 I . This strategy economic, the build uponandharmonize varioussectoral social and environmentalpolicies and plans that are gainedthrough opcratingin thecountry. The experience suchas nationalreportsfor eristing planningexercises strategies enand nationalconservation the Conf-crence, vininnrentaction plans shouldbe fully usedand incordevelopment poratedinto a country-drivensustainable strategy.Its goals shouldbe to ensuresociallyresponsible economic developmentwhile protectingthe rebaseand the environmentfor the benefit of future sourcrc throughthe widest gcnerations. shouldbe developed It on participation.It shouldbe based a thorough possible nt assessme of the currentsituationand initiatives. with whereappropriate, in 8.10 Countries, cooperation, should national, regional or internationalorganizations, exist, or are dehurnanresources ensurethat essential veloped,to undertakethe integrationof environmentand developmentat various stagesof the decision-making and implementation process. To do this, they should improve.educationand technical training, particularly for approaches. womenandgirls,by includinginterdisciplinary and university other in asappropriate, trchnical,vocational, curricula. They should also undertakesystematictraining of governmentpersonnel,plannersand managerson a regular basis.giving priority to the requisiteintegrative that techniques approaches planningand management and conditions. are suitedto country-specificAWARENESS PUBLIC D) PROMOIING with nationalinstitutions in 8.1I Countries, cooperation and groups,the media and the internationalcommunity, in should promote awareness the public at large, as well of of asin specializedcircles, the importance considering and in environmentanddevelopment anintegratedmanner, for should establishmechanisms facilitating a direct exchangeof informationand views with the public. Priority and should be given to highlighting the responsibilities socialgroups. of potentialcontributions dift-erentOF MEANS IMPLEMENTATION AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANC/NG the has secretariat estimated averl{.E Thc Conference (199:l-2000) implementing the of age total annualcost million from to actir iiit's of thisprogramme be about$50 conrmunityon grant or concessional thc-irrternational estiternls.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude matesonlv andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are will depend upon, inter alia, the non-concessional,NAI'ONAI. E/ SIRENGIHEN'NG ITY INSI'IUi/ONAL C APAC where appropriate. in 8.12 Governments, cooperation, nashould strengthen with intemationalorganizations,67tional institutional capability and capacity to integrate social, economic,developmental and environmental issuesat all levels of developmentdecision-making and implementation. Attention should be given to moving away from narrow sectoral approachesand progressingtowards full cross-sectoral coordination and cooperation.OBJECTIVES 8.16 The overall objectiveis to promote,in the light of country-specific conditions,the integrationof environment and development policiesthroughappropriate legal and regulatory policies, instruments and enforcement mechanisms the national,state,provincial and local at levels.With theunderstanding countries that will develop their own priorities in accordance with their needsand nationaland,whereappropriate, regionalplans,policies and prograrunes,the following objectivesare proposed: (a) To disseminateinformation on effective legal and regulatory innovations in the field of environment and development, including appropriate instruments and compliance incentives, with a view to encouraging their wider use and adoptionat the national,state,provincial and local levels; (b) To supportcountriesthat requestit in their national efforts to modernize and strengthen policy and legal the framework of governancefor sustainable development, having due regardfor local social valuesand infrastructures; (c) To encourage developmentand implementation the of national, state,provincial and local programmesthat assess and promote compliance and respond appropriately to non-compliance.Bl PROVIDING AN EFFECTTVE rEGAL AND REGUTATORY FRAMSWOR,KBASIS ACTION FOR 8.13 Laws and regulationssuited to country-specific conditionsareamongthe most importantinstruments for policiesinto transforming environment development and action, not only through "command and control" methods, but also as a normative framework for economic planningand marketinstruments. Yet, althoughthe volincreasing, umeof legaltextsin thisfield is steadily much of the law-makingin many countriesseems be ad hoc to and piecemeal, hasnot beenendowedwith the necesor sary institutional machinery and authonty for enforcement and timely adjustment. 8.14 While there is continuousneed for law improvement in all countries,many developingcountrieshave been affectedby shortcomings laws and regulations. of To effectivelyintegrate environment development and in the policiesand practices eachcountry,it is essential of to develop and implement integrated, enforceable and effectivelaws and regulations that arebased upon sound principles.It social, ecological, economic and scientific is equally critical to develop workable programmes to reviewandenforcecompliance with thelaws,regulations and standards that are adopted. Technical support may for be needed many countries accomplish to thesegoals. Technicalcooperation requirements this field include in legal information, advisory services and specialized trainingand institutional capacity-building. 8.15 The enactment and enforcement laws and reguof lations (at the regional, national, state/provincialor local/municipal level) are also essentialfor the implementationof most internationalagreements the in field of environment and development. illustratedby as the frequent treaty obligation to report on legislative measures. surveyof existingagreements The undertaken preparations indicated in the contextof conference has problemsof compliancein this respect. and the needfor improvednationalimplementation and,whereappropriate, related technical assistance. In developing their nationalpriorities,countries shouldtakeaccount o1'their international obligations.ACTIVITIES A) MAKTNG LAWSAND REGUTAT/ONS MORE EFFECTTVE 8.17 Governments, with the support,where appropriate, of competentinternational organizations, should regularly assess laws and regulations the enactedand the relatedinstitutional/administrative machineryestablished the national/state local/municipal at and levels in the field of environmentand sustainable development, with a view to renderingthem effective in practice.Programmes this purposecould include for the promotion of public awareness, preparationand di stri buti on of gui dancemateri al , and spe cialized training, including workshops, seminars,education programmes and conferences, public officials who for desi gn, i mpl ement, moni tor and enforce l aws and regul ati ons.B) ESTABL/SH/NG AND JUD\C\AL A DM/NIsTRAT E PROC RE IV EDU S 8.18 Governments and legislators,with the support, where appropriate,of competent international organijudicial and administrative zations, shouldestablish pro-68and for cedures legal reclress remedyof actionsaffecting that may be unlawful or environmentand development infringe on rights unclerthe law. and should provide with a to access individuals,groupsand organizations iegal interest" recognizedAND REFERENCE LEGAT C) PROVIDING SERY/CES SUPPORT and non-govern8.19 Competentintergovernmentai to could cooperate provide Govmentalorganizations upon request,with an intelegislators, ernmentsand grated programmeof environmentand development carefully law) services, development law (sustainable of to the specificrequirements the recipient adapted could systems. Suchsystems legal and administrative of in includeassistance the preparation comusefully inventoriesand reviews of national legal prehensive the has systems.Pastexperience demonstrated usefulnessof combining specializedlegalinformation services with legal expert advice.Within the United Naarnongall agencies tions system,closer cooperation and would avoid duplicationof databases concerried coul d f ac ilit at e div is i o n o f l a b o u r. T h e s e a g e n c i e s ex am ine t he po s s i b i l i ty a n d me ri t o f p e rformi ng n r ev iewsof s ele c te d a ti o n a l e g a l s v s te m s .to maximize compliancewith its laws and regulations from with assistance development, relatingto sustainable and other countriesas approintemationalorganizations could include: priate. The strategies (a) Enforceable,effective laws, regulationsand standards that are basedon soundeconomic,social and environmental principles and appropriaterisk assessment, incorporatingsanctionsdesignedto punish violations, obtain redressand deterfuture violations; (b) Mechanisms promotingcompliance; for (c) Institutional capacityfor collecting compliancedata, regularlyreviewing compliance,detectingviolations,est tablishingenforcemen priori ties,undertakingeffectiveenforcement,and conductingperiodic evaluationsof the efof fectiveness complianceand enforcementprogrammes; (d) Mechanismsfor appropriateinvolvementof individof and ualsandgroupsin thedevelopment enforcement laws and regulationson environmentand development.TO TOLLOW'UP OF F/ NAnONAL MONTTOR/NG LEGAL EN I. ,NTERNAIIONA/NSIRUM IS in agreements, 8.22 Contractingpartiesto international of consultationwith the appropriatesecretariats relevant shouldimprove as intemationalconventions appropriate, practicesand proceduresfor coliecting information on taken. Contractingparties legal andregulatorymeasures samplesurcould undertake agreements to international veys of domesticfollow-up action subjectto agreement concerned. States by the sovereignIRA/N/NG A COOPERATIVE D) ESTABL'SH/NG LAW DEVELOPMENT FORSUSIAINAEI.E NEIWORK institutions and academic international 8.20 Competent to cooperate provide, fratneworks, could, within agreed postfrom developingcountries, especiallyfor trainees trainingfacilitiesin and programmes in-service graduate law. Suchtrainingshould and environment development and boththeeffectiveapplication theprogressive address improvementof applicablelaws, the related skills of drafting and mediation,and the training of negotiating, orand trainers. Intergovernmental non-governmental alreadyactive in this field could cooperate ganizations to with relateduniversity programmes harmonizecurriculum planningandto ol r an optimalrangeof options and Governrnents potentialsponsors. to interestedMEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION Ai F/NANC/NG the has secretariat estimated aver8.23 The Conference age total annualcost (1993-2000)of implementingthe activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 million from the international community on grant or concessional esterms. Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude timatesonly and have not been reviewed by Governcostsand financial terms,including any ments. ,A.ctual will that are non-concessional, dependupon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.NATIONAI EFFECTIVE E) DEVELaP'NG AND FOR PROGRAMMES REVIEWING WITHNAI/ONAI, COMPLIANCE ENFORC/NG I.AWS ON AND PROY/NCIAT LOCAL STATE, AND DEVELOPMENT ENYIRONMFNI strategies developintegrated 8.21 Each country shoLrldMEANS AND IECHNOI.OGICAL B/ SCIENI/F/C on reliesessentially a continuation 8.24 The prograrnme and translation of ongoingwork for legaldatacollection,69assessment. Closercooperation between existingdatabases may be expected leadto betterdivisionof labour to (e.9., in geographical coverage nationallegislative of gazettes and other rel'erence sources)and to irnproved standardization compatibilityof data,asappropriate. andC) HUM A NR ES O U R C E EL OP M F N I D EV 8.25 Participation trainingis expected benefit in to practitioners from developing countries to enhance and training opportunities women. Demandfor this type of for postgraduate in-service and trainingis knor.vn be high. to The senrinars. workshops conferences reviewand and on enforcement that havebeenheld to datehavebeenvery successful and well attended.The purposeof theseef(both human and instituforts is to developresources tional)to design andimplement programmes effective to continuously revierv arrd enforce national loc:al and laws, regulations standards sustainable and on development.economic context and given the necessary legal and regulatory framework, economic and market-oriented approaches in many cases can enhance capacityto deal with the issues environment of and development. This wouldbeachievedbyprovi ngcost-eftective utions, di sol appl yi ngi ntegrated l uti onpreventi on nt r ol,pr opol co rnoting technological innovationand influencingenvironmentalbehaviour, well as providing financial as resources meetsustainable to development objective s. 8.30 What is neededis an appropriate effort to explore and make more effective and widespreaduse of economic and market-oriented approaches within a broad framework of development policies,law and regulation suitedto country-specific conditionsas part of a general transition to economic and environmental policiesthat are supportiveand mutually reinforcing.OBJECTIVES 8.31 While it is understood counrries that will develop their own prioritiesin accordance with their needsand nationalplans,policies and prograffrfiles, c-hallenge the is to achievesignificantprogress the yearsaheadin in meetingthreefundamental objectives: (a) To incorporate environmental costsin thedecisions of producers and consumers to reverse tendency and the to treattheenvironment a "freegood" andto pass as these costson to otherpafisof society, othercountries orfuture generations: (b) To move more fully towardsintegrationof social andenvironmental costsintoeconomic activities. that so priceswill appropriately reflectthe relativescarcityand total value of resourcesand contribute towards ttre prevention environmental of degradation; (c) To include,whereverappropriate, useof marthe ket principlesin the framing of economicinstruments and pol i ci esto pursuesustai nabldevel opm ent . eD/ S T RE N GT H F N /N G A rAN D IE G /NSI/IUIlONALCAPACITY 8.26 A mitjor part of the programmeshouldhe oriented tow'ards intprovingthe legal-institutional capacities of conntries copewith national to problems governance of and effectivelaw-makingand law-applying the field in of environment sustainable and development. Regional centres o1't-'xcellence be designatcd supported could and to build up specialized databases rrainingtacilities and for linguistic/cultural groupsof legalsystems.c) ,uAKrNG EFFECTTVE OF ECONOMTC USE INSTRUMENTS AND IYIARKET AND OTHERINCENTIVESBASIS FOR ACTION i1.27 Environmental law and regulation are important but cannot alone be expected to deal with the problenrs of environnrent and development. Prices. markets and r e ( r V er r n l e n t a lf l s c a l a n d e c o n o r n i c p o l t c i c s a l s ( )p l a v a conrplr-nrelttarv role in shaping attitudes and behaviour towards the environment. 8.28 During the past several years, many Governments, primarily in industrialized cluntries ut also in Central c b and Eastern Europe and in developing cctirntries, have been making increasing use of economic approaches. including those that are market-oriented. txarnples include lhe polluter-pays principle and the ntore recent natural-resource-u ser-pays concept. 8.29 Within a supportive international and nationalACTIVITIES A) tMPROylNG OR REOR/ENI/NG GOVERNMENIAT OLICIES P 8.32 ln the near term, Govemments should consider gradually building on experience with economic instruments and market mechanisms by undertaking to reorient their policies, keeping in mind national plans, priorities and objectives. in order to: (a) Establish effbctive combinations of economic. regulatory and voluntary (self'-regulatory) approaches; (b) Remove or reduce those subsidiesthat tJo not cronform with sustainable development objectives;70of (c) Reform or recastexisting structures economic and developto and fiscal incentives meet environment ment objectives; the (cl) Establisha policy lramework that encourages in of creation new markets pollutioncontrolandenvironmanagement; resource mentally sclunder with sustainable (e) Move towardspricing consistent obj development ectives. should explore,in co8.33 In particular,Governments how as and with business industry, appropriate' operation and effectiveusecan be madeof economicinstruments in marketmechanisms the following areas: agriculture transportation, (a) Issues relatedto energy, and forestry,water,wastes,health,tourism and tertiaryOF UNDERSIAND/NG THEROI.E D/ /NCREAS/NG A /N OF E C ON OMIC S IR U ME N ISN D MECHANIS/I4S MARKET8.36 Governmentsshoul d encourageresearchand and analysison effectiveusesof economicinstruments of and with the assistance support regionaland incentives international econornic and environmental organrzaresearchinstitutes, tions, as well as non-governmental as: with a focuson suchkey issues (a) The role of environmentaltaxation suited to national conditions: and in(b) The implicationsof econornicinstruments trade,and and for centives competitiveness international potential needs for appropriatefuture international serv'ices; and coordination cooperation ; issues; (b) Global and transboundarv of irnplications (c) The possible socialanddistributive (c) Thedevelopmentandintroductionofenvironmentally usingvarious instruments" diftusionand transfer and its adaptation, soundtechnology in countries conformitywith chaptet34. to developing FOR A PROCESS E) ESTABLISH'NG P R /C IN G ON FOC U S /N G of advantages usingpricingpolicies8.37 Thetheoretical and need to be better understood, where appropriate, of by greatcrunderstanding what it means accompanied should Processes in steps thisdirection. to takesignificant inwith business. in cooperation be therefore initiated, ctlrporations, and transnational dustry,large enterprises at as well asother socialgroups,as appropriate, both the levels,to examine: nationaland international (a) The practical implications of moving towards greater relianceon pricing policiesthat intemalizeenviti.r ronmentalcostsappropriate help achievesustainable objectivcs: development of pricingin the case (b) The implications resource tor n nfries. IncIu Prevention, reductionond controlof degradotionof the marine envi nment from seo-bosedactivit-ts ro e 17.30States,acting individually,bilaterally,regionally or multilaterallyand within the frameworkof IMO and other relevantinternational whethersuborganizations, regional, regionalor global,asappropriate, shouldassess the needfor additionalmeasures address to desradation of the marineenvironment:A) FROMSHIPPING, BY:(i) Supporting widerratification andimplementation of relevantshippingconventions and protocols; (ii) Facilitatingthe processes (i), providing support in to individualStates upon request help them overcome to the obstacles identifiedbv them:t5t(iii) Cooperatingin monitoring marine pollution from (e.g.,aerialsurfrom illegal discharges ships,especially provisions MARPOL di scharge veillance), andenforcing more rigorously, (iv) Assessing stateof pollution caused shipsin by the particularlysensitive identihedby IMO andtaking areas wherenecesapplicablemeasures, action to implen-rent sary, within such areas to ensure compliance with regulations; generallyaccepted international (v) Takingactionto ensure respect areas of designated economiczones, within their exclusive States, by coastal law, in order to protectand with international consistent such as coral reefs preserverare or fragile ecosystems, and mangroves; (vi) Consideringthe adoptionof appropriate rules on to ballastwater discharge preventthe spreadof nonorganisms; indigenous (vii) Promoting by charting navigational safety adequate as and ship-routittg, appropriate; of coasts regula(viii) Assessing needfor stricterinternational the and tionsto furtherreducethe risk of accidents pollution from cargoships(includingbulk caniers); (ix) EncouragingIMO and IAEA to work togetherto of complete consideration a code on the carriage of ships; inadiatednuclearfuel in flaskson boarcl (x) Revisingand updatingthe IMO Codeof Safetyfor Nuclear Merchant Ships and consideringhow best to implementa revisedcode; (xi) Supporting ongoingactivitywithin IMO regardthe measures reducins for of ing development appropriate air pollution from ships; ( x ii) S u p p o rti n gth e o n g o i n g a c ti v i ty w i thi n IMO regarding the development of an international regime governingthe transponation hazardous of and noxious substances carriedby shipsandfurtherconsideringwhether under established fundssimilarto theones thecompensation in the Fund Conventionwould be appropriate respectof otherttranoil; pollutiondamage by caused substancesPORTS, BY: D) FROM (i) Facilitating facilities ofportreception establishment for the collection of oily and chemical residuesand garbage from ships,especiallyin MARPOLspecial areas, and promoting the establishmentof smaller scale facilitiesin marinasand fishing harbours. other competentUnited 17.31IMO and as appropriate, Nations organizations, when requestedby the States the where appropriate, stateof concerned, shouldassess, shipping,such as marine pollution in areasof congested with a view to ensuring heavilyusedinternational straits, compliance with generally acceptedinternationalregulations, particularly those related to illegal discharges with the provisionsof Part III from ships,in accordance on of the United NationsConvention the Law of the Sea. to 17.32Statesshouldtake measures reducewater pollution causedby organotincompoundsused in antifouling paints. on ratifyingtheConvention 17.33States shouldconsider Response and Cooperation, Oil PollutionPreparedness, of which addresses, inter alia, the development contingency plans on the national and internationallevel, as appropriate,including provision of oil-spill response includingits possible rnaterial and trainingof personnel, extension chemicalspill response. to cooperation 17.34Statesshould intensify international regional to strengthenor establish,where necessary, response and/or,as appropriate, oiVchemical-spill centres mechanisms cooperationwith relevant subregional, in organizations and, regionalor global intergovernmental organizations. whereappropriate, industry-basedB) DATA, AND 'NFORMAilON and in accordance 17.35Statesshould,as appropriate, with the meansat their disposaland with due regardfor their technical and scientific capacity and resources, make systematic observations the stateof the marine on environment.To this end, Statesshould, as appropriate, consider: (a) Establishingsystematicobservationsystemsto quality,includingcauses measure marineenvironmental and effectsof marinedegradation, a basisfor manageas ment; (b) Regularly exchanginginformation on marine degradationcausedby land-based and sea-based activities and on actions to prevent, control and reduce such degradation; (c) Supporting and expanding international programmes systematic suchas the mussel for observations watch prograrnme, building on existing facilities with specialattention developingcountries; toDUMPING, BY; B) FROM (i) Supportingwider ratification,implementation and participation relevantConventions dumpingat sea, in on including early conclusionof a future strategyfor the London Dumping Convention; par(ii) Encouraging LondonDumpingConvention the steps stopoceandumpingand to ties to take appropriate of substances incineration hazardous :BY: PI,ATFORMS, OIL C) FROM OFFSHOREANDGAS (i) Assessing to existing regulatorymeasures address the emissions and safetyand assessing need discharges, for additionalmeasures:152(d) Establishing clearing-house marinepollution on a control information, including processes and technologiesto address marinepollution control and to support andothercountries their transferto developing countries with demonstrated needs; (e) Establishing globalprofileanddatabase providing a information on the sources,types, amounts and effects of pollutantsreachingthe marineenvironmentfrom landand sea-based sources; basedactivitiesin coastalareas (f) Allocating adequate funding for capacity-building and training programmesto ensurethe full participation in in countries, particular, anyintemational of developing schemeunderthe organsand organizations the United of Nationssystem thecollection, for analysis useof data and and information.identify those that cannot be adequatelycontrolled and to provide a basisfor a decisionon a time schedule for phasingthem out as soonas practicable; (0 Establishmentof a clearing-house information for on rnarine pollution control, including processes and technologiesto addressmarine pollution control, and support for their transfer to developing and other countrieswith demonstrated needs.C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 17.38Statesindividually or in cooperationwith each other and with the supportof internationalorganizations, whether subregional,regional or global, as appropriate, should: (a) Provide training for critical personnelrequiredfor protectionof the marine environmentas the adequate identified by training needs' surveys at the national, regionalor subregional levels; (b) Promotethe introduction of marine environmental protectiontopics into the curriculum of marine studies programmes; (c) Establishtraining coursesfor oil- and chemicalpersonnel, cooperation, spill response in whereappropriate,with the oil and chemicalindustries; (d) Conduct workshopson environmentalaspects of port operations and development; (e) Strengthen and provide securefinancing for new international and existing specialized centresof professionalmaritimeeducation; (0 Throughbilateral supandmultilateral cooperation, port and supplement nationalefforts of developing the countries as regardshuman resourcedevelopmentin relationto prevention reduction degradation the and of of marineenvironment.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANC/NG has estimatedthe 17.36The Conferencesecretariat average total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of the activitiesof this programrleto be about$200million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.Theseare indicative and order-of--magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed by Actualcosts andfinancial terms, including Governments. will any that are non-concessional, dependupon, inter and programrnes Governalia, the specific strategies mentsdecideupon for implementation.MFANS AND 8/ SCTENT/F/C TECHNOT.OG\CAL 1 7 . 3 7 a t i o n a l , s u b r e g i o n a la n d r e g i o n a l a c t i o n N programmes will, whereappropriate, requiretechnology transfer,in conformity with chapter 31, and financial parlicularly where developingcountriesare resources, including: concerned. (a) Assistance industries identifyingand adopting in to pollutioncontroltechcleanproduction cost-eff'ective or nologies; (b) Planningdevelopment and application low-cost of sewage installationand treatment and low-maintenance for technologies developing countries; (c) Equipmentof laboratories observesystematically to humanand otherimpactson the marineenvironment; (d) Identification appropriate andchemical-spill oilof control materials,including low-cost locally available for materials techniques, and suitable pollutionemergeng ci esin dev elopin c o u n tri e s . (e) Study of the use of persistent organohalogens that are liable to accumulatein the marine environmenttoD) CAPACITY-BUILDING 17.39Nationalplanningandcoordinating bodiesshould be given the capacityand authorityto review all landbased activities and sources pollutionfor their impacts of on the marine environment and to proposeappropriate control measures. 17.40Researchfacilities should be strengthened or, whereappropriate, developed developingcountriesfor in systematic observation marinepollution,environmenof tal impact assessment development control recand of ommendationsand should be managed and staffed by local experts. 17.41Specialarrangements will be neededto provide adequatefinancial and technical resourcesto assistr53and solvingproblems in countries preventing developing the with activitiesthat threaten marineenviassociated ronment. 17.42An intemationalfunding mechanismshould be treatcreatedfor the applicationof appropriatesewage ment technologiesand buildittg sewage treatment loansfrom facilities,including grantsor concessional international agenciesand appropriateregional funds, at replenished leastin part on a revolvingbasisby user fees. 17.43ln carrying out theseprogrammeactivities,particular attention needs to be given to the problems of developingcountriesthat would bear an unequalburden or of because their lack of facilities,expertise technical capacities.OBJECTIVES and to commit themselves the conservation 17.46States on use sustainable of marine living resources the high to: seas.To this end,it is necessary (a) Developand increase potentialof marineliving the resources meet human nutritional needs,as well as to goals; social,economicand development (b) Maintain or restorepopulations marine species of yield at levelsthatcanproducethe maximumsustainable as qualified by relevant environmental and economic factors, taking into considerationrelationshipsamong species; fish(c) Promotethe development useof selective and that minimize wastein the catch ing gearand practices of target speciesand minimrze by-catch of non-target species; (d) Ensureeffective monitoring and enforcementwith respect fishing activities; to marinespecies; (e) Protectand restoreendangered (f) Preserve habitatsand other ecologicallysensitive areas; (g) Promote scientific researchwith respectto the in marineliving resources the high seas. 17.47Nothing in paragraph 17.46 above restricts the right of a State or the competenceof an international to as organization, appropriate, prohibit, limit or tegulate the exploitation of marine mammals on the high seas States more strictly thanprovidedfor in that paragraph. shall cooperatewith a view to the conservationof shall marine mammalsand, in the caseof cetaceans, i n parti cul ar w ork through the appropr iat eint er managefor nationalorganizations their conservation, ment and study. 17.48The ability of developingcountriesto fulfil the above objectivesis dependentupon their capabilities, including the tinancial, scientific and technological and Adequate financial,scientific means theirdisposal. at shouldbe providedto support cooperation technological actionby them to implementtheseobjectives.OF c) SusrArNABrE usE AND CONSERVATION OF fiTAHNE LIVING RESOURCES THE I{IGH SEASFOR BASIS ACTION 11.44Over the last decade,fisherieson the high seas have considerablyexpandedand currently represent 5 approximately per cent of total world landings. The provisionsof the United Nations Conventionon the Law of the Sea on the marine living resourcesof the with high seassetsforth rights and obligationsof States respect to conservationand utilization of those resources. inof 17.45However,management high seasfisheries, cluding the adoption, monitoring and enforcement of in is measures, inadequate many effectiveconservation areas and some resourcesare overutilized. There are exfishing, overcapitalization, problemsof unregulated controls, cessivefleet size, vesselreflaggingto escape and insufficiently selectivegear, unreliabledatabases between States.Action by lack of sufficientcooperation Stateswhose nationalsand vesselsfish on the high s eas ,as w e l l a s c o o p e ra ti o na t th e bi l ateral , subparregional,regional and global levels, is essential ticularly for highly migratory speciesand straddling stocks. Such action and cooperationshould address as in inadequacies fishing practices, well as in biologiof fisheriesstatistics and improvement cal knowledge, shouldalsobe on for systems handlingdata.Emphasis that multi-speciesmanagementand other approaches take into account the relationshipsamong species, but also in depletedspecies, especiallyin addressing or identifyingthe potentialof underutilized unutilized populations.ACTIVITIES lTt ELAT A) MANAGEMENT-R EDACTIV ES 17.49States should take effective action, including where appropriate bilateral and multilateral cooperation, global levels,to ensure regionaland at the subregional, with that high seasfisheriesare managedin accordance on the the provisionsof the United NationsConvention they should: Law of the Sea.In particular, (a) Give f'ull effect to theseprovisionswith regardto fisheriespopulationswhoserangeslie both within and stocks); beyondexclusiveeconomiczones(straddling154(b) Give full effect to theseprovisionswith regardto highly migratoryspecies; (c) Negotiate,where appropriate,internationalagreementsfor the effective management and conservation of fishery stocks; (d) Define and identify appropriate management units; 17.50Statesshould convene,as soon as possible,an intergovernmentalconference under United Nations auspices, taking into accountrelevantactivities at the subregional, regionaland global levels,with a view to promotingeffectiveimplementation the provisions of of the United NationsConventionon the Law of the Seaon straddlingfish stocksand highly rnigratorylish stocks. The conference, drau,ing,inter alia, on scientific and technical studiesby FAO, should identify and assess existing problems related to the conservationand management suchfish stocks,and considermeansof of improving cooperation fisheriesamong States,and on formulate appropriaterecofilrnendations. The work and the resultsof the conference should be fully consistent with the provisions the United NationsConvention of on theLaw of theSea, particularthe in rightsandobligations of coastalStates and States fishing on the high seas. 17.51States should ensure thatfishingactivities vesby sels flying their flags on the high seastake place in a mannerso as to minimizeincidental catches. 17.52States shouldtake effectiveactionconsistent with international to monitorandcontrolfishingactivities law by vessels flying their flags on the high seasto ensure compliancewith applicableconservation and management rules,including full, detailed,accurate and timely reportingof catches and effort. 17.53States shouldtakeeffectiveaction,consistent with international law, to deterreflaggingof vessels their by nationals a means avoidingcompliance as of with applicable conservationand managementrules for fishing activitieson the high seas. 17.54States shouldprohibitdynamiting, poisoning and othercomparable destructive fishing practices. 17.55States shouldfully implement General Assembly resof ution 461215 large-scale on pelagrc drift-netfishing. 17.-56 Statesshouldtake measures increase availato the bility of marineliving resources humanfood by reducing as wastage, post-harvest lossesand discards, and improving tech iques of processi distribu n ng, tion and transportation.the conservation sustainable of the marinelivine and use resources the high seas; of (b) Exchangeon a regular basisup-to-datedata and informationadequate fisheries for assessment; (c) Developand shareanalyticaland predictivetools, suchas stockassessment bioeconomic and models; (d) Establishor expand appropriatenronitoring and programmes. assessmentc/ /NIERNAI/ONAL AND REGIONAI COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON 17.58States, through bilateraland multilateralcooperation and within the frarnewclrkof subregionaland regional fisheriesbodies,as appropriate, and with the supportof other intemationalintergovernmental agencies, should assess high seasresourcepotentialsand develop profiles of all stocks(targetand non-target). 17.59Statesshould, where and as appropriate, ensure adequate coordinationand cooperation enclosed in and semi-enclosed seasand betweensubregional, regional and global intergovemmental fisheries bodies. I 7.60 Effectivecooperation within existingsubregional, regionalor globalfisheries bodiesshouldbe encouraged. Where suchorganizations not exist,States do should,as appropriate, cooperate establish to suchorganizations. 17 .61 States with aninterest ahigh seas in fisheryregulated by an existing subregionaland/or regional high seas fisheries organization whichtheyarenot members of should be encouraged join thatorganization. to whereappropriate. 17.62States recognize: (a) The responsibility theInternational of WhalingCommission fbr the conservation and marlagement whale of stocksand the regulationof whaling pursuant the 1946 to International Convention the Regulation Whaling; tbr of (b) The work of theIntemational WhalingCommission Scientific Cornmitteein carrying out studiesof large whalesin particular, well as of othercetaceans; as (c) The work of otherorganizations, suchas the InterAmericanTropicalTunaCommission theAgreement and on Small Cetaceans theBaltic andNorth Seaunderthe in Bonn Convention, the conservation, in management and studyof cetaceans othermarinemammals. and 17.63States should cooperatefor the conservation, management studyof cetaceans. andA B ) DA T A ND / NF O R M AT ION MEANS I,\\PLEMENTATION OF 17.57States. with the supporlof international organizations, whether subregional, regionalor global, as appropriate, shouldcooperate to: (a) Promoteenhanced collectionof datanecessary for Aj F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17 .64 The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementingthe ofr55to activitiesof this programme be about$12 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiterms.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude reviewed Governments. by only andhavenot been mates Actual costsand financial terms,including any that are will depend upon, inter alia, the non-concessional, Governmentsdecide and specific strategies programmes upon for implementation.17.69Special support, including cooperationamong States, will be needed to enhancethe capacitiesof countries theareas dataandinformation, in of developing means, and humanresource scientificand technological developmentin order to participateeffectively in the utilization of high seas conservationand sustainable marineliving resources.AL A 8/ S C/ E NIF tC N D T EC H N O L OG| CME AN S with the supportof relevantinternational 17.65States, shoulddevelopcollabowherenecessary, organizations, rative technical and researchprograffImesto improve of of understanding the life cyclesandmigrations species including identifying critical areas found on the high seas, and life stages. with the supportof relevantinternational 17.66States, whether subregional,regional or global, organizations, should: as appropriate, (a) Develop databases the high seasmarine living on and resources fisheries: (b) Collect and correlatemarine environmentaldata data,includingthe with high seas marineliving resources broughtaboutby impactsof regionaland globalchanges and by humanactivities; naturalcauses programmesto (c) Cooperatein coordinatingresearch to provide the knowledge necessary managehigh seas resources.OF Dl susrArNABtE usE AND CoNSERVATION UNDER MARINE TIVING RESOURCES NATIONATJURISDICTIONBASIS ACTION FOR 17.70Marine fisheriesyield 80 to 90 million tons of 95 fish and shellfishper/year, percentof which is taken from waters under nationaljurisdiction. Yields have nearly fivefold over the past four decades. increased The provisionsof the United Nations Conventionon of the Law of the Sea on marine living resources the exclusive economic zone and other areasunder national jurisdiction set forth rights and obligationsof and utilization of Stateswith respectto conservation thoseresources. provide an important 17.71Marine living resources and their useis often of source proteinin many countries and to of majorimportance localcommunities indigenous providefood and livelihoodsto people. Such resources utilized,offer inmillions of peopleand, if sustainably creasedpotentialto meet nutritional and social needs, particularly in developingcountries.To realize this potential requiresimproved knowledgeand identification of marine living resourcestocks, particularly of use and unutilizedstocksand species, of underutilized new technol ogi es,better handl i ng and pr ocessing and improvedquality and facilities to avoid wastage, training of skilled personnelto manageand conserve of effectivelythe marine living resources the exclusive economiczone and other areasunder nationaljurisdicmanageshouldalsobe on multi-species tion. Emphasis ment and other approachesthat take into account the amongspecies. relationships jurisdiction in undernational 17.72Fisheries many areas face mounting problems. including local overfishing, unauthorizedincursionsby foreign fleets, ecosystem fleet sizes, and degradation, overcapitalization excessive of underevaluation catch. insufficiently selectivegear, and increasingcompetition beunreliable databases, fishing, and between tween artisanal and large-scale fishing and othertypesof activities. and 17.73Problems extendbeyondfisheries.Coralreef's and habitats, suchasmangroves othermarineandcoastal integrated are estuaries, amongthe most highly diverse,DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE at development the nationallevel 17.67Humanresource at strouldbe targeted both developmentand management including training in high seas of high seasresources, resource assessment. and fishing techniques in high seas to cadresof personnel deal with high seas strengthening and enviand management conservation related resource and inspectors ronmentalissues, and training observers to be placedon fishing vessels.D) CA P A C IT Y -BU IL D IN G 17.68States,with the support, where appropriate,of w r elev ant in te rn a ti o n a lo rg a n i z a ti o n s , hether subto regional,regionalor global,shouldcooperate develop for structures moniand institutional systems or upgrade as toring, control and surveillance, well as the research popuof capacityfor assessment marineliving resource lations.156and productive of the Earth's ecosystems. They often serve important ecological functions, provide coastal protection, and are critical resourcesfor food, energy, tourism and economic development. In many parts of the world, such marine and coastal systemsare under from a varietv of sources.Lroth stressor are threatened human and natural.ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED IVITI S ACT E 17.78States shouldensure that marineliving resources of the exclusiveecononriczone and other areasunder nationaljurisdiction are conserved and managedin acof cordance with the provisions the UnitedNationsConventionon the Law of the Sea. 17.79States,in implementingthe provisionsof the UnitedNationsConvention theLaw of the Sea,should on addressthe issues of straddling stocks and highly migratory species,and, taking fully into account the objectivesetout in paragraph 17,74, access the surplus to of aliowablecatches. 17.80CoastalStates,individually or through bilateral and/ormultilateralcooperation and with the support,as appropriate international of organizations, whethersubregional,regionalor global,shouldinter alia: (a) Assessthe potential of marine living resources, includingunderutilized unutilizedstocksand species, or by developinginventories,where necessary, their for conservation and sustainable use' (b) Implement strategiesfor the sustainable use of marineliving resources, taking into accountthe special needs interests small-scale and of fisheries, local artisanal communitiesand indigenous peopleto meethuman nutritional and other development needs; (c) Implement,in particularin developingcountries, mechanismsto develop rnariculture,aquacultureand small-scale, deep-sea oceanicfisherieswithin areas and jurisdictionwhereassessments undernational show that marineliving resources potentiallyavailable; are (d) Strengthen their legal and regulatoryframeworks, whereappropriate, uding manage incl ment,enforcement andsurveillance capabilities, regulate related to activities to the abovestrategies: (e) Takemeasures increase availabilityof marine to the living resources human food by reducing wastage, as post-harvest lossesand discards.and improving techniquesof processing, distributionand transportation; (0 Develop and promote the use of environrnentally sound technology under criteria compatible with the sustainable use of marine living resources, including assessment the environmentalirnpactof major new of fishery practices; (g) Enhancethe productivity and utilization of their marineliving resources food and income. for 17.81C oastal S tates shoul d expl ore the scope f or expandingrecreational and tourist activities basedon marine living resources, including those fbr providing alternative sources income.Such activitiesshouldbe of compatiblewith conservation developand sustainable ment policiesand plans.OBJECTIVES 17.74CoastalStates,particularlydevelopingcountries and Stateswhose economiesare overwhelminglydependent theexploitation themarineliving resources on of shouldobtainthe full of their exclusive economiczones, from sustainable utilization socialandeconomic benefits within their exclusiveecoof marine living resources nomic zonesand other areasunder nationaljurisdiction. 17.75States commit themselves the conservation to and sustainable of marineliving resources use undernational jurisdiction. To this end, it is necessary to: (a) Developandincrease potentialof marineliving the resources meet human nutritional needs,as well as to goals; social,economicand development (b) Takeinto accounttraditionalknowledgeand interestsof local communities, small-scale artisanal flsheries peoplein development managernent and indigenous and programmes; (c) Maintain or restorepopulations marinespecies of at yield as levelsthat can producethe maximum sustainable qualifiedby relevant and environmental economicfactors, taking into consideration relationships amongspecies; (d) Promotethe development useof selective fishand ing gear and practices that minimize wastein the catch of target speciesand minimize by-catch of non-target species; (e) Protectand restoreendangered marinespecies; (0 Preserverare or fragile ecosystems, well as as habitats and otherecologicallysensitive areas. 17.76Nothing in paragraphI1.15 aboverestrictsthe right of a coastalStateor the competence an interof nationalorganization, appropriate, prohibit,limit to as or regulate the exploitation of marine marrunalsmore strictly than providedfor in that paragraph. Statesshall cooperatewith a view to the conservationof marine mammalsand in the caseof cetaceans shallin particular work throughthe appropriate international organizations for their conservation, management study. and 17.71The ability of developingcountriesto fulfil the above objectivesis dependentupon their capabilities, including the financial, scientific and technological meansat their disposal. Adequatefinancial, scientific and technologicalcooperationshould be provided to supportactionby them to implementtheseobjectives.157of shouldsupportthe sustainability 17.82Coastal States artisanal fisheries.To this end, they should, small-scale as appropriate: (a) Integrate small-scaleartisanaltisheries developplanning,taking into account ment in marineandcoastal repreencouraging and, whereappropriate, the interests s ent at iono f fi s h e rme n , s m a l l -s c a l efi sherw orkers, people; and indigenous women,local communities (b) Recognize rightsof small-scale fishworkers and the peopleandlocal comthe special situationof indigenous munities,includingtheir rights to utilizationand protecbasis; on tion of their habitats a sustainable (c) Developsystems the acquisitionand recording for of traditionalknowledgeconcerningmarine living reand promotethe incorporation and environment sources systems. of suchknowledgeinto management 17.83CoastalStatesshouldensurethat, in the negotiaon of agreements tion and implementation international of the developmentor conservation marine living rethe of sources, interests local communitiesand indigenous people are taken into account,in particulartheir right to subsistence. of with the support, appropriate, as 17.84CoastalStates, of should conduct analyses internationalorganizations itr the potentialfor aquaculture marineand coastalareas under nati o n a l j u ri s d i c ti o n a n d a p p l y appropri ate safeguards to the introductionof new species. as poisoning and shouldprohibitdynamiting, 17.85States fishing practices. destructive othercomparable exhibitshouldidentifymarineecosystems 17.86States ing high levelsof biodiversityandproductivityandother limiand shouldprovidenecessary critical habitatareas through,inter alia, desigtationson use in theseareas. nation of protectedareas. Priority shouldbe accorded, to: as appropriate, (a) Coral reef ecosystems; (b) Estuaries; (c) Temperate tropicalwetlands, includingmangroves; and (d) Seagrass beds: (e) Other spawningand nurseryareas.(c) Develop and shareanalyticaland predictivetools, models; suchas stockassessment bioeconomic and (d) Establishor expand appropriatemonitoring and programmes assessment ; (e) Complete or update marine biodiversity, marine living resourceand critical habitat profiles of exclusive economiczonesand otherareasundernationaljurisdiction, taking account of changesin the environment and humanactivities. broughtaboutby naturalcausesAND REG'ON,AI c/ /NTERNAilONAT. AIION AND COORD'NAI'ON COOPER 17.88States, throughbilateraland multilateralcooperation, and with the support of relevant United Nations and other internationalorganizations,should cooperate to: (a) Developfinancialand technicalcooperation ento hance the capacities developingcountriesin smallof aquaculfisheries, well asin coastal as scaleandoceanic ture and mariculture; (b) Promotethecontributionof marineliving resources to eliminate malnutrition and to achievefood self-suffialia,by minimizing ciencyin developing countries,inter post-harvest lossesand managingstocksfor guaranteed yields: sustainable (c) Develop agreedcriteria for the use of selective fishing gearand practices minimize wastein the catch to of target speciesand minimize by-catch of non-target species; (d) Promote seafoodquality, including through nafor in systems seafood, order to tional quality assurance promote accessto markets, improve consumer confidenceand maximizeeconomicreturns. ensure 17.89Statesshould, where and as appropriate, in and coordinationand cooperation enclosed adequate regional semi-enclosed seasand between subregional, fisheriesbodies. and global intergovernmental 17.90States recognize: (a) The responsibility of the InternationalWhaling and management of Commissionfor the conservation whale stocks and the regulation of whaling pursuantto the 1946International Conventionfor the Resulationof Whaling; (b) The work of the International WhalingCommission Scientific Committee in carrying out studies of large whalesin particular, well as of othercetaceans; as (c) The work of other organizations, such as the InterAmericanTropicalTunaCommissionandtheAgreement on Small Cetaceans the Baltic andNorth Seaunderthe in management and Bonn Convention, theconservation, in study of cetaceans and other marine mammals.AND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA individuallyor throughbilateralandmulti17.87States, and with the support,as appropriate, lateralcooperation whether subregional, of internationalorganizations, regional global,should: or (a) Promoteenhanced of collectionand exchange data for use and necessary the conservation sustainable of the jurisdiction; undernational marineliving resources (b) Exchangeon a regular basis up-to-datedata and for informationnecessary fisheriesassessment;r5817.91States should cooperatefor the conservation, management studyof cetaceans. andMEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17.92The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about $6 billion, including about$60 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicative andorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. by Actualcosts will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.resourcesand to encourageequitableparticipationoflocal communities, small-scale workers.womenand fish indigenous people; (c) Introduce topics relating to the importanceof marine living resources educational in curricula at all levels.D) CAPACTTY-BUILD|NG 17.95CoastalStates,with the supportof relevantsubregional,regionaland global agencies, where appropriate,should: (a) Develop researchcapacitiesfor assessment of marineliving resource populations and monitoring; (b) Provide support to local fishing communities,in particularthosethat rely on tishing for subsistence, indigenouspeopleand women, including,as appropriate. the technicaland financialassistance organize, to maintain, exchangeand improve traditional knowledge of marine living resourcesand fishing techniques,and upgradeknowledgeon marineecosystems; (c) Establish sustainable aquaculturedevelopment strategies, includingenvironmental management supin port of rural fish-farmingcommunities; (d) Developand strengthen, wherethe needmay arise, institutionscapableof implementingthe objective and s activitiesrelatedto the conseruation manasement and of marineliving resources. 17.96S peci alsupport,i ncl udi ngcooperati on ong atn States,will be neededto enhancetl-recapacitiesof devel opi ng countri esn the areas dataand i nfb r m ai of ti on, sci enti fi cand technol ogi cal meansand hum an resourcedevel opmenti n cl rderto enabl e theln t o participate effectivelyin the conservation sustainand able use of marine livinc resourcesunder national jurisdiction.8/ SCrENrrFtC AND TECHNOIOG\CAL MEANS 17.93States,with the supportof relevantintergovernmental organizations, appropriate,should: as (a) Provide for the transferof environmentally sound technologiesto develop fisheries, aquacultureand particularlyto developingcountries; mariculture, (b) Accord specialattentionto mechanisms transfor ferring resourceinformation and improved fishing and aquaculture technologies fishing communitiesat the to local level; (c) Promotethe study,scientific assessment useof and appropriatetraditional management systems; (d) Considerobserving, appropriate, FAOACES as the Codeof Practicefor Consideration Transferand Introof duction of Marine and Freshwater Organisms; (e) Promotescientificresearch marineareas paron of ticular importancefor marine living resources, such as areasof high diversity,endemismand productivity and migratorystopover points.C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 17.94States individually,or throughbilateraland multilateral cooperation and with the supportof relevantinternational organizations, whethersubregional, regional or global, as appropriate, shouldencourage provide and supportfor developingcountrtes, inter alia, to:. (a) Expand multidisciplinaryeducation,training and research marine living resources, on particularlyin the socialand economicsciences; (b) Create training opportunities at national and re(includingsubsistence) gional levelsto supportartisanal fisheries,to develop small-scaleuse of marine livingE) ADDRESSTNG CR|T|CAT UNCERTATNTTES FOR THE'VIANAGEMENT THEMARINE OF ENVIRONMENT AND CLIIAATE CHANGEBASIS ACTION FOR 17.97The marineenvironment vulnerableand sensiis tive to climate and atmosphenc changes. Rationaluse and developmentof coastalareas,all seasand marine resources, well asconservation the marineenvironas of ment, requiresthe ability to determinethe presentstate of thesesystemsand to predict future conditions.The high degree uncertainty present of in infbrmationinhibits effective managementand limits the ability to make predictions assess and environmental change. Systematict59collection of data on marine environmentalparameters will be needed to apply integrated managementapproachesand to predict effects of global climate change phenomena, suchasozonedepletion, and of atmospheric and the marine environment. on living marine resources In order to determinethe role of the oceansand all seas in driving global systems and to predict natural and human-inducedchangesin marine and coastalenvironand disments,the mechanisms collect, synthesize to seminateinformation from researchand systematicoband servationactivitiesneedto be restructured reinforced considerably. aboutclimatechange 17.98T'here manyuncertainties are in and particularlyabout sealevelrise. Small increases damage significant havethepotentialof causing sealevel strategies Response and to smallislands low-lying coasts. shouldbe basedon sounddata.A long-termcooperative researchcommitment is neededto provide the data required for global climate models and to reduce uncertainty. Meanwhile, precautionarymeasuresshould be undertaken diminish the risks and effects,particularly to on small islands and on low-lying and coastal areasof the world. ultravioletradiationderivedfrom ozone 17.99Increased depletionhas been reportedin some areasof the world. of An assessment its effects in the marine environment is neededto reduceuncertaintyand to provide a basisfor action.ACTIVITIES IV ES A) MANAGEMENT-R EDACT ITI ELAT inter alia: shouldconsider, l7.l0l States (a) Coordinating national and regional observation programmesfor coastal and near-shorephenomenarelated to climate change and for researchparameters essential for marine and coastal managementin all regions; (b) Providing improved forecasts marineconditions of for the safety of inhabitantsof coastalareasand for the efficiency of maritime operations; (c) Cooperating with a view to adopting special measuresto cope with and adapt to potential climate of rise, including the development changeand sealevel globally accepted methodologies for coastal vulneramodelling and responsestrategies bility assessment, particularly for priority areas,such as small islandsand low-lying and critical coastalareas; (d) Identifying ongoing and planned programmesof with systematic observation the marineenvironment, of priorities establishing activitiesand a view to integrating for to address critical uncertainties oceansand all seas; (e) Initiating a programmeof research determinethe to levelsof ultraviolet increased marinebiological effectsof ozonelayer rays due to the depletionof the stratospheric possibleeffects. the and to evaluate 17.lO2Recognizingthe importantrole that oceansand play in attenuating potential climatechange,IOC all seas with competent UnitedNationsbodies, andotherrelevant and having the resources experthe supportof countries and assessments systemtise, shouldcarry out analysis, oceans a carbonsink. as of atic observation the role ofOBJECIIVES with provisions of the States,in accordance 17.100 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on to commit themselves immarine scientific research, prove the understanding the marine environmentand of To its role on global processes. this end, it is necessary to: (a) Promote scientific research on and systematic observation of the marine environment within the including limits of nationaljurisdiction and high seas, interactionswith atmosphericphenomena,such as ozonedepletion; (b) Promoteexchange dataandinformationresulting of from scientific researchand systematicobservationand from traditional ecological knowledge and ensure its andthepublic at thenational availabilityto policy makers level; (c) Cooperate of with a view to the development standard inter-calibratedprocedures,measuring techniques, capabilitiesfor scientific data storageand management researchon and systematicobservation of the marine environment.B) DATA AND 'NFORMAIION shouldconsider, inter alia: 17.103 States (a) Increasing internationalcooperationparticulariy with a view to strengthening nationalscientificandtechand nol ogi cal capabi l i ti esfor anal ysi ng,asse ssing predictingglobal climateand environmental change; (b) Supporting role of the IOC in cooperation with the in WMO, UNEP and other internationalorganizations the collection,analysisand distributionof data and information from the oceans and all seas, including as appropriate,through the Global Ocean Observing System, giving special attentionto the need for IOC to develop fully the strategy for providing training and for countries throughits technicalassistance developing Training, Education and Mutual Assistance(TEMA) programme;r60(c) Creating national multisectoralinformation bases, and systematic observacovering the resultsof research tion prograrnmes; (d) Linking these databases existing data and to information services and mechanisms.such as World WeatherWatch and Earthwatch; (e) Cooperating with a view to the exchangeof data and archivingthroughthe and informationand its storage world and regional data centres; (0 Cooperating ensure participation developfull of to ing countries,in particular,in any internationalscheme of underthe organsand organizations the United Nations systemfor the collection,analysisand use of data and information.AND REG'ONAICi 'NIERNAIIONAT AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAI'ON 17.lM Statesshould considerbilaterally and multilaterally and in cooperation with international orgamzations, whether subregional,regional, interregionalor global, where appropriate: (a) Providingtechnicalcooperation developingthe in for capacityof coastaland islandStates marineresearch observation and for using its results; and systematic (b) Strengthening existing national institutionsand internationalanalysis and creating, where necessary, predictionmechanisms orderto prepare in andexchange analyses forecasts and regionalandglobaloceanographic and and to provide facilities for internationalresearch training at national, subregionaland regional levels, whereapplicable. 17.105In recognition ofthe valueof Antarcticaas area an for the conduct of scientific research,in particular reto the search essential understanding global environment, States carryingout suchresearch activitiesin Antarctica should, as provided for in Article III of the Antarctic Treaty,continueto: (a) Ensure that data and information resulting from such researchare freely available to the international community; (b) Enhance of scientificcomaccess the international agencies the United Nations of munity and specialized to such data and information,including the encouragement of periodicseminars and symposia. 106 States high-levelinter-agency, 17. shouldstrengthen regionaland global coordination, approas subregional, priate,and review mechanisms developand integrate to observation networks.This would include: systematic (a) Review of existingregionaland global databases; (b) Mechanisms developcomparable compatible and to validatemethodologies techniques, and measurements,organrze regular scientific reviews, develop options for corrective measures,agreeon formats for presentation and storage, and communicatethe information gathered to potentialusers; (c) Systematicobservationof coastal habitatsand sealevel inventories marinepollutionsources changes, of and reviewsof fisheries statistics; (d) Orgamzation periodic assessments oceanand of of all seas and coastalareastatus and trends. 17.107 Internati onalcooperati on,through rel e vant organi zati ons w i thi n the U ni ted N ati ons syst em , should support countries to develop and integrate regi onal systematic long-termobservat programmes, ion when applicable, into the RegionalSeasProgrammes in a coordinated fashionto implement,whereappropriate, subregional,regional and global observing systems basedon the principle of exchangeof data. One aim shouldbe the predictingof the effectsof climate-related emergencies existing coastalphysical and socioon economicinfrastructure. 17.108Basedon the resultsof research the effectsof on the additionalultravioletradiationreachingthe Earth's surface,in the fields of human health,agricultureand marine environment,Statesand international organizati ons shoul d consi der taki ng appropri ateremedial measures.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 11.109 The Conference secretariathas estimatedthe average total annualcost ( 1993-2000) implementing of the activities this programme Lre of to aboutS750million, includingabout$480million from theinternational community on grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and havenot beenreviewedby Governments. Actual costsandfinancial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, will dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategies proand grammes Governments decideuponfor implementation. l7.l l0 Developed countries shouldprovidethe financing for the further development and implementation of the GlobalOceanObservins Svstem.8/ SC/ENIIFIC AND IECHNOI.OGICAL MEANS l7.l1l To address critical uncertainties throughsystematiccoastal marineobservations research, and and coastal procedures States shouldcooperate thedevelopmentof in thatallow forcomparable analysis soundness data. and of They shouldalsocooperate a subregional regional on andr6tbasis,through existing programmeswhere applicable, share infrastructureand expensive and sophisticated procedures and equipment,develop quality assurance jointly. Special attention develop human resources of shouldbe given to transf-er scientificandtechnological and means to support States, particularly knowledge of in countries, the development endogenous developing capabilities. when shouldsupport, organizations l7.l12 International requested,coastal countries in implementing research projectson the effectsof additionalultraviolet radiation.both within and outside including regional,institutions, the United Nations system,with competencein marine issues, and thereis a needto improve coordinationand strengthenlinks among them. It is also important to ensurethat an integratedand multisectoralapproachto marineissues pursuedat all levels. isOBJECTIVES with in 17.117 Statescommit themselves. accordance prioritiesandresources, promoteinstituto theirpolicies, tional arrangements necessary supportthe implemento in tation of theprograrnme areas this chapter.To this end, it is necessary, appropriate,to: as (a) Integrate relevant sectoral activities addressing environment and development in marine and coastal regionaland global levels, areasat national,subregional, as appropriate; (b) Promote effective information exchange and, where appropriate, institutional linkages between bilateral and multilateral national,regional, subregional and interregionalinstitutions dealing with environment in and development marineand coastalareas; (c) Promotewithin the United Nations system,regular intergovernmental review and consideration of environment and developmentissueswith respectto marine and coastalareas: (d) Promote the effective operation of coordinating mechanismsfor the componentsof the United Nations and deveiopsystemdealingwith issues environment of ment in marine and coastalareas,as well as links with relevantinternational bodies. developmentDEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE l7. ll3 S t a te s ,i n d i v i d u a l l y o r th ro u g h b i l ateral and multilateral cooperation and with the support, as appropriate,of international organizationswhether regional or global. should develop and subregional, programmes,particularly implement comprehensive in developing countries, for a broad and coherent approachto meeting their core human resourceneeds in the marine sciences.D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG as orestablish necessary, 17.114 States shouldstrengthen oceanographic comandtechnological nationalscientific or equivalentbodies to develop, supportand missions coordinatemarine scienceactivities and work closely organizations. with international and reshould use existing subregional l7.l15 States whereapplicable, developknowto gional mechanisms, information, exchange ledgeof the marineenvironment, and observationsand assessments, organizesystematic facilities and of scientists, make the most effective use in They shouldalsocooperate the promotion equipment. researchcapabilities in developing of endogenous countries.AC-IIVITIES IVITI S E A) MANAGEA/ENI-R ED ACT ELATGLOBAL 17.1 The General l8 Assemblyshouldprovideforregular within the United Nationssystem,at the consideration, intergovernmentallevel of general marine and coastal matters, issues, includingenvironment anddevelopment and and should requestthe Secretary-General executive and organizations to: headsof United Nationsagencies (a) Strengthencoordination and develop improved arrangements amongthe relevantUnited Nationsorganizationswith major marine and coastalresponsibilities, including their subregional regionalcomponents; and (b) Strengthencoordination between those organizai tions and otherUnited Nationsorganizations.nstitutions trade agencies dealingwith development, andspecialized as and otherrelatedeconomicissues, appropriate;INCIUDING |NTERNATIONAL, F) STRENGTHENTNG AND COORDINATION REGIONAL,COOPERATIONFOR BASIS ACTION 17.116 is recognizedthat the role of international It national efforts. is andsupplement cooperation to support Implementationof strategiesand activities under the and programmeareasrelativeto marineand coastalareas at seasrequireseffective institutional arrangements naregionaland global levels,as approtional. subregional, priate. There are numerous national and international,162(c) Improverepresentation UnitedNationsagencies of dealing with the marine environmentin United Nations systemwide coordinationefforts; (d) Promote, where necessary,greater collaboration betweenthe United Nations agenciesand subregional and regional coastaland marine programmes; (e) Develop a centralized system to provide for informationon legislation andadviceon implementation of legal agreementson marine environmentaland development issues. 17.119 States recognize that environmentalpolicies should deal with the root causesof environmental degradation,thus preventing environmental measures from resultingin unnecessary restrictionsto trade.Trade policy measures environmental for purposes shouldnot constitute meansof arbitraryor unjustifiable a discrimination or a disguisedrestrictionon international trade. Unilateralactionsto dealwith environmental challenges outsidethejurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided. Environmental measures addressing internationalenvironmental problemsshould,asfar aspossible, be based on an international consensus.Domestic measures targetedto achievecertain environmentalobjectives may need trade measures render them effecto tive. Shouldtradepolicy measures found necessary be for the enforcementof environmental policies, certain principlesand rules shouldapply. Thesecould include, inter alia, the principleof non-discrimination; printhe ciple that the trademeasure chosenshouldbe the least trade-restrictive necessary achievethe objectives; to an obligation to ensure transparencyin the use of trade measures related to the environment and to provide adequatenotificationof nationalregulations; and the needto give consideration the specialconditionsand developto ment requirements developingcountriesas they move of towardsintemationally agreed environmental objectives.B) DATA AND 'NFORMAT/ON l7.l2l States should,whereappropriate: (a) Promote exchangeof information on marine and coastalissues; (b) Strengthenthe capacity of internationalorganizations to handleinformation and supportthe development of national,subregionaland regional data and information systems, whereappropriate. This couldalsoinclude networks linking countrieswith comparableenvironmentalproblems; (c) Furtherdevelopexistinginternational mechanisms such as Earthwatchand GESAMP.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 17.122The Conference secretariathas estimatedthe average total annualcosr (1993-2000) implementing of the activitiesof this prograinme be about$50 million to from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of'-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actualcosts andflnancialterms,including any that are non-concessional, depend upon,inter will alia, the specific strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation.B/ SCIENI/F/C AND TFCHNO/OGtCALMEANS, HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENI CAPACITY. AND BUILDING ll.l23 The means of implementationoutlined in the other programmeareason marine and coastalissues, underthe sections scientificandtechnological on means, humanresource development and capacity-building are entirelyrelevantfor this programme areaas well. Additionally, Statesshould, through internationalcooperation, developa comprehensive programmefor meetingthe core humanresource needs marinesciences all levels. in at Gl st sTAtNABtE DEVETOPMENT SrvrAUFIANDS OFSUBREGIONAL REGIONAL AND 17.120States shouldconsider, appropriate: as (a) Strengthening, extendingwherenecessary, and intergovernmental regionalcooperation, RegionalSeas the Programmes UNEP,regionaland subregional of fisheries organizations regionalcommissions; and (b) Introduce,where necessary, coordinationamong relevantUnited Nationsand othermultilateralorganizations at the subregional and regional levels, including consideration co-locationof their staff; of (c) Arrangefor periodicintraregional consultations; (d) Facilitateaccess and use of expertiseand techto nology throughrelevantnationalbodiesto subregional and regionalcentres and networks,suchas the Regional Centres Marine Technology. forBASIS ACTION FOR 17.124Small islanddevelopingStates, and islandssupporting small communitiesare a specialcase both for environmentand development. They are ecologically fragile and vulnerable. Their small size, limited resources,geographi cdi spersi onand i sol ati on fr om markets, placethem at a disadvantage economically andr63preventeconomies scale.For small islanddeveloping of States oceanand coastalenvironment of strategic the is importance and constitutesa valuable development resource. 17.125 Their geographic isolationhasresultedin their habitationby a comparativelylarge number of unique species flora and fauna,giving them a very high share of of global biodiversity.They also have rich and diverse cultureswith specialadaptations islandenvironments to and knowledge of the sound managementof island resources. llJ26 Small islanddevelopingStates have all the environmentalproblemsand challenges the coastalzone of in concentrated a limited land area.They areconsidered extremely vulnerableto global warming and sealevel rise, with certain small low-lying islandsfacing the increasingthreatof the loss of their entire nationalterritories.Most tropical islandsare also now experiencing the more immediateimpactsof increasing frequencyof with climate cyclones,stormsand hurricanes associated change. Thesearecausing major set-backs their socioto economicdevelopment. 17.127Becausesmall island developmentoptions are limited, thereare specialchallenges planningfor and to implementing sustainabledevelopment.Small island developingStateswill be constrained meetingthese in without the cooperation challenges and assistance the of international communitv.OBJECTIVES 17J28 States commit themselvesto addressingthe problems of sustainable developrnent small island of developing States. this end,it is necessary: To (a) To adoptand implementplansand programmes to supportthe sustainable development and utilization of their marine and coastalresources, including meeting essential humanneeds, maintaining biodiversityand improving the quality of life for islandpeople; (b) To adopt measures which will enablesmall island developing Statesto cope effectively, creatively and with environmental sustainably changeand to mitigate impacts and reduce the threats posed to marine and coastalresources.(a) Studythe specialenvironmental anddevelopmental characteristics small islands,producingan environof mental profile and inventory of their natural resources, critical marinehabitatsand biodiversity; (b) Develop techniques determiningand monitorfor ing the carryingcapacityof smallislands underdifferent development assumptions resource and constraints; (c) Prepare medium- and long-termplansfor sustainable developmentttrat emphasizemultiple use of resources, integrateenvironmentalconsiderations with economicand planningand policies,define measures mainsectoral for taining cultural and biologicaldiversity and conserve endangered species critical marinehabitats; and (d) Adapt coastalarea management techniques, such as planning, siting and environmentalimpact assess(GIS), ments,using Geographical InformationSystems suitableto the specialcharacteristics small islands, of taking into accountthe traditionaland culturalvaluesof indigenous peopleof islanCcountries; (e) Review the existinginstitutional arrangements and identify and undertakeappropriateinstitutional reforms essentialto the effective implementationof sustainable plans,includingintersectoral development coordination and communityparticipation the planningprocess; in (f) Implementsustainable plans,includdevelopment ing thereview andmodificationof existingunsustainable policiesand practices; (g) Based on precautionaryand anticipatory approaches,design and implement rational response strategies addressthe environmental,social and ecoto nomic impactsof climate changeand sealevel rise, and prepare appropriate plans; contingency (h) Promote environmentally sound technology for sustainable development within small islanddeveloping States and identify technologies shouldbe excluded that because their threatsto essential of islandecosvstems.B) DATA AND /NFORMATTAN 17.130Additional informationon the geographic, environmental,cultural and socio-economic characteristics of islandsshouldbe compiledand assessed assist the to in planningprocess.Existingislanddatabases shouldbe expandedandgeographic infbrmationsystems developed and adapted suit the specialcharacteristics islands. to ofACTIVITIES A) MANAGFMFNI-R ELATED IVIT S ACT IE 17.129 Small islanddeveloping with the assistStates, anceas appropriate the international of communityand on thebasisof existingwork of nationalandinternational organizations, should:c/ /NTERNATIONAL REG/ONAI. AND COOPERAIION AND COORDINAI/ON 17.131 Small islanddeveloping with the support, States, as appropriate,of international organizations,whether164subregional,regional or global, should develop and strengtheninter-island,regional and interregionalcoincludingperiodic operationand informationexchange, development on regionalandglobalmeetings sustainable of small island developingStateswith the first global developmentof small conferenceon the sustainable States, be held in 1993. to island developing whethersubregional, organizations, 17 .132 International the regionalor global, must recognrze specialdevelopStates and of mentrequirements smallislanddeveloping give adequatepriority in the provision of assistance, particularly with respectto the developmentand implans. plementation sustainable of developmentbe modified to meet these needs and special training programmes islandmanagement developedin integrated and development. Local planning should be integrated in educational curriculaof all levelsandpublic awareness of campaignsdevelopedwith the assistance non-governmentalorganizations indigenous and coastalpopulations.D) CAPACTTY-BU|LDING 17.136The total capacity of small island developing Stateswill always be limited. Existing capacity must to thereforebe restructured meetefficiently the immediate needs for sustainabledevelopment and integrated management. At the same time, adequateand appropriate assistance from the internationalcommunity must be directed at strengtheningthe full range of human resourcesneeded on a continuous basis to implement sustainable developmentplans. that the 17 .137 New technologies canincrease outputand should rangeof capabilityof the limited humanresources be employed to increase the capacity of very small populationsto meet their needs. The developmentand application of traditional knowledge to improve the developcapacity of countriesto implement sustainable ment shouldbe fostered.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION A/ F/NANCING 17.133The Conlerence secretariathas estimatedthe of averagetotal annualcost ( 1993-2000) implementing programme be about$ 130million, to theactivitieso1'this comincluding about$50 million from the international terms.Theseareindicamunity on grantor concessional estimates only andhavenot tive and order-of-magnitude Actual costsand finanbeenreviewedby Governments. will cial terms, including any that are non-concessional, depend upon, inter aliu. ttre specific strategiesand progfturrmes decideupon for implementation. GovemmentsME 8/ S C/ E NI I F I A N D IE C H N IC AT AN S C 17.134 Centres for the developmentand diffusion of means and scientificinformationand adviceon technical island developing technologiesappropriateto small of to especiallywith reference the management States, zoneandmarine zone,theexclusive economic thecoastal as resources,should be establishedor strengthened, appropriate. a regionalbasis. onD EV C) HUM A NRE S O U R C E EL OP M EN T i7.135 Since populationsof srnall island developing specializations, Statescannot maintain all necessary management developand coastal trainingfor integrated or of rnentshouldaim to producecadres managers scienthe ableto integrate and tists,engineers coastalplanners in manv factors that need to be considered integrated Resource usersshouldbe prepared coastalmanagement. and protectionfunctions to executeboth management and to apply the polluter paysprinciple and supportthe should Educationalsystems training of their personnel.'References to the UnitedNotionsConvenlion the Low of the on the of Seoin thischopter Agendo2l do notpreiudice position of to with respect signoture, rotificotion or occession of ony Stote to theConvention. 2R"f"r"n.", on to the UnitedNolionsConvention the Low of the the of Seoin thischopter Agendo2l do not preiudice position of chorocler. Stotes whichview the Convention hovingo unified os3Norhing in the progromme oreos of this choptershouldbe involvedin o the interpreted preiudicing rightsof the Stotes os oreos or of dispute sovereignty in the delimitotion the moritime of concerned.r65IBProtection thequolity of ond supply freshwoter of resources: Applicotion integroted of opprooches to thedevelopment, monogement useof ondwoter resourcesINTRODUCTIONl8.l Freshwater resources an essential are component of part the Earth'shydrosphere and an indispensable of all terrestrial ccosystems. The freshwater environmentis characterized thehydrological by cycle,includingfloods and droughts, which in someregionshavebecomemore extreme and dramatic in their consequences. Global climate change and atmosphericpollution could also have an impact on freshwater resourcesand their availability and. through sea-levelrise, threatenlowlying coastal areasand small islandecosystems. 18.2 Water is neededin all aspects life. The general of objective is to make certain that adequatesuppliesof waterof goodqualityaremaintained the entirepopufor lation of this planet,while preserving hydrological, the biologicaland chemicalfunctionsof ecosystems, adapting humanactivitieswithin the capacitylimits of nature andcombating vectors water-related of Innovative diseases. technologies, including the improvement indigenous of technologies,are needed to fully utilize limited water resource andto safeguard s resourceagai pollution. those s nst 18.3 The widespread gradualdestruction agscarcity, and gravated pollution of freshwater resources many world in regions. alongwith theprogressive encroachment incomof patibleactivities. demandintegrated waterresources planningandmanagement. Suchintegration mustcoveralltypes freshwaterbodies,including both surface of interrelated water and groundwater, and duly considerwater quantity and quality aspects.The multisectoralnature of water resources development the contextof socio-economic in development must be recognized, well as the multias interestutilizationof waterresources water supplyand for san itation,agriculture, industryurbandevelopment, hydropower generation, inland fisheries,transportation, recreation.lorvandflat landsmanasement otheractivities. andRational water utilization schemes the development for of surface and undergroundwater-supply sourcesand other potential sourceshave to be supportedby concurrent water conservation and wastage minimization measures. Priority, however, must be accordedto flood prevention and control measures, well as sedimentaas tion control, where required. 18.4 Transboundary water resources and their useare of great importance to riparian States.In this connection, cooperation among those States may be desirable in conformity with existing agreementsand/or other relevant arrangements, taking into accountthe interests of all riparian Statesconcerned. 18.5 The following programmeareasare proposedfor the freshwatersector: (a) Integratedw ater resourcesdevel opm entand management; (b) Water resources assessment; (c) Protection of water resources,water quality and aquaticecosystems; (d) Drinking-watersupplyand sanitation; (e) Water and sustainable urban development; (0 Water for sustainablefood production and rural development; (g) Impactsof climatechangeon water resources.P R O G R A M MA R E A S EA) TNTEGRATED WAIER RESOT RCES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGE'YIENTBASIS ACTION FOR 18.6 The extentto which water resources development contributesto economic productivity and social well-166being is not usually appreciated, althoughall social and rely heavilyon thesupplyandquality economic activities of freshwater.As populations and economic activities grow, many countriesare rapidly reachingconditions of waterscarcity orfacing limits to economic development. Water demandsare increasingrapidly, with 70-80 per cent required for irrigation, less than 20 per cent for industryand a mere6 per centfor domesticconsumption. The holistic managementof freshwater as a finite and vulnerableresource, and the integrationof sectoralwater plans and prograffnnes within the framework of national importance economicand socialpolicy, areof paramount for action in the 1990sand beyond. The fragmentation of responsibilitiesfor water resourcesdevelopment among sectoralagenciesis proving, however, to be an even greaterimpediment to promoting integratedwater managementthan had been anticipated.Effective implementationandcoordinationmechanisms required. arebased an approach full public participation, on of including that of women, youth, indigenous peopleand local policy-makingand communitiesin water management decision-making; (d) To identify and strengthen develop,as required, or in particular in developingcountries,the appropriate institutional,legal and financial mechanisms ensure to that water policy and its implementationare a catalyst for sustainable socialprogress and economicgrowth. 18.10In the case transboundary waterresources, of there is a needfor riparian Statesto formulate water resources prepare water resourcesaction programmes strategies, and consider,where appropriate,the harmonizationof those strategies and action prograrnmes. 18.1 All States, I accordingto their capacityand available resources, throughbilateralor multilateralcooperation, and including the United Nations and other relevant organizations asappropriate, could setthe following targets:OBJECTIVES 18.7 The overall objectiveis to satisfythe freshwater needs all countries their sustainable of for development. management based 18.8 Integrated water resources is on the perception of water as an integral part of the a ecosystem, naturalresource a socialand economic and good, whose quantity and quality determinethe nature have to be of its utilization.To this end,water resources protected,taking into accountthe functioning of aquatic in ecosystems the perennialityof the resource, order and to satisfy and reconcileneedsfor water in human activpriority ities. In developingand using water resources, has to be given to the satisfactionof basicneedsand the of Beyondthese requirements, safeguarding ecosystems. however,water usersshould be chargedappropriately. 18.9 Integrated water resources management, including the integrationof land- and water-related aspects, should be carried out at the level of the catchment basin or Four principal objectivesshouldbe pursued, sub-basin. as follows: (a) To promote a dynamic, interactive, iterative and multisectoralapproachto water resources management, including the identificationand protectionof potential sources freshwater of supply,that integrates technological. socio-economic. environmentaland human health considerations; (b) To plan for the sustainable rationalutilization, and protection,conservation of and management water resources based communityneedsandprioritieswithin on policy; theframeworkof national economic development (c) To design, implement and evaluateprojects and programmes that are both economically efficient and socially appropriatewithin clearly defined strategies,A) BYTHEYEAR 2000: (i) To have designedand initiated costedand targeted national action programmes,and to have put in place appropriatein stitutionalstructure andlegal instruments s ; (ii) To haveestablished programmes efficientwater-use to attain sl.rstainable resourceutilization patterns;B) BY YEAR THE 2025: (i) To have achieved subsectoraltargets of all freshwater programmeareas. It is understoodthat the fulfilment of the targetsquantified in (A) (i) and (ii) abovewill dependupon new and additional financialresources will be madeavailable that to developingcountriesin accordance with the relevant provisionsof GeneralAssemblyresolution 44/228.ACTIVITIES 18.12All States, accordingto their capacityand available resources,and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation,including the United Nations and other relevantorganizations appropriate, as could implement the following activities to improve integrated water resources management: (a) Formulation of costedand targetednational action plansand investment programmes; (b) Integration measures theprotection conserof for and vation of potentialsources freshwater of supply,including theinventorying waterresources, land-use with planning, of forest resourceutilization,protectionof mountainslopes and riverbanksand otherrelevantdevelopmentand conservation activities;\67(c) Developmentof interactive databases, forecasting models, economic planning models and methods for watermanagement planning,includingenvironmenand tal impact assessment methods; (d) Optimizationof water resources allocation under physicaland socio-economic constraints; (e) Implementation of allocation decisions through d e m a n d m a n a g e m e n t ,p r i c i n g m e c h a n i s m sa n d regulatorymeasures; (0 Flood and drought management,including risk anaiysisand environmental socialimpactassessment, and (g) Promotion of schemesfor rational water use through public awareness-raising, educationalprogrammes andlevyingof watertariffsandothereconomic instruments: (h) Mobilizationof waterresources, particularlyin arid and semi-aridareas: (i) Promotion of international scientific research cooperation freshwater on resources; 0) Developmentof new and alternativesourcesof water-supplysuch as seawaterdesalination,artificial groundwater recharge, use of marginal-quality water, waste-water reuseand waterrecycling; (k) Integrationof water (includingsurfaceand underground water resources) quantity and quality management: (l) Promotionof waterconservation throughimproved water-use efficiencyand wastage minimizationschemes for all users. includingthe development water-saving of devices; (m) Support to water-usergroups to optimize local water resources management: (n) Development of public participatory techniques and their implementationin decision-making, particulzuly the enhancementof the role of women in water planningand management; resources (o) Development and strengthening, appropriate, as of including mechanisms cooperation, where appropriate, at all levelsconcerned, namely: (i) At the lowestappropriate level,delegation water of resources management, generally, thatlevel,in accordto ancewith nationallegislation, includingdecentralization of government services to local authorities, private enterprises communities; and (ii) At the national level, integratedwater resources planning and management the framework of the nain tional planning processand, where appropriate, establishment of independent regulationand monitoring of freshwater. basedon nationalleeislationand economic measures: (iii) At the regionallevel, consideration, where appropriate, of the harmonization national strategies of and actionprogrammes:(iv) At the global level, improved delineationof responsibilities, division of labour and coordinationof intemational organizationsand prograrnrnes, including facilitating discussionsand sharing of experiencesin areasrelatedto water resources management; (p) Disseminationof information, including operational guidelines,and promotion of educationfor water users, includingthe consideration the UnitedNations by of a World Water Day.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ FINANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 18.13The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe averagetotal annualcost (1993-2000)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about$ I l5 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actualcostsandfinancialterms,including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specitlc strategiesand programmesGovernments decideupon for implementation.B/ SC/ENIIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL MFANS 1 8 . 1 4 h e d e v e l o p m e n to f i n t e r a c t i v e d a t a b a s e s , T forecasting methods and economic planning models appropriate the taskof managingwaterresources an to in efficient and sustainable manner will require the application of new techniquessuchas geographical information systems and expert systemsto gather, assimilate, analyse and display multisectoral information and to optimize decision-making. addition,the development In of new and altemativesources water-supply of and low-cost watertechnologies requireinnovativeappliedresearch. will This will involve the transfer, adaptation and diffusion of new techniquesand technoiogy among developing countries, as well as the developmentof endogenous capacity, thepurpose beingableto dealwith theadded for of dimensionof integrating engineering, economic,environmental and social aspects water resources of management and predictrngthe effectsin temrsof human impact. 18.15Pursuant the recognitionof water as a socialand to economicgood, the various availableoptions for charging water users(including domestic,urban,industrialand agricultural water-user groups)haveto be further evaluated and field-tested.Furtherdevelopment requiredfor economic is instrumentsthat take into account opportunity costs and environmental externalities. Field studies thewillingness on to pay shouldbe conducted rural and urban situations. in16818.16Water resourcesdevelopmentand rnanagement should be planned in an integratedmanner,taking into accountlong-termplanningneedsas well as thosewith horizons; thatis to say,they shouldincorporate nuurower economic and social considerations environmental, include the rebasedon the principle of sustainability, quirements all usersas well as thoserelating to the of hazardsand prevention and mitigation of water-related develintegral part of the socio-economic constitutean A for opmentplanningprocess. prerequisite the sustainvulnerableresource of ablemanagement waterasa scarce is the obligation to acknowledgein all planning and developmentits full costs. Planning cclnsiderations proenvironmental should reflect benefitsinvestment, tection and operationcosts,as well as the opportunity use the alternative of water. costsreflecting mostvaluable burdenall benefiActual chargingneednot necessarily of ciaries with the consequences thoseconsiderations. should,however,reflect as far as Chargingmechanisms possibleboth the true cost of water when used as an to economicgoodandthe ability of the communities pay. 18.17The role of wateras a social,economicand lifegood shouldbe reflectedin demandmanagesustaining throughwaterconand ment mechanisms implemented and servationand reuse.resourceassessment financial instruments. 18.18The setting afreshof priorities for private and public investmentstrategies shouldtake into account (a) maximum utilization of existing projects, , t h r o u g h m a i n t e n a n c e r e h a b i l i t a t i o na n d o p t i m a l and cleantechnologies; operation; (b) new or alternative (c) environmentally and sociailybenignhydropower.framework for water developmentand managementat any level, whetherintemational, nationalor local, need to ensurethat the meansexist to build thosecapacities. The meanswill vary from caseto case.They usually include: (a) Awareness-creation programmes,including mobilizingcommitment and supportat all levelsand initiatins global and local action to promote suchprograrnmes; (b) Training of water managers all levelsso that they at have an appropriateunderstandingof all the elements necessary their decision-making; for (c) Strengthening training capacitiesin developing of countries; (d) Appropriatetrainingof the necessary professionals, workers; includingextension (e) Improvementof careerstructures; (f) Sharing of appropriateknowledge and technology, both for the collection of data and for the implementation planneddevelopment, includingnonof polluting technologiesand the knowledge neededto extract the best performancefrom the existing investment system.D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG integrated I 8.21 Institutionalcapacityfor implementing water management should be reviewedand developed when there is a clear demand.Existing administrative will often be quite capableof achievinglocal structures water resources management, the needmay arisefor but forexample, new institutions based upontheperspective, councils of river catchmentareas, district development and local community committees.Although water is managed variouslevelsin the socio-political at system, demand-drivenmanagementrequires the development of water-related institutionsat appropriate levels, taking into account the need for intesration with land-use management. 18.22In creatingthe enablingenvironmentfor lowestthe appropriate-levelmanagement, role of government includesmobilizationof financialandhumanresources, legislation,standard-setting other regulatoryfuncand tions,monitoringand assessment the useof waterand of land resources and creatingof opportunities public for participation. International agencies donorshavean and importantrole to play in providingsupport developing to countriesin creatingthe required enablingenvironment This should for integratedwater resources management. include, as appropriate,donor supportto local levels in indeveloping countries,including community-based stitutions,non-govemmental and organizations women's groups.RE ES C) HUM A N S OU R C D EV EL OP M EN I management to of l8.19 The delegation waterresources educatingand level necessitates the lowest appropriate staff trainingwatermanagement atall levelsandensuring that women participateequally in the educationand training programmes.Particular emphasishas to be placedon the introductionof public participatory techof niques,including enhancement the role of women. peopleand localcommunities. Skills youth,indigenous functionshave to relatedto variouswater management be developedby municipal governmentand water authorities,as well as in the private sector,local/national cooperative corporas, non-governmental organizations. groups. Education thepublic of tionsandotherwater-user regardingthe importanceof water and its proper manis agement alsoneeded. principles, need communities 18.20To implementthese Those who establishthe to have adequatecapacities.169ASSESST,IENT B) WATERRESOURCESBASIS ACTION FOR includingthe identi18.23Waterresources assessment, fication of potential sourcesof fieshwater supply,comextent, prisesthe continuing determination sources, of and and dependability quality of waterresources of the Such ashuman activitiesthat affect thoseresources. constitutes practicalbasisfor their susthe sessment for and tainablernanagement a prerequisite evaluation There is, of the possibilitiesfor their development. however, growing concern that at a time when more preciseand reliableinformationis needed aboutwater resources, hydrologic servicesand relatedbodiesare lessablethanbeforeto providethis information,especially informationon groundwaterand water quality. Major impediments the lack of financialresources are for water resources assessment, fragmentednature the of hydrologicservices and the insufficientnumbersof qualified staff. At the sametime, the advancingtechis nology for datacapture and management increasingfor ly difficult to access developingcountries.Establishment of national databases however, vital to is, water resources and to mitigation of the assessment and pollueffectsof floods, droughts,desertiflcation t ion.(d) To have all countriesestablishthe institutional arrangementsneeded to ensure the efficient collection, processing, retrievaland dissemination users to storage. of information aboutthe quality and quantityof available w ater resources at the l evel of catchrnent sand groundwateraquifersin an integratedmanner; (e) To have sufficient numbers of appropriately qualified andcapable by staffrecruitedandretained water resources assessment agenciesand provided with the training and retraining they will need to carry out their responsibilities successfully. 18.26All States, and according theircapacity available to resources, and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation,includingcooperation with theUnited Nationsand otherrelevant as could setthe organizations, appropriate, following targets: (a) By the year 2000, to have studied in detail the feasibility of installing water resourcesassessment services; (b) As a long-term target, to have fully operational services hydrometric availablebasedupon high-density networks.ACTIVITIES I 8.27 All States, according theircapacity available and to resources, and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation. including the United Nations and other relevant organizations appropriate, as could undertake followthe ing activities:OBJECTIVES 18.24Basedupon the Mar del Plata Action Plan, this programmeareahas been extendedinto the 1990sand the beyondwith the overallobjectiveof ensuring assessment andforecasting the quantityand qualityof water of in resources, order to estimatethe total quantity of water resources availableand their future supplypotential,to their currentquality status, predictpossible determine to conflicts betweensupply and demandand to provide a scientificdatabase rational water resources fbr utilization. 18.25Five specificobjectives havebeensetaccordingly, as follows: (a) To make availableto all countrieswater resources assessment technology that is appropriate their needs, to inespective of their level of development.including methodsfor the impactassessment climatechange of on freshwater: (b) To have all r,:ountries, accordingto their financial means.allocateto waterresources financial assessment resources line with the economicand socialneeds in for water resources data; (c) To ensurethat the assessment informationis fully utilized in the development of water management policies;A) INSTITUTIONAL FRAIvIEWORK: (:t Establishappropriatepolicy fiameworks and national priorities; ( i i ) E s t a b l i s h a n d s t r e n g t h e nt h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l capabilities of countries, including legislative and regulatory arrangements, that are required to ensurethe adequateassessment their water resources of and the provisionof flood and droughtforecasting services; (iii) Establishand maintaineffectivecooperation the at nationallevel betweenthe variousagencies responsible forthe collection. storage analysis hydrologicdata; and of (iv) Cooperate the assessment transboundary in of water resources, subject the prior agreement eachriparian to of Stateconcemed:B) DATA SYSTEMS: (i) Reviewexistingdata-collection networks andassess their adequacy, including those that provide real-time datafor flood and droughtforecasting; (ii) Improve networksto meet accepted guidelines for170the provision of data on water quantity and quality for surface and groundwater,as well as relevant land-use data; (iii) Apply standardsand other means to ensure data comparibility; (iv) Upgrade facilities and proceduresused to store, processand analysehydrologic data and make suchdata and the forecasts derivedfrom them availableto potentialUSCTS;Actual costsand finanbeenreviewed by Governments. will cial terms,includingany that are non-concessional, and prodependupon, inter alia, the specific strategies grammesGovernments decideupon for implementation.MEANS B' SCIENI/F/C AND IECHNOI.OGICAL 18.29 Importantresearch needsinclude (a) development of global hydrologic models in supportof analysisof waterresources impactandof macroscale climatechange (b) assessment; closing of the gap between terrestrial hydrology and ecology at different scales,including the processes critical water-related behindlossof vegetation and land degradation and its restoration; and (c) studyof genesis, in closing the the key processes rvater-quality gap between hydrologic flows and biogeochemical processes. research modelsshouldbuild uponhydroThe logic balancestudiesand also include the consumptive useof water.This approachshould also, when appropriate, be applied at the catchmentlevel. necessi tateshe t 18.30W ater resourcesassessment strengthening existingsystems technologytransfer, of for adaptationand diffusion, and the developmentof new as technologyfor useunderfield conditions, well as the developmentof endogenous capacity.Prior to inaugurating the above activities, it is necessaryto prepare cataloguesof the water resourcesinformation held by governmentservices,the private sector,educationalinand local water-use organizations stitutes,consultants, others.(v) Establishdatabases the availabilityof all types on of hydrologicdataat the nationallevel; (vi) Implement"data rescue"operations, example, for establishment national archivesof water resources; of (vii) Implement appropriatewell-tried techniquesfor the processing hydrologicdata; of (viii) Derivearea-related from pointhydrologic estimates data: (ix) Assimilateremotelysensed dataand the use,where appropriate.of geographicalinformation systems;DISSEMINATION: C} DATA (i) Identify the needfor water resources datafor various planningpurposes; (ii) Analyse and presentdata and information on water in resources the forms requiredforplanning andmanagedevelopment for and ment of countries'socio-economic use in environmental protection strategiesand in the projects; design and operationof specific water-related (iii) Provideforecasts wamingsof flood anddrought and to the generalpublic and civil defence;AND D} RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT: (i) Establish or strengthenresearchand development programmesat the national, subregional,regional and assesslevelsin supportof waterresources international mentactivities; (ii) Monitor research activitiesto enand development sure that they make full useof local expertiseand other forthe needs and local resources that they areappropriate of the countrv or countriesconcerned.DEVELOPMENT C) HUMANRESOURCE 18.31Water resourcesassessment requiresthe establishmentand maintenance a body of well-trainedand of motivated staff sufficient in number to undertake the above activities. Education and training programmes designedto ensurean adequatesupply of thesetrained personnelshould be establishedor strengthened the at local,national,subregional regionallevel.In addition, or the provision of attractiveterms of employment and career paths for professionaland technical staff should Human resource needsshouldbe monibe encouraged. tored periodically,including all levels of employment. Planshave to be established meet thoseneedsthrough to education and training opportunities and international programmesof coursesand conferences. 18.32Becausewell-trainedpeople are particularlyimportant to water resourcesassessment and hydrologic forecasting, personnel matters should receive special attention in this area.The aim should be to attract andMEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATION Ai F/NANC'NG has estimatedthe 18.28The Conferencesecretariat total annualcost (1993-2W0)of implementing average to the activitiesof thisprogramme be about$355million, comincludingabout$145million from the international grantor concessional terms.Theseareindicamunity on only and have not estimates tive and order-of-masnitude171retain personnelto work on water resources assessment who are sufficient in number and adequate their level in of educationto ensurethe effective implementationof the activitiesthat are planned.Educationmay be called for at both the nationaland the internationallevels,with adequate terms of employmentbeing a national responsibility. I 8.33 Recommended actionsinclude: (a) Identifying educationand training needsgearedto the specificrequirements countries; of (b) Establishing strengthening and education trainand ing programmes water-related on topics,within an environmentaland developmental context, for all categories of staffinvolvedin waterresources assessment activities, usingadvanced educational technology, whereappropriate,and involving both men and women; (c) Developingsoundrecruitment, personnel and pay policiestor staff of nationaland local wateragencies.D) CAPACTTY-BUtLD\NG 18.34The conductof waterresources assessment the on basisof operationalnationalhydrometricnetworksrequiresan enablingenvironment all levels.The followat ing national supportaction is necessary enhanced for nationalcapacities: (a) Review of the legislativeand regulatorybasisof water resources assessment: (b) Facilitation of close collaborationamong water s ec t or age n c i e s ,p a rti c u l a rl y b e tw e e n i nformati on producers and users; (c) Implementationof water management policies based upon realisticappraisals waterresources of conditions and trends; (d) Strengtheningof the managerialcapabilitiesof water-user groups,includingwomen,youth, indigenous people and local communities,to improve water-use efficiencyat the local level. cl PRoTECTTON WATERRESOURCES, OF WATER QUALITYAND AQUATIC ECOSYSIE'YISMajor problemsaffecting the water quality of rivers and lakes arise,in variable order of importanceaccordingto different situations,from inadequatelytreateddomestic sewage, inadequate controlson the discharges indusof trial waste waters, loss and destruction of catchment areas,ill-consideredsiting of industrialplants,deforestation, uncontrolled shifting cultivation and poor agriculturalpractices. This givesrise to the leachingof nutrients and pesticides.Aquatic ecosystems are disturbed and living freshwater resourcesare threatened. Undercertain circumstances, aquatic ecosystems also are affectedby agriculturalwaterresource development projects such as dams,river diversions, water installations and irrigation schemes. Erosion,sedimentation, deforestationand desertification have led to increased land degradation, and the creationof reservoirs has,in some cases. resulted adverse in effectson ecosystems. Many of these problems have arisen from a development model that is environmentally destructive and from a lack of public awareness educationabout surf'ace and and groundwater resource protection.Ecologicaland humanhealtheff'ects the measurable are consequences, althoughthe meansto monitor them are inadequate or non-existent many countries. in Thereis a widespread lack of perceptionof the linkagesbetweenthe development, management,use and treatment of water resources and aquatic ecosystems. preventiveapA proach, where appropriate,is crucial to the avoiding of costlysubsequent measures rehabilitate, to treatand developnew water supplies.OBJECTIVES 18.36The complex interconnectedness freshwater of systems demands freshwater that management holistic be (taking a catchmentmanagement approach)and based on a bal ancedconsi derati on the needsof people of a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .T h e M a r d e l P l a t a A c t i o n P l a n h a s a l r e a d yr e c o g n i z e dt h e i n t r i n s i c l i n k a g e b e t w e e nw a t e r r e s o u r c e e v e l o p m e n t r o j e c t sa n d d p t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n tp h y s i c a l , c h e m i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , heal th and soci o-economi c repercussi ons. over The all environmental healthobjectivewas set as follows: "to evaluatethe consequences which the varioususers of water have on the environment, supportmeasures to aimed at controlling water-related diseases, and to protectecosystems".' 18.37The extent and severityof contamination unof saturated zonesand aquifershave long been underestimatedowing to therelativeinaccessibility aquifers of and the lack of reliableinformationon aquifersystems. The protectionof groundwater thereforean essential is element of water resource management.BASIS ACTION FOR 18. 35 r es h w a te ri s a u n i ta ry re s o u rc e .Long-term F developmentof global freshwater requires holistic managementof resourcesand a recognition of the interconnectedness the elementsrelated to freshof water and freshwater quality. There are f'ew regions of the world that are still exemptfrom problemsof loss of potentialsources freshwatersupply,degraded of water qualityandpollutionof surface groundwater and sources.17218.38Three objectiveswill have to be pursued concurrently to integrate water-qualityelementsinto water resource management: (a) Maintenanceof ecosystemintegrity, according to a managementprinciple of preservingaquatic er-osystems, includingliving resources, of effectivelyprotecting and them from any fonn of degradation a drainage on basinba.sis; (b) Public healthprotection,a task requiringnot only the provision of safe drinking-waterbut also the control vectorsin the aquaticenvironment; of disease (c) Human resources development, key to capacitya building and a prerequisitefor implementing waterquality management. 18.39All States, accordingto their capacityand available resources, throughbilateralor multilateralcooperation, including the United Nations and other relevant organizationsas appropriate,could set the following targets: (a) To identify the surfaceand groundwaterresources thatcouldbe developed useon a sustainable for basisand othermajor developable water-dependent resources and, simultaneously, initiateprogrammes theprotection, to for conservation and rational use of these resources a on sustainable basis; (b) To identifyall potential sources water-supply of and prepareoutlines for their protection,conservation and rationaluse; (c) To initiateeffectivewaterpollution prevention and controlprogrammes, based an appropriate on mixture of pollution reduction-at-source strategies, environmental impact assessments enforceable and standards major for point-source discharges high-risknon-pointsources, and commensurate with their socio-economic development; (d) To panicipate, far asappropriate, international as in water-quality monitoringand management programmes suchastheGlobalWaterQualityMonitoring Programme (GEMSAV'ATER),the UNEP Environmentally Sound Managementof Inland Waters (EMINWA), the FAO regional inland fishery bodies,and the Conventionon Wetlands of International Importance Especially as WaterfowlHabitat(RamsarConvention); (e) To reducethe prevalence water-associated of diseases,starting with the eradicationof dracunculiasis (guineaworm disease) (river blindand onchocerciasis ness)by the year 2000; (0 To establish,according to capacitiesand needs, biological.health,physicaland chemicalquality criteria for all water bodies (surfaceand groundwater), with a view to an ongoingimprovementof waterquality: (g) To adoptanintegrated approach environmentally to sustainable management water resources, of including the protection of aquatic ecosystemsand freshwater livine resources:(h) To put in place strategiesfor the environmentally sound managementof fieshwater and related coastal e c o s y s t e m s i,n c l u d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n f f i s h e r i e s , o aquaculture,animal grazing,agricultural activities and biodiversity.ACTIVITIES 18.40All States, accordingto their capacityand available resources,and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, includingUnitedNationsandotherrelevant clrganizations appropriate,could implement the folas lowing activities:A) WATER RESOURCES PROTECilON CONSERVATION: AND (i) Establishment and strengthening technicaland of institutionalcapacities identify and protectpotential to sources water-supply of within all sectors society; of (ii) Identificationof potentialsources water-supply of and preparationof national profiles; (iii) Preparationof national plans for water resources protectionand conseruation; (iv) Rehabilitationof important,but degraded, catchment areas, particularlyon small islands; (v) Strengthening administrative of and legislative measures prevent to encroachment existingandpotenon tially usablecatchment areaslB)WATER POLLUTTON PREVENTIONCONTROL: AND (i) Applicationof the "polluter pays" principle,where appropriate. allkindsof sources, to including on-site and off-si te sani tati onl (ii) Promotionof the construction treatment of facilities for domestic sewageand indr"lstrial effluents and the developmentof appropriatetechnologies, taking into accourltsoundtraditionaland indigenous practices; (iii) Establishment standards the dischargeof of for effluentsand fcrrthe receivingwaters; (iv) Introduction theprecautionary of approach waterin quality management, whereappropriate, with a focuson pollution minimization and preventionthrough use of new technologies, productandprocess pollution change, reduction at source and effluent reuse,recycling and recovery.treatment and environmentally safedisposal; (v) Mandatoryenvironmental impactassessment all of major water resourcedevelopment projectspotentially impairing water quality and aquaticecosystems, combined with the delineationof appropriateremedial measures and a strengthened control of new industrial installations.solid waste landfills and infrastructure development projects;173(vi) Use of risk assessment risk management and rn reachingdecisions this areaand ensuringcompliance in with thosedecisions; (vii) Identificationand applicationof bestenvironmental practices reasonable to avoiddiffusepollution, at cost namely, through a limited, rational and planned use of (pestnitrogenousfertilizers and other agrochemicals icides,herbicides) agriculturalpractices; in (viii) Encouragement and promotion of the use of adequately treatedand purified waste watersin agriculture, industry and other sectors; aquaculture,(ii) Rehabilitation programmes for agricultural lands and for otherusers, takinginto account equivalent action for the protection and use of groundwaterresources important for agricultural productivity and for the biodiversityof the tropics: (iii) Conservation and,protection wetlands(owing to of their ecological and habitat importance for many species), takinginto account socialandeconomic factors; (iv) Control of noxiousaquaticspecies that may destroy someother water species;C} DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONCLEAN AND TECHNOLOGY: OF (i) Control of industrial waste discharges, including low-wasteproductiontechnologies and water recirculation, in an integrated mannerand throughapplication of precautionary measures derivedfrom a broad-based lifecycle analysis; (ii) Treatmentof municipal wastewater for safereuse in agriculture and aquaculture; (iii) Development biotechnology, of inter alia, for waste productionof biofertilizers treatment, and otheractivities; (iv) Developmentof appropriatemethodsfor water pollution control,taking into accountsoundtraditionaland practices; indigenousF} PROTECNON OFFRESHWATER RESOURCES: LIVING (i) Controlandmonitoringof waterquality to allow for the sustainable development inland fisheries; of (ii) Protection ecosystems of from pollutionand degradation for the development of freshwater aquaculture projects;G) MONITORTNG SURVETLLANCE AND OFWATER RESOURCES ANDWATERS RECEIVING WASTES: (i) Establishment networksfor the monitoring and of continuoussurveillance watersreceivingwastesand of of point and diffusesources pollution; of (ii) Promotionandextension the application enviof of ronmentalimpact assessments geographical informaof tion systems; (iii) Surveillance pollution sources improve comof to pliancewith standards regulations to regulate and and the issue discharge permits: of (iv) Monitoring of the utilization of chemicalsin agriculture that may have an adverseenvironmentaleffect; (v) Rational land use to prevent land degradation, erosionand siltationof lakesand other waterbodies:D) GROUNDWATER PROTEOTON: (i) Developmentof agriculturalpracticesthat do not degradegroundwaters; (ii) Application of the necessary measures mitigate to salineintrusioninto aquifersof smallislandsand coastal plainsas a consequence sealevel of rise or overexploitation of coastal aquifers; (iii) Prevention aquiferpollution throughthe regulaof tion of toxic substances permeate groundandthe that the es t ablis hm e n t f p ro te c ti o n z o n e s i n g r oundw ater o rechargeand abstractionareas; (iv) Designandmanagement landfillsbased of uponsound hydrogeologicinformation and impact assessment, using the bestpracticable bestavailable and technology; (v) Promotionof measures improve the safetyand to integrityof wells and well-head areas reduceintrusion to of biological pathogens and hazardous chemicalsinto aquifersat well sites; (vi.; Water-quality monitoring,asneeded, surface of and groundwaterpotentially affectedby sites storing toxic and hazardous materials:H} DEVELOPMENT OFNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL AND LEGAL INSTRUMENTS MAY REQUIREDPROTECT AUALIW THAT BE TO THE RESOURCES, OFWATER ASAPPROPRIATE, PARTICULARLY FOR: (i) Monitoring and control of pollution and its effects in nationaland transboundary waters; (ii) Controlof long-range atmospheric transport polof l utants: (iii) Control of accidentaland/or deliberatespills in nationaland/ortransboundary water bodies: (il') Environmental impact assessment.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATIONE) PROTECTON OFAQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS. (i) Rehabilitationof polluted and degradedwater bodiesto restoreaquatichabitatsand ecosystems; 18.41The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the agetotal cost( 1993-2000) irrplementingthe activities of174to of this programme be about$1 billion, includingabout $340 million from the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional terms.Theseare indicative andorder-ofmagnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby including Governments. Actualcosts andfinancialterms, will any that are non-concessional, dependupon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand programmesGovernmentsdecideupon for implementation.anduse,particularlyin urbanareas, theestablishment and of nationaland regionaltechnicaland engineeringcourses on the subjects water-qualityprotectionand control at of on existingschools andeducation/training courses water resources protectionand conservation laboratoryand for groups. field technicians, women and otherwater-userD) CAPACTTY-BU|LD|NG AND TFCHNOLOGICAL MEANS B/ SC/ENr/F/C proresearch 18.42States shouldundertake cooperative jects to developsolutionsto tecltnicalproblemsthat are appropriatefor the conditions in each watershedor country. States should consider strengtheningand developingnationalresearch centreslinked throughnetworks and supportedby regional water researchincentres stitutes.The North-Southtwinning of research instituwater research and field studies international by tions shouldbe actively promoted.It is importantthat a minimum percentageof funds for water resource development projects is allocated to researchand particularlyin externallyfundedprojects. development, 18.43Monitoring and assessment complex aquatic of involving systems oftenrequiremultidisciplinary studies in severalinstitutions and scientists a joint programme. Int er nat ional wa te r-q u a l i ty p ro g ra m m e s ,s u ch as GEMSflVATER, should be oriented towards the waterquality of developingcountries.User-friendlysoftware (GIS)andGlobal InformationSystems andGeographical (GRID) methods Resource InformationDatabase should and for analysis interpretation be developed thehandling, of monitoring data and for the preparationof management strategies. 18.46The effective protectionof water resources and ecosystems from pollution requiresconsiderable upgrading of most countries'presentcapacities. Water-quality management programmesrequire a certain minimum infrastructureand staff to identify and implement technical solutionsand to enforceregulatoryaction.One of the key problemstoday and for the future is the sustained operation and maintenanceof thesefacilities. In order gainedfrom previousinvestments not to allow resources to deterioratefurther, immediate action is required in a numberof areas.Dl DRTNKTNG-WATER Suppry AND SANTTATTON BASIS ACTION FOR 18.47Safewater-supplies environmental sanitation and improvinghealth arevital for protecting environment, the poverty.Safewateris alsocrucialto many andalleviating traditionaland cultural activities.An estimated80 per cent of all diseasesand over one third of deaths in developingcountriesare caused the consumption of by contaminated water,andon average much asone-tenth as of eachperson'sproductivetime is sacrificedto waterrelated diseases. Concerted efforts during the 1980s brought water and sanitation services to hundreds of millions of the world's poorestpeople.The most outin standing these of effortswasthe launching 1981of the InternationalDrinking WaterSupplyandSanitationDecade,which resultedfrom the Mar del PlataAction Plan adopted theUnitedNationsWaterConference by in1977. The commonly agreedpremisewas that "all peoples, whatevertheir stage development their socialand of and economicconditions,have the right to have access to drinking waterin quantities of a qualityequalto their and basic needs".2 The target of the Decadewas to provide safedrinking-water and sanitationto underserved urban and rural areasby 1990, but even the unprecedented progressachievedduring the Decadewas not enough. One in threepeoplein the developingworld still lacks two mostbasicrequirements healthanddignity. for these It is alsorecognized that humanexcretaand sewage are importantcauses the deterioration water quality in of ofDEVELOPMENI C) HUMANRESOURCE should be adopted for 18.44Innovative approaches professional managerial stafftrainingin orderto cope and with changing needs and challenges.Flexibility and adaptabilityregardingemergingwater pollution issues Trainingactivitiesshould underbe shouldbe developed. taken periodicallyat all levels within the organizations responsible water-quality for management, innovaand of adoptedfor specificaspects tive teachingtechniques water-qualitymonitoring and control, including development of training skills, in-servicetraining,problemsolvingworkshops and refresher trainingcourses. 18.45Suitable approaches includethe strengthening and improvement the humanresource of capabilities local of in Governments managingwater protection,treatment175developingcountries,and the introductionof available technologies, ludingappropri technologies, the inc ate and construction sewagetreatmentfacilities could brinB of significantimprovement. OBJECTIVES 18.48The New Delhi Statement (adopted the Global at Consultation on Safe Water and Sanitation for the 1990s ,whi c h w a s h e l d a t N e w D e l h i from l 0 to 14 September 1990)formalizedthe needto provide,on a sustainable basis, accessto safe water in sufficient quantitiesand proper sanitationfor all, emphasizing the "some for all ratherthan more for some" approach. Four guiding principles provide for the programme objectives: (a) Protection the environment of and safeguarding of health through the integrated managementof water resources liquid and solid wastes; and (b) Institutionalreforms promoting an integratedapproach and including changesin procedures, attitudes and behaviour,and the full participationof women at all levelsin sector institutions; (c) Cornmunity management services,backed by of measures strengthen to localinstitutions implementing in and sustaining waterand sanitation programmes; (d) Soundfinancialpractices, achieved throughbetter management existing assets, of and widespread use of appropri technologies. ate 18.49Past experiencehas shown that specific targets shouldbe set by each individual country.At the World Summit for Children,in September 1990,heads State of or Governmentcalled for both universalaccess waterto supplyandsanitation theeradication guineaworm and of diseaseby 1995. Even for the more realistic target of achievingfull coveragein water-supply 2025, it is by estimated that annualinvestments mustreachdoublethe currentlevels.One realisticstrategy meetpresent to and future needs,therefore,is to develop lower-cost but adequate services canbe implemented sustained that and at the communitylevel.(ii) Sanitary disposal of excreta and sewage, using appropriatesystemsto treat waste waters in urban and rural areas; (iii) Expansion of urban and rural water-supplyand development expansion rainwatercatchment and of systems, particularly on small islands,in addition to the reticulated water-supply system; (iv) Building and expansion,where appropriate,of sewage treatment facilitiesand drainage systems; (v) Treatmentand saf-e reuseof domesticand industrial wastewaters in urban and rural areas; (vi) Control of water-associated diseases: B) PEOPLE |NST|TUT|ONS: AND (i) Strengthening the functioningof Govemments of in water resourcesmanagementand, at the same time, giving of f ull recognitionto the role of local authorities; (ii) Encouragement waterdevelopment manageof and mentbasedon a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy makersat all levels; (iii) Applicationof the principlethat decisions to be are takenat the lowestappropriate level,with public consultation and involvement of users in the planning and implementation waterprojects; of (iv) Humanresource developmentat levels,including all specialprogramlnes women; for (v) Broad-based education programmes, with particular emphasis hygiene,local management risk reducon and ti on; (vi) International support mechanismsfor programme funding,implementation and follow-up;ACTIVITIES I 8.50 All States, according theircapacity available to and resources, and throughbilateralor multilateralcooperation, including the United Nations and other relevant organizations appropriate, as could implementthe following activities:A) ENVIRONMENT,AND HEALTH: (i) Establishmentof protected areas for sourcesof drinking-watersupply;C} NATIONAL COMMUNITY AND MANAGEMENT: (i) Supportand assistance communities managing to in their own systems a sustainable on basis; (ii) Encouragement the local population,especially of w omen, youth. i ndi genouspeopl e and l o cal com munities. watermanagement; in (iii) Linkages betweennational water plans and community management local waters; of (iv) Integration of community managementof water within the contextof overallplanning; (v) Promotionof primary healthandenvironmental care at thelocallevel,includingtrainingfbrlocal communities in appropriatewater management techniquesand primary health care; (vi) Assistance serviceagencies becomingmore to in cost-eff-ective responsive consumer and to needs; (vii) Providing of more attentionto underserved rural and low-incomeperiurbanareas; (viii) Rehabilitation defectivesystems, of reductionof wastage and sa{'e reuseof water and wastewater;176(ix) Programmesfor rational water use and ensured operationand maintenance; (x) Research development appropriate and of technical solutions; (xi) Substantial increase in urban treatment capacity with increasing loads; commensurate(b) Utilization of traditional and indigenouspractices, as far as practicable, to maximize and sustain local involvement; (c) Assistance country-level to technical/scientific institutes to facilitate curricula development to support fields critical to the water and sanitationsector.D) AWARENESS CREATTON AND INFORMATION : PUBLIC /PARTICIPATION (i) Strengthening sectormonitoring and information of management subnational nationallevels; at and (ii) Annual processing,analysis and publication of monitoringresultsat nationaland local levelsas a sector management and advocacy/awareness creationtool; (iii) Use of limited sector indicators at regional and global levelsto promotethe sectorand raisefunds; (iv) Improvement sectorcoordination, planningand of o im plem ent at io n ,w i th th e a s s i s ta n c e f i m p roved the to monitoring and information management, increase particularlyin communitycapacity, sector'sabsorptive projects. self-help basedC) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 18.53To effectivelyplan and manage water-supply and sanitationat the national,provincial, district and community level,andto utilizefundsmosteffectively, trained professional technical within and staffmustbe developed eachcountryin sufficientnumbers. do this,countries To plans, taking must establishmanpowerdevelopment into considerationpresentrequirementsand planned developments.Subsequently, the development and performance of country-level training institutions should be enhanced that they can play a pivotal role so in capacity-building. is also importantthat countries It provide adequatetraining fbr women in the sustainable maintenance equipment,waterresource management of s and environmental sanitation.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COSTEVALUATTON A/ F/NANC/NGD) CAPACITY-BUILDING has estimatedthe 18.51The Conferencesecretariat total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of average the activities of this progranuneto be about $20 billion, comincludingabout$7.4 billion from the international terms.Theseare indicmunity on grantor concessional estimates only andhavenot ative andorder-of-magnitude Actual costsand financial beenreviewedby Governments. will terms,including any that arenon-concessional, depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategiesand prografirmes Governments decideupon for implementation. 18.54The implementation water-supply and sanitaof To tion programmes a nationalresponsibility. varying is degrees, responsibi ty for thei mplementation projects Ii of to and the operatingof systems shouldbe delegated all administrative levels down to the community and individual served. This also meansthat nationalauthorities, together with the agencies and bodies of the United Nations system and other external support agencies providing support to national programmes,should to at developmechanisms procedures collaborate all and is levels.This is particularlyimportantif full advantage to be taken of community-basedapproaches and selfrelianceastoolsfcrrsustainability. This will entaila high degree communityparticipation, of involving women,in planning,decision-making, implementatheconception, for tion andevaluation connected with projects domestic water-supply and sanitation. 18.55Overall nationalcapacity-building all adrninisat trativelevels,involving institutional development, coordination, human resources,community pafticipation, health and hygiene educationand literacy, has to be to connection both developed according its fundamental with any efforts to improve health and socio-economic development through water-supply and sanitation and with their impact on the humanenvironment. Capacity-MFANS B/ 5C/ENI/F/C AND TECHNOT.OGICAL the acceptability sustainand 18.52To ensure feasibility, plannedwater-supply services, adoptedtechability of nologies should be responsiveto the needsand constraints imposedby the conditions of the community Thus, designcriteria will involve technical, concerned. health, social. economic, provincial, institutional and factorsthat determine characteristics, the environmental magnitude and cost of the planned system. Relevant international support programmes should addressthe inter alia: concerning, developingcountries (a) Pursuit of low-cost scientific and technological means,as far as practicable;177building should thereforebe one of the underlying keys Institutionalcapacityin implementationstrategies. to have an importance building should be considered comequalto that of the sectorsuppliesand equipment This can be ponentso that funds can be directedto both. formuat undertaken the planningor programme/project of objecby lation stage, accompanied a cleardetlnition tives and targets.In this regard,technicalcooperation among developing countries,owing to their available and wealthof infbrmation and experience the needto avoid "reinventing wheel",is crucial.Sucha course proved has the already. in many countryprojects cost-effective URBAN DEVETOPE) WATER AND SUSTAINABLE A/TENT FOR BASIS ACTION 18.56Early in the next century,more than half of the By world's populationwill be living in urban areas. the year 2025,that proportion will have risen to 60 per cent, comprisingsome5 billion people.Rapid urbanpopulation growth and industrializationare putting severe protecon and strains the waterresources environmental needs attention of tion capabilities many cities.Special on of to be givento thegrowingeff'ects urbanization water and and demands usage to the criticalrole playedby locai and municipal authoritiesin managingthe supply,use and overall treatment water,particularlyin developing of countriesfor which specialsupportis needed.Scarcity of freshwater resourcesand the escalating costs of impacton new resources havea considerable developing national industrial,agriculturaland human settlement and development economicgrowth.Bettermanagement including the elimination of of urban water resources, patterns. makea substancan consumption unsustainable tial contributionto the alleviation of poverty and improvementof the healthand quality of life of the urban and rural poor. A high proportion of large urban agglomerations locatedaroundestuaries in coastal and are leads to pollution from zones. Such an arrangement combinedwith overmunicipalandindustrial discharges and threatens exploitationof availablewater resources the marine environmentand the supply of freshwater resources.the actionsto ensure continuedsupplyof affordablewater for presentand future needsand to reversecurrenttrends of resourcedegradation and depletion. to 1S.58All States, according their capacityand available resources, throughbilateralor multilateralcooperation, and including the United Nations and other relevantorganizations as appropriate, could setthe following targets: (a) By the year 2000, to have ensuredthat all urban residentshave accessto at least 40 litres per capita per day of safe water and that 75 per cent of the urban population are provided with on-site or community facilitiesfor sanitation; (b) By the year 2000, to have established applied and quantitative and qualitative discharge standardsfor municipaland industrialeffluents; (c) By the year 2000,to haveensured that 75 per cent in of solid waste generated urban areasis collected and safeway. of recycledor disposed in an environmentallyACTIVITIES and 18.59All States, according theircapacity available to resources,and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including the United Nations and other relevant could implementthe folorganizations appropriate, as lowing activities:RESOURCES DEPLETION, FROM A) PROTECnON WATER OF POLLUTION DEGRADATION: AND (i) Introduction of sanitary waste disposal facilities basedon environmentallysoundlow-cost and upgradabletechnologies; (ii) Implementation urban storm-waterrun-off and of programmes; drainage (iii) Promotion recyclingandreuse wastewaterand of of solidwastes; (iv) Control of industrial pollution sourcesto protect water resources; (v) Protectionof watersheds with respectto depletion and degradationof their forest cover and from harmful upstream activities; (vi) Promotion of researchinto the contribution of waterresources development; foreststo sustainable (vii) Encouragement the bestmanagement practices of with a view to minimizing for the useof agrochemicals their impact on waterresources;OBJECTIVES objectiveof this programmeis 18.57The development to supportlocal and central Govemments'efforts and and productt-r capacities sustainnationaidevelopment of tivity through environmentallysound management for water resources urbanuse.Supportingthis objective and is the identiflcation andimplementation strategies of RESOURCES: B) EFF|C|ENT EaU|TABLE AND ALLOCATTON OFWATER (i) Reconciliationof city development planning with of the availabilityand sustainability waterresources; (ii) Satisfaction the basicwater needsof the urban of population;178(iii) Introductionof water tariffs, taking into accountthe circumstances, eachcountry andwhereaffordable,that in reflect the marginal and opportunity cost of water,especially for productiveactivities;nical back-upavailablewhen required; (vi) Consideration of the merits and practicality of rehabilitating existing malfunctioning systems and of correctingoperation and maintenance inadequacies.C) INSTITUTIONAL/LEGAL/MANAGEMENT REFORMS: (i) Adoption of a city-wide approachto the management of water resources; (ii) Promotion at the national and local level of the plansthat give dueconsideration elaboration land-use of to waterresources development; (iii) Utilizationof the skillsandpotential non-governof mental organizatrons, private sectorand local people, the the taking into account public's and strategic interests in water resources;MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATTON 18.60The Conference secretariathas estimated the averagetotal annual cost (1993-20A0)of implementing the activitiesof this programmeto be about$20 billion, including about $4.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.These indicative are and order-of-magnitude estimatesonly and have not been reviewed Governments. by Actualcosts frnancial and ternls, includingany thatarenon-concessional, depend will upon, inter alia, the specific strategies programmes and Govemmentsdecideuponfor implementation.D) PROMOTIONPUBLIC OF PARTICIPATION: (i) Initiationof public-awareness campaigns encourto agethe public'smove towardsrationalwaterutilization; (ii) Sensitization the public to the issueof protecting of water quality within the urbanenvironment; (iii) Pronrotion public participation the collection, of in recyclingand eliminationof wastes;8/ SC'ENilFtC AND TECHNOLOGTCAL MFANS 18.61The 1980s saw consi derabl e progressi n t he development and applicationof low-cost water-supply and sanitation technologies. The programmeenvisages continuationof this work, with particularemphasis on development appropriate of sanitation wastedisposal and technologies low-income high-densityurban settlefor ments. There should also be international information exchange,to ensurea widespreadrecognitionamong sectorprofessionals the availability and benefitsof of appropriatelow-cost technologies. The public-awarenesscampaigns will also includecomponents overto come userresistance second-class to services emphaby sizing the benefitsof reliability and sustainability.E) SUPPORT TOLOCAL CAPAC|TY-BU|LD|NG: (i) Developrnent legislation of and policiesto promote investmentsin urban water and waste management, reflecting the major contribution of cities to national economicdevelopment; (ii) Provisionof seedmoney and technicalsupportto the local handlingof materialssupplyand services; (iii) Encouragement, theextentpossible, autonomy to of and financial viability of city water. solid waste and sewerage utilities; (iv) Creationand maintenance a cadreof professionof als and semi-professionals, water, waste-water for and solid wastemanagement; F) PROVISION OF ENHANCED ACCESS TO SANITARY SERVICES: (i) Implementationof water, sanitationand waste programmes management focusedon the urbanpoor; (ii) Making available of low-cost water-supplyand sanitation technology choices; (iii) Basing of choiceof technologyand servicelevels on userpreferences willingnessto pay, and (iv) Mobilizationand facilitationof the activeinvolvement of women in water management teams; (v) Encouragement equipment local waterassoand of ciations and water committeesto managecommunity water-supply systems and communallatrines, with tech-c) H U MA N E S OU R C E V E LOP ME N T R DE 18.62Implicit in virtuallyall elements thisprogramme of is the needfor progressive enhancement the training of andcareer development personnel all levelsin sector of at institutions. Specificprogramme activitieswill involve the training and retentionof staff with skills in community involvement, low-cost technology,financial management, and integratedplanning of urban water resourcesmanagement.Special provision should be madefor mobilizing andfacilitatingthe activeparticipation of women,youth,indigenous peopleand local communitiesin water management teamsand for supporting the development water associations of and water committees,with appropriate training of such personnel as179Specialeducation secretaries caretakers. and treasurers, for and training programmes women shouldbe launched and with regardto the protectionof waterresources water quality within urban areas.D) CAPACTTY-BUtLDtNG 18.63In combination with human resourcedevelopandmanlegislative of ment,strengthening institutional, agementstructuresare key elementsof the programme. to for A prerequisite progressirt enhancingaccess water of services the establishment an instituis and sanitation tional framework that ensuresthat the real needs and populations potentialcontributionsof currentlyunserved planning.The multiarereflectedin urbandevelopment sectoralapproach,which is a vital part of urban water linkagesat requires institutional management, resources includes the nationaland city levels,andthe programme planninggroups. intersectoral proposals establishing for Proposalsfor greater pollution control and prevention dependfor their successon the right combinationof backed by adeeconomic and regulatory mechanisnts, by quatemonitoring and surveillanceand supported enissues the on environmental hancedcapacityto address part of local Governments. 18.64Establishmentof appropriatedesign standards, is anddischarge consents therewater-quality objectives programmealso fore amongthe proposedactivities.The for the support strengthening capabilityof water includes and for developingtheir autonagencies and sewerage omy and financial viability. Operationand maintenance of existing water and sanitationfacilities have been in recognized entailing a seriousshortcoming many as countries.Technicaland financial supportare neededto inadequacies build up and correctpresent help countries the capacity to operate and maintain rehabilitated and new systems.FOOD PRODUCTION Fl WATERFOR SUSTATNABLE AND RURATDEVETOPMENT FOR BASIS ACTION deof 18.65Sustainability food productionincreasingly pendson soundand efficientwateruseand conservation primarily of inigation development practices consisting and management,including water managementwith inland respectto rain-fedareas,livestockwater-supply, Achieving food securityis a fisheriesand agro-forestry. high priority in many countries,and agriculturemust not but also save only provide food for rising populations, water for other uses.The challengeis to develop andapply water-savingtechnology and managementmethenablecommunities ods and,throughcapacity-building, to introduceinstitutionsandincentivesfor therural popufor lation to adopt new approaches, both rain-fed and irrigatedagriculture.The rural populationmust alsohave better accessto a potablewater-supplyand to sanitation one, taskbut not an impossible It services. is an immense provided appropriate policies and programmes are adoptedat all levels- local, nationaland international. While significant expansionof the area under rain-fed the agriculturehasbeenachievedduring the pastdecade, productivityresponse sustainability irrigationsysof and by temshavebeenconstrained problemsof waterlogging and salinization. Financial and market constraintsare also a commonproblem.Soil erosion,mismanagement and and overexploitationof naturalresources acutecompetition for water have all influenced the extent of poverty, hungerand famine in the developingcountries.Soil erosioncausedby overgrazingof livestock is also often responsiblefor the siltation of lakes. Most often, the neither is of development irrigation schemes supported identifyinghydroimpactassessments by environmental of within watersheds interbasin logic consequences of transfersnor by the assessment social impacts on peoples river valleys. in of of 18.66The non-availability water-supplies suitable quality is a significantlimiting factor to livestockproduction in many countries,and improper disposal of result in animal wastes can in certain circumstances andanimals. pollutionof water-supplies forboth humans The drinking-water requirementsof livestock vary acin and cordingto species the environment which they are kept. It is estimated that the current global livestock is drinking-waterrequirement about60 billion litresper day this and, basedon livestockpopulationgrowth estimates, is daily requirement predictedto increaseby 0.4 billion future. litres per annum in the foreseeable fisheriesin lakes and streamsare an 18.67Freshwater important sourceof food and protein. Fisheriesof inland watersshouldbe so managed to maximizethe yield of as aquatic food organismsin an environmentallysound manner.This requiresthe conservationof water quality and quantity, as well as of the functional morphology of the aquaticenvironment.On the other hand, fishing and the may themselves damage aquaticecosysaquaculture shouldconform to guidetem; hencetheir development levels of production lines for impact limitation. Present from inland fisheries,from both fresh and brackish water, are about 7 million tons per year and could increaseto 16 million tons per year by the year 2000; however, any this rise. increase environmental in sffess couldjeopardiznr80OBJECTIVES principleslor holistic and inte18.68The key strategic grated environmentallysound management water reof sourcesin the rural context may be set forth as follows: (a) Watershouldbe regarded a finite resource having as an economicvaluewith significantsocialand economic implications reflecting the importance of meeting basic needs; (b) Local cornmunities mustparticipate all phases in of water management, ensuring the full involvement of women in view of their crucial role in the practical and day-to-daysupply,management useof water; (c) Water resource managementmust be developed set within a comprehensive of policies for (i) human and distribuhealth; (ii) food production,preservation tion; (iii) disastermitigation plans; (iv) environmental protectionandconservation the naturalresource base; of (d) It is necessary recognize to and activelysupport the role of rural populations,with particularemphasison women. on 18.69An International Action Programme Waterand Agricultural Development(IAP-WASAD) Sustainable has been initiated by FAO in cooperation with other The main obiective of the internationalorganizations. Action Programmeis to assistdevelopingcountriesin planning,developingand managingwater resources on an integratedbasisto meet presentand future needsfor agriculturalproduction,taking into accountenvironmental considerations. 18.70The Action Programmehas developeda framework for sustainable water use in the agricultural sector and identified priority areas for action at national, regional and global levels. Quantitativetargetsfor new inigation development, improvement of existing irrigation schemesand reclamationof waterloggedand salinized lands through drainage for 130 developing on countries estimated thebasisof food requirements, are zonesand availabilityof water and land. agro-climatic for and 18.71FAO globalprojections irrigation,drainage waterprogrammes the year 2000 for 130 by small-scale developingcountriesare as follows: (a) 15.2 million (b) of hectares new irrigation development; l2 million of hectaresof improvement/modernization existing (c) installedwith drainage schemes; 7 million hectares and water control facilities;and (d) l0 million hectares waterprogrammes and conservation. of small-scale 18.72The developmentof new irrigation areasat the level may give rise to environmental above-mentioned of in concerns sofar asit impliesthedestruction wetlands, waterpollution,increased sedimentation a reduction and Therefore, new irrigationschemes should in biodiversity. impactassessment, be accompanied anenvironmental by in upon the scaleof the scheme, casesignifidependingWhen cantnegativeenvironmentalimpactsareexpected. consideringproposalsfor new irrigation schemes, consideration shouldalsobe given to a morerationalexploitation, and an increasein the efflciency or productivity, of any existing schemes capableof serving the same localities. Technologies for new irrigation schemes shouldbe thoroughly evaluated, including their potential conflictswith otherland uses. The activeinvolvement of water-usergroupsis a supportingobjective. 18.73It shouldbe ensured of that rural communities all countries, according to their capacities and available resources of and taking advantage internationalcooperation as appropriate,will have accessto safe water in sufficientquantitiesand adequate sanitationto meettheir health needsand maintain the essentialqualitiesof their local environments. 18.74The objectiveswith regardto water management for inland fisheriesand aquaculture includeconservation of water-quality and water-quantity requirements for optimum productionand preventionof water pollution by aquaculturalactivities.The Action Programmeseeks to assistmember countriesin managingthe tlsheriesof inland watersthroughthe promotion of sustainable managementof capturefisheriesas well as the development of environmentally soundapproaches intensification to of aquaculture. 18.75The objectiveswith regardto water management for livestock supply are twofold: provision of adequate amountsof drinking water and safeguarding drinkingof water quality in accordancewith the specific needsof differentanimal species. This entailsmaximum salinity tolerancelevels and the absence pathogenicorganof isms.No globaltargets be setowing to largeregional can and intra-countryvariations.ACTIVITIES 18.76All States, accordingto their capacityand available resources,and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including the United Nations and other relevant organizationsas appropriate,could implement the following activities:A) WATER-SUPPLY ANDSANTTATTON FOR UNSERVED POOR: THE RURAL (i) Establish nationalpoliciesandbudgetprioritieswith regardto increasing servicecoverage; (ii) Promoteappropriatetechnologies; (iii) Introduce suitable cost-recoverymechanisms, taking into accountefficiencyandequity throughdemand management mechani : sms (iv) Promotecommunity ownershipand rights to watersupply and sanitation facilities;r8t(v) Establish monitoringand evaluationsystems; (vi) Strengthenthe rural water-supply and sanitation sectorwith emphasison institutional development,efficient managementand an appropriate framework for financingof services; (vii) Increase hygieneeducationand eliminatedisease foci: transmission (viii) Adopt appropriate technologiesfor water treatment; (ix) Adopt wide-scaleenvironmentalmanagement vectors: to measures control disease(vi) Minimize adverseeffects from agriculturalchemipestmanagement; cals by useof integrated (vii) Educatecommunitiesabout the pollution-related impacts of the use of fertilizers and chemicalson water quality, food safetyand human health;PROGMMMES: DEVELOPMENT E)WATER RESOURCES (i) Developsmall-scale for irrigationand water-supply humans livestockandfor waterandsoilconservation; and (ii) Formulate large-scale and long-term irrigation developmentprogrammes, taking into accounttheir effects on the local level, the economyand the environment; (iii) Promotelocal initiativesfor the integrated development and management water resources; of (iv) Provide adequate technicaladvice and supportand of enhancement institutionalcollaborationat the local communitylevel; (v) Promote a farming approach for land and water of management takesaccount the levelof education, that the capacity to mobilize local communitiesand the ecosystemrequirements arid and semi-aridregions; of (vi) Plan and develop multi-purposehydroelectric power schemes, making sure that environmentalconcernsare duly takeninto account:EFFTCTENCY: Bl WATER-USE (i) Increaseof efficiency and productivity in agricultural water use for better utilization of limited water resources: (ii) Strengthenwater and soil managementresearch underirrigationand rain-fedconditions; (iii) Monitor andevaluate irrigationprojectperformance to ensure,inter alia, the optimal utilization and proper of maintenance the project; (iv) Support groupswith a view to improving water-user performanceat the local level; management (v) Supportthe appropriate use of relatively brackish water for irrigation;F} SCARCE WATER RESOURCES AAANAGEMENT: AND SALINITY cl WATERLOGGING, CONTROL DRAINAGE: (i) Introducesurface to in drainage rain-fedagriculture pr ev ent te mp o ra ry w a te rl o g g i n g a n d fl oodi ng of lowlands; (ii) Introduce in artificialdrainage inigatedandrain-fed agriculture; (iii) Encourage conjunctiveuseof surfaceand groundstudies; water,includingmonitoringand water-balance (iv) Practise drainagein irrigatedareasof arid and semiarid regions; (i) Develop long-term strategies and practical implementation programmesfor agricultural water use under scarcityconditionswith competingdemandsfor water; (ii) Recognize wateras a social,economicand strategic good in inigation planningand management; (iii) Formulate specializedprogrammesfocused on with emphasison food scarcity drought preparedness, safeguards; and environmental (iv) Promoteand enhance reusein agriculwaste-water ture;MANAGEMENT: D) WATER.OUALITY (i) Establishand operatecost-effectivewater-quality for monitoringsystems agriculturalwateruses; (ii) Preventadverse effectsof agriculturalactivitieson and waterqualityfor othersocialandeconomicactivities on wetlands,inter alia, through optimal use of on-farm input andthe minimizationof the useof externalinput in agriculturalactivities; (iii) Establishbiological,physicaland chemicalwaterand quality criteriafor agriculturalwater-users for marine and riverineecosystems; (iv) Minimize soil run-off and sedimentation; (v) Dispose properlyof sewage from humansettlements produced intensive livestockbreeding; by andof manureFOR LIVESTOCK: G} WATER-SUPPLY (i) Improve quality of water available to livestock, limits; taking into accounttheir tolerance (ii) Increase quantityof water sources availableto the livestock,in particularthose in extensivegrazing systhe needed travel to tems,in orderto both reduce distance aroundwatersources; for waterandpreventovergrazing (iii) Preventcontamination water sources with anirnal of in excrement order to preventthe spreadof diseases, in particularzoonosis; (iv) Encourage through multiple use of water-supplies promotionof integrated systems; agro-livestock-fishery (v) Encouragewater-spreading for schemes increas-182ing waterretention extensive of grasslands stimulate to forage production and preventrun-off;financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies programmes and Governments decideupon for implementation.H} INLAND FISHERIES; (i) Developthe sustainable management fisheries of as part of nationalwaterresources planning; (ii) Study specificaspects the hydrobiologyand enof vironmentalrequirements key inland fish species of in relationto varying waterregimes; (iii) Prevent mitigatemodificationof aquatic or environments by other usersor rehabilitateenvironments subjected to suchmodificationon behalf of the sustainable use and conservation biological diversity of living of aquaticresources; (iv) Develop and disseminate environmentallysound water resources development and management methodologiesfor the intensification fish yield from inland of waters; (v) Establishand maintainadequate systems the for collection and interpretation data on water quality of and quantity and channel morphology relatedro the state and managementof living aquatic resources, including fisheries; 8/ SC'ENIIFIC AND IECHNOIOGICA,L A4FANS 18.78There is an urgentneed for countriesto monitor waterresources water-quality, and waterandland useand crop production;compile inventories type and extent of of agricultural water developmentand of present and future contributionsto sustainable agricultural development; evaluatethe potentialfor fisheriesand aquaculture development; and improvethe availabilityand dissemination of data to planners,technicians, farmersand fishermen.Priority requirements research as follows: for are (a) Identification of critical areas for water-related adaptive research; (b) Strengtheningof the adaptive researchcapacities of institutions developingcountries; in (c) Enhancement translationof water-related of farming andfishingsystems research results into practical and accessibletechnologiesand provision of the support neededfor their rapid adoptionat the field level. 18.79Transferof technology, both horizontaland vertical, needsto be strengthened. Mechanismsto provide credit, input supplies,markets,appropriatepricing and jointly by countries transportation mustbedeveloped and extemal supportagencies. Integratedrural water-supply i nfrastructure, ncluding facilitie s for water-related i edu cation and training and supportservices agriculture, for shouldbe expanded multiple usesand shouldassist for in developingthe rural economy.I) AOUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT: (i) Develop environmentally sound aquaculture technologies that are compatible with local, regional and nationalwaterresources management plansandtakeinto consideration socialfactors: (ii) Introduceappropriate aquaculture techniques and relatedwaterdevelopment management and practices in countriesnot yet experienced aquaculture; in (iii) Assess environmental impactsof aquaculture with specific reference commercialized to culture units and potentialwaterpollution from processing centres; (iv) Evaluateeconomicfeasibilityof aquaculture rein lation to alternativeuse of water,taking into consideration the use of marginal-quality water and investment andoperational requi rements.C ) H U MA N E S OU R C E V E LOP ME N I R DE 18.80 ducati on and trai ni ng of human resour ces E shouldbe activelypursued the nationallevel through: at (a) assessment currentandlong-termhumanresources of management and training needs;(b) establishment a of nationalpolicy for human resources development; and (c) initiationandimplementation trainingprogrammes of for staffat all levelsaswell asfbr farmers. The necessary actionsare as follows: (a) Assesstraining needsfor agriculturalwater management; (b) Increase formal and informal trainingactivities; (c) Develop practical training coursesfor improving the ability of extensionservicesto disseminate technologiesand strengthen farmers'capabilities, with special reference small-scale to producers;MEANS IMPLEMENTAIION OF A/ F/NANC/NG AND CCSTEVALUATTON 18.77The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of theactivities thisprogramme be about$ 13.2billion, of to includingabout$4.5 billion from the international community on grantor concessional terms.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costsandr83(d) Train staff at all levels,including farmers,fishermen and membersof local communities,with particular to reference women; (e) Increasethe opportunitiesfor career development and of the to enhance capabilities administrators officers at all levels involved in land- and water-management programmes.D) CA P A C IT Y .BU IL D IN G 18.81The importanceof a functional and coherentinstitutionalframework at the national level to promote agriculturaldevelopmenthas water and sustainable ln generallybeenfully recognizedat present. addition, an adequatelegal framework of rules and regulations should be in place to facilitate actions on agricultural smalldrainage,water-qualitymanagement, water-use, and the functioningof waterwater programmes scale Legislationspecific associations. users'and fishermen's the needsof the agriculturalwater sectorshould be to forthe legislation with, andstemfrom. general consistent Actions shouldbe purof management water resources. suedin the following areas: policiesrelatedto agri(a) Improvement water-use of culture, fisheries and rural developmentand of legal frameworksfor implementingsuchpolicies; if and (b) Review,sftengthening restructuring, required, their capacities in institutions orderto enhance of existing activities,while recognizingthe need to in water-related level; at waterresources the lowestappropriate manage of where necessary, (c) Review and strengthening. structure,functional relationshipsand organizational linkages arnong ministries and departmentswithin a given ministryl (d) Provisionof specificmeasures requiresupport that inter alia, through longinstitutional strengthening, for term programmebudgeting,staff training, incentives, mechanisms; and coordination mobility, equipment (e) Enhancement involvementof the privatesector, of and development in whereappropriate, humanresource provisionof infrastructure; technologies (0 Transfer existingandnew water-use of and for mechanisms cooperation information by creating amongnationaland regionalinstitutions. exchangecertaintiesincreasegreatly at the regional, national and local levels, it is at the national level that the most important decisions would need to be made. Higher precipitation would lead to and decreased temperatures water demands; water suppliesand increased decreased in thequality of freshwater deterioration they might cause bodies, putting strains on the already fragile balance betweensupply and demandin many countries.Even thereis no guarantee whereprecipitationmight increase, of year when it could be that it would occur at the time used;in addition,theremight be a likelihoodof increased will often causethe intruflooding. Any rise in sealevel smallislandsandcoastal waterinto estuaries, sionof salt this areas; flooding of low-lying coastal aquifersand the at greatrisk. puts low-lying countries 18.83The Ministerial Declaration of the SecondWorld Climate Conferencestatesthat "the potential impact of suchclimate changecould posean environmentalthreat of an up to now unknown magnitude... and could even threaten survival in some small island Statesand in The Conlow-lying coastal,arid and semi-aridareas".3 most important imferencerecognizedthat among the pactsof climate changewere its effectson the hydrologic cycle and on water managementsystemsand, through in Increase incidence systems. on these, socio-economic and droughts,would cause such as floods of extremes, The Conincreased frequencyand severityof disasters. of the necesferencethereforecalled for a strengthening sary researchand monitoring programmesand the extheseactionsto changeof relevantdataand information, and international be undertakenat the national,regional l evel s.OBJECTIVES I 8.84 The verv natureof thistopiccallsfirst andforemost of for more information about and greaterunderstanding into may be translated the threatbeing taced.This topic the following objectives,consistentwith the United NationsFrameworkConventionon Climate Change: (a) To understand and quantify the threatof the impact resources; of climate changeon freshwater (b) To facilitate the implementation of effective naas tional countermeasures, and when the threatening impact is seenas sufficiently confirmed to justify such action; (c) To study the potentialimpactsof climate changeon areasprone to droughtsand floods.G) rrriPAcTsOF CUMATECHANGE ON WATERRESOURCES FOR BASIS ACTION to with respect the prediction 18.82Thereis uncertainty of climate changeat the global level. Although the un-ACTIVITIES and to according theircapacity available 18.85 All States, resources,and through bilateral or multilateral cooper-r84ation, including the United Nations and other relevant organizationsas appropriate,could implement the following activities: (a) Monitorthehydrologicregime,includingsoil moisture, groundwaterbalance,penetrati and transpiration on of water quality, and related climare factors, especially in the regionsandcountriesmost likely to sufferfrom the adverse effects climatechange of andwherethelocalities vulnerableto theseeffects shouldthereforebe defined; (b) Developandapplytechniques methodologies and for assessing potentialadverse the effectsof climate change, throughchanges temperature, in precipitation sealevel and rise,on freshwater resources the flood risk: and (c) Initiate case-studies establish to whetherthereare linkagesbetween climatechanges the currentoccurand rences droughtsand floods in certainregions; of (d) Assess resultingsocial,economicand environthe mentalimpacts; (e) Developand initiate response strategies counter to theadverse effects thatareidentified, includingchanging groundwater levels,and to mitigatesalineintrusioninto aquifers; (0 Develop agriculturalactivitiesbasedon brackishwater use; (g) Contribute theresearch to activitiesunderway within the framework of currentinternationalprograffunes.climate change as a basis for developing remedial measures a complextask.Extensive is research necesis sary in this area and due accounthas to be taken of the work of the Intergovernmental Panelon Climate Change (IPCC), the World Climate Programme, International the Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and other relevantintemationalprogrammes. 18.88The development implementation response and of strategies requires innovative of technological use means and engineering solutions,including the installationof flood and droughtwarningsystems the construction and of nerv water resourcedevelopmentprojects such as dams, aqueducts,well fields, waste-watertreatment plants,desalination works, levees,banks and drainage channels. There is also a needfbr coordinated research networkssuchas theInternational Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for Analysis, Researchand Training (IGBP/START) network.C) HUMANRESOURCE DEVELOPMENI 18.89 The developmental work and innovationdepend for their success good academictraining and staff on motivation.Intemationalprojectscan help by enumerating alternatives, eachcountryneeds establish but to and implementthe necessary policiesandto developits own expertise the scientificand engineering in challenges to be faced,as well as a body of dedicated individualswho are able to interpretthe complex issuesconcemedfor thoserequired makepolicy decisions. to Suchspeciahzed personnel needto betrained, hiredandretained service, in so that they may servetheir countries thesetasks. inMEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF Ai FINANC/NG AND COSTEVALUATION 18.86The Conferencesecretariat has estimatedthe average total annualcost (1993-2(n0)of implementing the activities thisprogramme be about$ 100million, of to includingabout$40 million from the international community on grantor concessional terms.Theseare indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financialterms,includingany that arenon-concessional, will dependupon, inter alia, the specificstrategies and programmes Governments decideupon for implementation.D) CAPACITY-BUILDING 18.90Thereis a need,however,to build a capacityat the national level to develop,review and implementresponse sfrategies. Consffuction of major engineeringworks and installationof forecastingsystemswill require significant sffengthening the agenciesresponsible, of whether in the public or the private sector. Most critical is the requirement for a socio.economic mechanism canreview predictions that of the impact of climate change and possible response judgemenls decisions. sfrategies makethenecessary and and'Report of the United Notions WoterConference, del Ploto, Mor l4-25 Morch 1977 lUnitedNotions publicotion, SolesNo. E.77.1.'.A.12), one,chopter section porogroph pori l, C, 35. 2lbid., portone,chopter resolution l, ll. 3a/$/Ogo/Add.l, onnexlll, preomble, porogroph 2.8/ SC/ENTIFrc ANDTECHNOI.OGICAL MFANS 18.87Monitoring of climate changeand its impact on freshwaterbodies must be closely integratedwith national and international programmes monitoringthe for environment, particularthoseconcerned in with the atmosphere, discussed as underother sections Agenda of 21, andthe hydrosphere, discussed as underprogramme area B above. The analysisof data for indication of18519of monogement toxic sound Environmentolly of prevention illegol including chemicols, products trofficin toxicond dongerous internotionolINTRODUCTIONto is use 19.1 A substantial of chemicals essential meet and economic goals of the world community the social that they can be and today's best practice demonstrates mannerand with a high widely in a cost-effective used However,a greatdealremainsto be done degreeof safety. of ensurethe environmentallysound management to chemicals, within the principles of sustainable toxic and development improvedquality of life forhumankind. Two of the major problems, particularly in developing countries,are (a) lack of sufficient scientific information of for the assessment risks entailedby the use of a great for and (b) lack of resources asnumber of chemicals, for of chemicals which dataare at hand. sessment to with gravedamage 19.2 Grosschemicalcontamination, outcomes, humanhealth,geneticstucturesandreproductive and the environment,has in recent times been continuing within someof the world's most imporlant industrialareas. and development will requiremajor investment Restoration The long-rangeeffectsof pollution, exof new techniques. and tendingevento the fundamentalchemicerl physicalpro and of cesses the Eafth'satrnosphere climate,arebecomrng only recently and the importanceof thoseeffects understood only recentlyaswell. is becomingrecognized bodiesare numberof international 19.3 A considerable In involved in work on chemicalsafety. many countries work programmesfor the promotion of chemical safety as implications, arein place.Suchwork hasinternational Hownationalboundaries. risks do not respect chemical of ever. a significant strengthening both national and an to effortsis needed achieve environmeninternational of soundmanagement chemicals. tally areasare proposed: 19.4 Six programme internationalassess(a) Expanding and accelerating ment of chemicalrisks;(b) Harmonization of classification and labelling of chemicals; (c) Information exchange on toxic chemicals and chemicalrisks; (d) Establishment risk reductionprogrammes; of (e) Strengtheningof national capabilities and capacof ities for management chemicals; traffic in toxic and (0 Prevention illegal international of products. dangerous In addition. the short final subsectionG deals with the enhancementof cooperation related to several programme areas. for are 19.5 The six programmeareas togetherdependent their successfulimplementationon intensive international work and improved coordinationof current international activities,as well as on the identificationand applicationof technical,scientific,educationaland fiTo countries. in nancialmeans, particularfor developing varying degrees,the progralruneareas involve hazatd (basedon the intrinsic properties chemiof assessment (including assessment expoof cals), risk assessment and risk management. sure),risk acceptability 19,6 Collaborationon chemical safety between the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme(UNEP), the InternationalLabour Organisation(ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the International Programme on ChemicalSafety (IPCS) should be the nuon cooperation environmentally cleus for international should All of soundmanagement toxic chemicals. effor-ts Cooperationwith this be madeto strengthen programme. other programmes,suchas thoseof the Organisationfor Economic Cooperationand Development (OECD) and the EuropeanCommunities(EC) and other regional and governmentalchemical programmes,should be promoted. 19.7 Increasedcoordinationof United Nations bodies involved in chemiand other internationalorganizations shouldbe furtherproand cals assessment managementr86moted. Within the framework of IPCS, an intergovernmentalmeeting,convened the ExecutiveDirector of by UNEP,was held in London in December1991to further explorethis matter(seeparas.19.75and 19.76). 19.8 The broadest possible awareness chemicalrisks of is a prerequisite achievingchemicalsafety. for The principle of the right of the community and of workers to know those risks should be recognized. However, the right to know the identity of hazardous ingredients should be balancedwith industry'sright to protectconfidential businessinformation. (Industry, as referred to in this chapter,shall be taken to include large industrialenterprisesand transnational corporations well asdomestic as industries.)The industrv initiative on responsible care and product stewardship shouldbe developed and promoted.Industry shouldapplyadequate standards operof ationin all countries ordernotto damaee in humanhealth and the environment. 19.9Thereis international concernthat paft of the internationalmovementof toxic and dangerous productsis being carried out in contravention existing national of legislation international and instruments, thedetriment to of the environmentand public health of all countries, particularlydeveloping countries. 19.10In resolution 441226 22 December1989,the of GeneralAssemblyrequested eachregionalcommission, within existingresources, contribute the prevention to to of the illegal traffic in toxic and dangerous productsand wastesby monitoring and making regionalassessments of that illegal traffic and its environmental and health implications. The Assemblyalsorequested regional the commissionsto interact among themselves and to cooperate with the United Nations Environment Progralnme,with a view to maintainingefficient and coordinatedmonitoring and assessment the illegal traffic of in toxic and dangerous productsand wastes.over 95 per cent of total world production) is rather limited, as most are usedin very small amounts. However, a seriousproblem is that even for a great number of chemicalscharacterized high-volume producby tion, crucial datafor risk assessment often lacking. are Within the framework of the OECD chernicalsprogramme such data are now being generated for a number of chemicals. 19.12Risk assessment resource-intensive. is It couldbe made cost-effective strengthening by international cooperation and better coordination. thereby making the bestuseof available resources avoidingunnecessary and duplicationof effort. However,eachnationshouldhave a critical mass of technical staff with experiencein toxicity testing and exposureanalysis,which are two importantcomponents risk assessment. ofOBJECTIVES 19.I The objectives this programmeareaare: 3 of (a) To strengthen international assessment. risk Several hundredpriority chemicalsor groupsof chemicals, including major pollutants and contaminanrs global of significance, shouldbe assessed the year 2000,using by currentselection and assessment criteria: (b) To produceguidelines acceptable for exposure a for greaternumber of toxic chemicals, basedon peer review and scientificconsensus distinguishing between health-or environment-based exposure limits and thoserelatingto socio-economic factors.ACTIVIIIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ELATED ACTIV ES ITI 19.14Governments, throughthe cooperation relevant of international organizations industry, and whereappropriate,should: (a) Strengthen and expand programmes chemical on risk assessment within the United NationssystemIPCS (UNEP,ILO. WHO) andtheFoodandAgricultureOrganizationof the United Nations(FAO), rogether with other organizations, including the Organisation Economic for Cooperationand Development(OECD), based on an agreed approach data-quality to assurance, application of assessment criteria, peer review and linkages to risk management activities,taking into accountthe precautionary approach; (b) Promote mechanismsto increase collaboration among Governments,industry, academiaand relevant non-governmental organizations involved in the various aspects risk assessment chemicals of of and relatedprocesses, particularthe promoting and coordinatingof inP R O G R A M MA R E A S EA) EXPANDTNG AND ACCETERATTNG INTERNATIONAT ASSESS'IAEM CHETATAIRISKS OF l9.l I Assessing risksto humanhealthandthe envithe ronment hazardsthat a chemical may causeis a prerequisite to planning for its saf'eand beneficial use. Among the approximately100,000 chemicalsubstances in commerceand the thousands substances natural of of origin with which humanbeingscomeinto contact, many appear pollutantsand contaminants food, commeras in cial productsand the variousenvironmental media.Fortunately, (some1,500 exposure mostchemicals to cover187of to activities improveunderstanding themechresearch of toxic chemicals; of anisms action (c) Encourage development procedures the for of the reports on of their assessment exchangeby countries for with clther countries usein nationalchemichemicals programmes. cal assessrnentAND /NFORMAT/ON B) DATA of the through cooperation relevant 19.15Governments, whereappropriza organi ti onsandindttstry, i nternational ate,should: of (a) Give high priority to hazard assessment chemias cals,thatis, ot ttreirintrinsicpropefties the appropriate basisfor risk assessment: building, (b) Generate for datanecessary assessment, of interulia, on programmes IPCS(UNEP WHO, ILO), programmes FAO, OECD anciEC and on established particiIndustryshould andGovernments. otherregions pateactively. pro19.16Industryshouldprovidedatatbr substances of cificallyfor the assessment ded spe ducedthat are nee potentialrisks to human health and the environment. national to Suchdatashouldbe madeavailable relevant bodiesand other and international authorities competent parties and involvedin hazard risk assessment, interested possibleextent to the public also, and to the greatest claimsof confidentiality. legitimate takinginto accounttesting by industry and researchinstitutions.The cost the to projections the address needs strengthen capacities of relevant United Nations bodies and are based on in currentexperience IPCS.It shouldbe notedthat there to costs, olten not possible quantify,that areconsiderable are not included.Thesecomprisecoststo industry and dataunderlying the the of Governments generating safety of assessments coststo Governments providingbackand statements to ground documentsand draft assessment IPCS, the InternationalRegister of Potentially Toxic (IRPTC) and OECD. They also includethe Chemicals work in non-UnitedNations bodies cost of accelerated suchas OECD and EC. the has secretariat estimated aver19. The Conf-erence 19 the of age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing to of activities this prograntme be about$30million from the intemationalcommunitv on grant or concessional estiterms.Theseareindicativeand order-of-magnitude mates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. Actual costsanclfinancial terms,including any that are will depend upon, inter alia, the non-concessional, decide Governments and specificstrategies programmes uponfor i nrpl cnrentati on.AL B i 5C /E N IFtCA N D TE C H N OLOG\CME A NS in effortsshouldbe launched order 19.20Major research as of chemicals work lor to improvemethods assessntent and towardsa commonframeworkfor risk assessffIent to andepidemifor toxicological improveprocedures r-rsing on of the datato predict effbcts chemicals human ological so health and the environntent. as to enabledecision policiesandmeasures reduce to makers adoptadequatc to bv ri sksposed cherrri cal s. 1 9 . 2 1 c t i ri t i e si n c l u d e : A (a) S trengtheni ng alt research nsafe/saf' er er nat ives cl and to toxrcchemi cal s poseanunrcasonab le ot her that or w ' i se unmanageablri sk to thc cnvi ronntent hum an e toxi c. persi ste nt and bioheal thand to thosethat are c he adequately ona accumulative nd that cannot trol l ed; (b) Promotionof research iind validationof, methtin. for ods consti tuti nga rcpl accrnent those using t est (thus rcducingthe use ol' animalsfor testing animals purposes ): (c) Promotion relevant with studies of epidemiological relationship a a vie$' to establishin-s canse-and-ef1-ect of to and the occurrence betweenexposure chemicals certaindiseases: (d) P romoti onof ecotoxi col ogi cal studieswit h t he to the ai m of assessi ng ri sks of chemi cal s t he environment.A CJ / NI E R N AIION AI N D R F G ION A. AN CO O P E R AIION D C O OR D /N AI/ON clf throughthecooperation relevant I 19. 7 Governments, whereappropriand organizations industry, international ate.should: (a) Developcriterialor priority-setting cherricals for n'ith respcct assessment; to of globalconcern and (b) Revicu' strategies 1-orexposureassessment monitoring to allclrvfor the best use o1' environnrental of s. compatibility dataand resource to ensure available t o e n c o u r a g cc o h e r e n tn a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l ltt. for stratesies that assessnteMEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF Al F/NANC/AIAND COST EVALUATION 1 9 . 1 8M o s t o f t h e d a t a a n d m e t h o d s f o r c h e m i c a l r i s k arc assessment generatedin the developedcountries and an expansion and acceleration of the assessmentwork in u'ill call for a considerableincrease researchand safetyr88DE C) HUM A NRE S O U R C E VE L O P M EN T with the participation organizations, 19.22lnLemational organizations, of Governmentsand non-governmental projectsinvolving shouldlaunchtrainingand education risk. in orderto womenand children,who are at greatest and particularlydevelopingcountries, enablecountries, assessto make maximum nationaluse of international risks" mentsof chemicalOBJECTIVES 19.27A globally harmonizedhazard classificationand compatible labelling system, including material safety shouldbe symbols, datasheets easilyunderstandable and available,if feasible,by the year 2000.ACTIVITIES IVITI ES ELAT A) MANAGEMENI-R EDACTD) CA P A CT TY-B U tL D IN G presbuildingon past, organizations, 19.23lnternational work, shouldsupport countries, entandfutureassessment particularlydevelopingcountries.in developingand capabilities nationaland at risk strengthening assessillent r egional lev el s tc l m i n i m i z e , a n d a s fa r a s p ossi bl e and use control and prevent,risk in the manufacturing Technicalcooperchemicals. and hazardclus of toxic at ion and f ina n c i a l s u p p o rt o r o th e r c o n tr i buti ons aimed at expandingand should be given to ac-tivities assessment the accelerating nationaland international and controlof chemicalrisks to enablethe bestchoice of chemicals.of 19.28Governments, throughthe cooperation relevant and intemationalorganizations industry,whereappropriate, shouldlauncha project with a view to establishing and elaboratinga harmonizedclassificationand compatible labelling system for chemicalsfor use in all United Nations official languagesincluding adequate pictograms. Such a labelling systemshouldnot lead to the imposition of unjustified trade barriers. The new to systemshoulddraw on curent systems the greatest extent possible;it should be developedin steps and shouldaddress subjectof compatibility with labelsof the variousapplications.B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON OF B) HARMONTZATION CLASSIFICATION OF AND LABELLING CHEMICATS 19.29Internationalbodies including, inter alia. IPCS (UNEP, ILO, WHO), FAO, the InternationalMaritime (IMO), the United NationsCommitteeof Organization Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and OECD, in cooperationwith regional and national auand labellingand thoritieshaving existingclassification shouldestabsystems, other information-dissemination groupto: lish a coordinating (a) Evaluateand, if appropriate, studiesof undertake to and existinghazardclassification informationsystems establishgeneralprinciplesfor a globally harmonized system; (b) Developand implementa work plan for the establishment of a globally harmonizedhazardclassification of system. The plan shouldincludea description thetasks andassignment for deadline completion to be cornpleted, group; in of tasksto the participants the coordinating (c) Elaboratea harmonizedhazard sysclassification tem: (d) Draft proposalsfor standardization hazardcomof munication terminologyandsymbolsin ordertoenhance risk management chemicalsand facilitateboth interof national trade and translation of information into the language; end-user's (e) Elaborate harmonized labellingsystem. aFOR BASIS ACTION and labellingof chemicals the dissemi19.24Adequate suchasICSCs(International nationof saletydatasheets written materials, ChemicalSafetyCards)and sin-rilarly are andenvironment, hazards health to on based assessed how to andmostefficientway of indicating the simplest saf-ely. handleand usechemicals goods,includ19.25For the safetransporlof dangerous withscheme elaborated ing chemicals, comprehensive a in the United Nations systemis in currentuse. This of the scheme mainly takesinto account acutehazards c hem ic als . and 19.16Globally harmonizedhazard classil'ication the to are labelling systerns notyetavailable promote safe or inter aliu. ar the workplace in the use of chernicals, can be tnadefor difof honre.Classification chemicals tool in purposes and is a particularlf itnportant l-erent labelling systems. Thereis a needto der.'elop establishrng lline systems, and hazard classiflcation labe harmonized buildingon ongoingwork.r89MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF A A / F / NA N C IAL N DC OS I EV AL U AT T ON has secretariat includedthe tech19.30The Conference in to costsrelated this programme estinical assistance the areaE. They estimate matesprovidedin programme for total annualcost (1993-2000) strengthening average to organizations be about $3 rnilliort from international the internationalcommunity on grant or concessional estiand order-of-magnitude terms.Theseare inclicative by mates only andhavenot beenreviewed Governments. Actual costsand financialterms.including any that are will depend upon, inter alia, the non-concessional, decide Governments and specificstrategies programmes upon for irnplernentation.D EV R B ) HUM A N E SOU R C E EL OP M EN I and institutionsand non-govern19.31Governments of with the collaboration approprirnentalorganizations. programmes the UnitedNations, of and ateorganizations should launch training coursesand infonnationcamand paignsto lacilitatcthe understanding useof a new labellingsyscompatible and classification harmonized t em f or c he mi c a l s .c ) c A P A C tT Y-B U tL D tN G for nationalcapacities manageic).32In strengthening and i mi I nent o1'c h e m i c a l s . n c l u d i n g d e v e l o p ment and to, plementation andadaptation newclassification of, be should of the systems. creation tradebarriers labelling of and and avoided thelimitedcapacities resources a large particularly countries, developing numberof countries. should takeninto tull be suchs.vsterns, for implementin-r account.guidelinesadoptedby Governmentswith a view to increasingchemical safety through the exchangeof information on chemicals.Special provisions have been included in the guidelineswith regard to the exchangeof i nformati on on banned and sever ely restricted chemicals. of countries chemicals 19.35The exportto developing that have beenbannedin producingcountriesor whose use has been severelyrestrictedin some industrialized countrieshas been the subjectof concern,as some itnsafeuse, owing portingcountries lack theability to ensure for infrastructure controlling the irnporto inadequate of tormulationand disposal tation,distribution.storage, chemicals. this issue,provisionsfor Prior 19.36In order to address were introducedin Informed Consent(PIC) procedures (UNEP) and in the Inter1989in the London Guidelines nationalCodeof Conducton the Distnbutionand Useof P esti ci des(FA O). In addi ti on a j oi nt FAO / UNEP programmehas been launchedfor the operationof the of includingthe selection for PIC procedures chemicals, and prepto chemicals be includedin the PIC procedure The ILO arationof PIC decisionguidancedocuments. between convention callsfor communication chemicals exporting and importing countries when hazardous of havebeenprohibitedfor reasons safetyand chemicals healthat work. Within the GeneralAgreementon Tariffs have been and Trade (GATT) framework, negotiations on a pursued with a view to creating bindinginstrument in restricted the domestic productsbannedor severely market. Further, the GATT Council has agreed,as statedin its decisioncontainedin Clll{l25l, to extend of the mandate the working groupfor a periodof three months, to begin from the date of the group's next meeting, and has authorized the Chairman to hold to on consultations timing with respect conveningthis meeti ng. of the 19.37Notwithstanding importance thePIC proceis on exchange allchemicals necessary. dure,informationEXCHANGE ON TOXIC c) TNFoRMATTON RISKS AND CHEMICAL CHEMICATSFORACTION BASIS 19.33 The lollowing activitics. related tci infbrrnation exchange on the benefits as well as the risks associated u'ith the use of chemicals, are ainted at enhancing the sound management of toxic chemicals through the exchange of scientific, technical,economic ancllegal inforrtraticltt. i 9.3-1The London Guidelines for the Exchange of Inforn'rationon Chemicals in International Trade are a set ofOBJECTIVES areaare: of 19.38The objectives this programme (a) To promoteintensified of exchange intormationon amongall involved use and emissions chemicalsafety, parties: (b) To achieve the year 2000,if possible, parfull by of ticipation in and implementation the PIC procedure, i ncl udi ng possi bl emandatoryappl i cati onst hr ough in legally binding instruments contained the Amended Code London Guidelines and in the FAO International gained the of Conduct,taking into accclunt experience wrthin the PIC procedure.r90ACTIVITIES A,) MANAGEMENT-R ELATED tVtT ACT tES 19.39Governments and relevantintemational organrzations with the cooperation industryshould: of (a) Strengthen national institutionsresponsiblefor information exchange toxic chemicalsand promotethe on creation of national centreswhere these centresdo not exist: (b) Strengthen internationalinstitutionsand networks, suchasIRPTC, responsible information exchange for on toxic chemicals; (c) Establishtechnical cooperationwith, and provide information to, other countries,especiallythose with shortages technical of expertise, includingtrainingin the interpretation relevanttechnicaldata,suchasEnvironof mental Health Criteria Documents, Health and Safety Guides and International Chemical SafetyCards (publishedby IPCS); monographs the Evaluationof Caron cinogenicRisks of Chemicals Humans(published to by the International Agency for Researchon Cancer (IARC)); and decision guidancedocuments(provided throughtheFAOfuNEPjointprogrammeon PIC), aswell as thosesubmitted industryand other sources; by (d) Implementthe PIC procedures soonas possible as gained,invite relevant and, in the light of experience internationalorganrzations, suchas UNEP, GATI FAO, WHO and others,in their respective areaof competence to considerworking expeditiously towardsthe conclusion of legally binding instruments.19.41UnitedNationsorganizations shouldprovide,as far as possible,all international informationnaterial on toxi c chemi cal sn al l U ni tedN ati onsol fi ci al lani guages.AND REG/ONAI. C/ /NIERNAIIONAI. COOPERAIION AND COORD/NAI/ON 19.42 Governments and relevantinternationalorganrzations with the cooperation industryshouldcooperate of in establishing, strengthening expanding, approand as priate,the networkof designated nationalauthorities for exchangeof information on chemicalsand establisha technical exchangeprogrammeto produce a core of trainedpersonnel within eachparticipating country.MEANS IMPLEMENTATION OF F/NANC/NG AND COSI EVALUATION 19.43The Conference secretariat estimated averhas the age total annualcost (1993-2000) implementing of the activities thisprogramme be about$ l0 rnillion from of to the internationalcornmunity on grant or concessional terms.Theseareindicativeandorder-of-magnitude estimates only andhavenot beenreviewedby Governments. Actual costsand financialterms,including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alict, the specificstrategies programmes and Govemrnents decide upon for implementation.B) DATA AND /NFORMATTON 19.40Governments and relevantintemational organizations with the cooperation industryshould: of (a) Assistin the creation nationalchemicalinformaof tion systems developing in countries andimproveaccess to existinginternational systems; (b) Improve databases and information systemson tox ic c hem ic al s , s u c h a s e mi s s i o n i n v e n to ry prograntmes, throughprovisionof trainingin theuseof those systems well assoftware, as hardware andotherfacilities; (c) Provide knowledge and information on severely restricted bannedchemicals importingcountries or to to enablethem to judge and take decisionson whetherto import,andhow to handle, thosechemicals establish and joint responsibilities tradeof chemicalsbetweenimin porting and exportingcountries; (d) Provide data necessary assess risks to human to health and the environmentof possiblealternatives to bannedor severelv restricted chemicals.D) ESTABUSHi/IENT R|SK REDUCTTON OF PROGRATAMES BASIS ACTION FOR 19.44There are often alternativesto toxic chernicals currentlyin use.Thus,risk reduction can sometimes be achieved usingotherchemicals evennon-chemical by or technologies. classic The example risk reduction the of is substitution harmless lessharmfulsubstances of or for harmfulones. Establishment pollutionprevention of proceduresand settingstandards chemicals eachenfbr in vironmentalrnedium,including food and water,and in consumer goods, constitute another example of risk reduction. a wider context.risk reductioninvolves In broad-based approaches reducing the risks of toxic to chemicals, taking into account entirelife cycle of the the chemicals. Suchapproaches couldencompass bothregLrlatory and non-regulatory measures, suchas promotion products technologies, of theuseof cleaner pollution and prevention procedures programffles, and emission inven-191tories, product labelling, use limitations,economicinreguprocedures safehandlingandexposure for centives, that lations,and the phasingout or banningof chemicals risks to poseunreasonable otherwiseunmanageable and human health and the environmentand of thosethat are and whose use toxic, persistentand bio-accumulative controlled. cannotbe adequately 19.45In the agriculturalarea,integratedpest management, including the use of biological control agentsas is to to alternatives toxic pesticides, one approach risk reduction. 19.46Other areas of risk reduction encompassthe preventionof poisonprevention chemicalaccidents, of of and the undertaking toxicovigilance ing by chemicals of of and coordination clean-upand rehabilitation areas by damaged toxic chemicals. thatOECD mem19.41The OECD Councilhasdecided nationalrisk or shouldestablish strengthen ber countries reduction programmes.The InternationalCouncil of (ICCA) hasintroduced initiatives ChemicalAssociations regarding responsiblecare and product stewardship and of aimedat reduction chemicalrisks.The Awareness at for Preparedness Emergencies Local Level (APELL) programmeof UNEP is designedto assistdecision personnel improvingcommunity in makersandtechnical installationsand in preparing awareness hazardous of on plans.ILO haspublished Codeof Practice a response and is prethe preventionof major industrialaccidents paring an internationalinstrument on the prevention of for industrialdisasters eventualadoptionin 1993.OBJECTIVES areaisto eliminate 19.48The objective theprogramme of risks and, to the extent or unacceptable unreasonable economicallyfeasible,to reducerisks posed by toxic involvapproach by chemicals, employingabroad-based ing a wide rangeof risk reductionoptionsand by taking lifeprecautionary measures derivedfrom a broad-based cycle analysis.ACTIVITIES ACT ELATED IVITIES A) MANAGEMFNI-R of 19.49Governments, throughthe cooperation relevant whereappropriand international organizations industry, ate.should: (a) Consider adopting policies based on accepted as producerliability principles,whereappropriate, well and life-cycleapproaches anticipatory as precautionary, turing,trade, managemen covering manufac t. to chemical use transport, and disposal;(b) Undertakeconcertedactivitiesto reducerisks for toxic chernicals, taking into accountthe entirelife cycle both of the chemicals. Theseactivitiescould encompass regulatory measures, suchaspromoartdnon-regulatory tion of the use of cleanerproductsand technologies; productlabelling;uselimitations; emissioninventories; economicincentives; and the phasingout or banningof and toxic chemicals that posean unreasonable otherwise risk or unmanageable to the environment humanhealth and and thosethat aretoxic, persistent bio-accumulative controlled; and whoseusecannotbe adequately (c) Adopt policies and regulatoryand non-regulatory measures identify, and minintize exposureto, toxic to chemicalsby replacingthem with lesstoxic substitutes and ultimately phasingout the chemicalsthat pose unrisk reasonable and otherwiseunmanageable to human health and the environmentand those that are toxic, persistent and whose use cannot and bio-accumulative be adequately controlled: (d) lncrease for needs standetfortsto identify'national ard setting and implementation in the context of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius in order to minimize adverse effectsof chemicals food; in (e) Develop nationalpoliciesand adoptthe necessary regulatory framework for prevention of accidents, preparedness response, and inter alia, throughland-use on planning,permit systems and reportingrequirements and accidents, work with the OECD/UNEPinternational directory of regionalresponse centresand the APELL programme; (0 Promoteestablishment strengthening, approas and prompt priate,of national poisoncontrolcentres ensure to of and adequate diagnosis treatment poisonings; and (g) Reduceoverdependence the use of agricultural on l int chemi cal s throughai ternati vearmi ng pract ices. egratedpestmanagement other appropriate means; and (h) Requiremanufacturers, importersand othershanwith thecooperation dling toxic chemicals develop, to of producersof such chemicals.where applicable,emergencyresponse procedures preparation ofon-siteand and plans; response otf-siteemergency (i) Identify, assess, reduceand rninimize,or eliminate as far as feasible by environmentallysound disposal practices, risks fiom storage outdated of chemicals. 19.50Industryshouldbe encouraged to: (a) Develop an internationallyagreedupon code of principles for the management trade in chemicals, of recognizingin particularthe responsibilityfor making informationon potential risksandenvironmenavailable practices thosechemicals tally sounddisposal if become wastes,in cooperation with Governments and relevant agencies intemationalorganizations and appropriate of the United Nationssvstem:192(b) Develop applicationof a "responsiblecare" approach by producersand manufacturers towards chemical products,taking into accountthe total life cycle of suchproducts; (c) Adopt, on a voluntarybasis, communityright-toguidelines, know programmes basedon international includingsharingof informationon causes accidenof and ihem. tal and potentialreleases meansof preventing andreporting annualroutineemissions toxic chemion of of cals to the environmentin the absence host country requirements.B) DATA AND /NFORMAI/ON 19.51Governments, throughthe cooperation relevant of internationalorganizations industry,whereappropriand ate,should: (a) Promoteexchange informationon nationaland of regionalactivitiesto reducethe risksof toxic chemicals; (b) Cooperatein the development communication of guidelines on chemical risks at the national level to promote informationexchangewith the public and the understanding risks. ofwhensuchexporthasreceived prior writtenconsent from the importingcountryor is otherwise accordance with in the PIC procedure; (g) Encourage national rvorktclharmonize andregional evaluationof pesticides : (h) Promote and develop mechanisrns for the saf-e production, management useof dangeroLls and materials, formulating programmesto substitutefor thenr sal-er alternatives, whereappropriate; (i) Formalize networks ernergency response centres; of industry,with the help ol'rnultilateral 0t Encourage cooperation. phase as appropriate, dispose to ont of. and any banned chemicals that are still in stockor in usein an environmentally soundmanner. includingsaf'e reuse, where approved and appropriate.MEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A/ F/NANC/AL AND COSI EVALUATION 1 9 . 5 3 T h e C o n t e r c r t c c s e c r e t a r i a th a s i n c l u d e d m o s t costs relatedto this prograr"nme estimatesprovided for in -fhey programme areasA and E. estinlateother requirements for training and strcngthening thc cinergcncy and poison control centres to be about $'l rnillion annually from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-nragnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by G o v e r n m e n t s . c t u a l c o s t s a n d f i n a n c i a l t e r r n s .i n c l u d A i n g a n y t h a t a r e n o n - c o n c e s s i o n a l w i l l c l e p e n dL r p o n , . irtter alia, the specific strategiesand programmes Governments decide upon lbr inrplernentation.AND REGIONA/ c/ INTERNAT/ONAI AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAIION 19.52Governments, o1'relevant throughthe cooperation whereappropriinternational organizations industry, and ate,should: (a) Collaborateto developcommon criteria to deterfor mine which chemicalsare suitablecandidates concertedrisk reductionactivities; (b) Coordinate concerted risk reductionactivities; (c) Develop guidelinesand policiesfor the disclosure importers and others using toxic by manufacturers, chemicalsof toxicity information declaring risks and emergency response arrangements: (d) Encouragelarge industrial enterprises including whertransnational corporations and other enterprises policiesdemonstrating everthey operate introduce to the commitment, with reference to the environmentally sound management toxic chemicals, adoptstandards to of of operation equivalent or not lessstringent thanthose to existingin the countryof origin; (e) Encourage and supportthe development and adoption by small- and medium-sized industriesof relevant procedures risk reductionin their activities; for (0 Develop regulatory and non-regulatorymeasures aimedat preventing exportof chemithe and procedures withdrawn or cals that are banned,severelyrestricted, not approved healthor environmental for reasons. exceptB/ SCIENI/F/C ND IECHNOTOGICAL EANS A M 19.54 Governments. in cooperatiorlri,ith relevant international organizaticlns and programrnes,shoulcl: (a) Promote technology that would mininrize release of, and exposure to. toxic chemicals in all countries; (b) Carry out national reviews, as appropriate.of previously acceptedpcsticidcswhose acceptance was based on criteria now recognizedas insufficie-nt outdatedand or of their possiblc rcplacement with othe'r pest control rnethods. particr-rlarlv the case of pesticides that are in toxic. persistentand/or bio-accumulative.E) STRENGTHENTNG OF NAnONAT CAPABTUnES AND CAPACITIESFOR MANAGE'VIENT OF CHEMICATSBASIS FORACTION 1 9 . 5 5 M a n y c o u n t r i e sl a c k n a t i o n a ls v s l c m st o c o p e w i t hr93countrieslack scientificmeansof chemicalrisks. N4ost of collectingevidence misuseand of judging the impact because the of of toxic chemicalson the environment, of difficultiesinvolvedin thedetection manyproblematic chemicals and systematically trackingtheir flow. Significantnew uses amongthepotential are hazards human to ln health and the environmentin developingcountries. with systems placethereis an urgent in several countries needto make thosesystems more efficient. for 19.56Basic elements soundmanagement chemiof (b) calsare: (a) adequate legislation, informationgather(c) for ing and dissemination, capacity risk assessment (d) of andinterpretation, establishment risk management policy,(e) capacity implementation enforcement, for and (f) capacityfor rehabilitation contaminated of sitesand poisonedpersons,(g) eff'ectiveeducationprogrammes and (h) capacityto respondto emergencies. placewithin a 19.57As management chemicals of takes numberof sectors relatedto variousnationalministries. experiencesuggests that a coordinatingmechanismis es s ent ial .(e) Develop nationaland local capabilities prepare to for and respondto accidents taking into accountthe by UNEP APELL programmeand similar programmes on preparedness responsc, accidentprevention, and wherc appropriate, includingregularlytested updated and crnergencyplans; (0 Develop,in cooperation with industry, erlrergency procedures, response identifying meansand equiprnent to in industriesand plants necessary reduceinrpactsol' accidents.B) DATA AND /NFORMAT/ON 19.60Governments should: (a) Direct informationcampaigns suchasprogranlmes providinginformation aboutchemicalstockpiles. environmentallysaf.er alternatives and emissioninventories that could alsobe a tool for risk reductionto the general public to increase awareness probletns chenical the of of safety; (b) Establish,in conjunctionwith IRPTC, national registers databases, and including sa{'ety information, tbr chemicals: (c) Generate field monitoring datafor toxic chernicals of high environmental importance; (d) Cooperate with international r.vhere organizations, appropriate, monitorandcontroleff-ectively generto thc ation. manufacturing, distribution,transp(rr-tation aud disposal activities relatingto toxic chenricals. foster to preventiveand precautionaly approaches and ensure compliance with safetymanagement rules.and provide accurate reportingof relevantdata.OBJECTIVE 19.58By the year 2000, nationalsystems environfor mentally sound management chemicals,including of legislationand provisionsfor implementation and enforcement, should in placein all countries theextent be to possible.ACTIVITIES A) MANAGEMENI-R ACTIVITIES ELATED 19.-59 whereappropriate with the colGovernments, and laboration relevantintergovemmental of organizations. agencies progranlmes the United Nationssystem, and of should: (a) Promoteand supportmultidisciplinary approaches to chemicalsafetyproblems; (b) Consider the need to establishand strengthen, whereappropriate, nationalcoordinating a mechanism to provide a liaison tor all partiesinvolved in chemical (fbr example, safetyactivities agriculture, environment, education, i ndustry, labour, health, police, transportation, economic research institutions, civil defence, aff'airs, and poisoncontrolcentres); (c) Developinstitutional nrechanisms the ntanagefbr mentof chemicals. includineeffectivemeans enforceof ment; (d) Establish whereapproand developor strengthen, priate,networksof emergency response includcentres, ing poisoncontrolcentres:c/ /N IE R N A TTONA N D R E G/ON A r AL AND COORD/NAI/ON COOPERAI/ON 19.61Governments, with thc cooperation internaof tionalorganizations, whereappropriate. shctuld: (a) Prepareguidelines, where not alreadl'available, with adviceandcheck-lists enactins for lesislation the in chemicalsaf'ety field: (b) Supportcountries, particularlydevelopingcountries, in developing and further strengthening national legislation and its implementation; (c) Consider adoption communityri-eht-to-know of or other public information-dissemination programlt"les. whenappropriate, possible reduction as risk tools.Appropriate internationalorganizations, particularIJNEP in (ECE)and OECD,theEconomic forEurope Cornmission parties,shouldconsider possibility other interested the of developing guidance a document theestablishntcnt on194wherefeasible,of intemationally fu) Promotetranslation, Governments' for of suchprogrammes useby interested into on documents chemicalsaf'ety local languages prepzfed 'rhe on shoulclbuild existingworkon accidents docun-rent variouslevelsof regionalactivitiesrelatedto und ,upport anc linc lr idenew g u i d a n c e c l n to x i c e mi s s i o ni nventori es ge' gy technolo transferand information exchan a ndr is k c om m u tri c a ti o n .S u c h g u i d a n c e s h o ul di ncl ude definitionsand dataeleof harmonization requirements, and allow sharingof data mentsto promoteunitormity DE C / H U MA NR E S OU R C E V E LOP ME N T internationallY; and future risk assessment (d) Build on past.present should: organizations I 9.64 International work at an internationallevel, to support countries' for developingcountries (a) Enhance technicaltraining particularly developingcountries'in developingand of in relationto risk management chemicals; at capabilities nationaland risk strengthening orr.rr,.r.ttnt activities supportfor research (b) Promoteandincrease and regionallevelsto rninimizerisk in themanufacturing for grantsand fellowships at the local level by providing us eof t ox icc hern i c a l s : institutionsactivein disresearch studiesat recognized ( e) P r om ot e i m p l e me n ta ti o no f U N E P' s A P E I-L for ciplinesof importance chemicalsafetyprogrammes' use pelrticular, of an OECD/UNEP programmcancl.in centres; lg.65Governmentsshouldorganize,incollabcrration response of emergency directory international in with industryand trade unions,training programmes particularlydevelop(fl Cooperate with all countries, reemergency inclr"rding of the management chemicals, i ing c ot t nt r ies , n th e s e tti n g u p o f a n i n s ti tuti onal of targetedat all levels.In all countriesbasicelesponse, level and the development at mechanism the national mentsof chemicalsafetyprinciplesshouldbe included of toolsfor management chemicals; appropriate production in the primary educationcurricula' atall courses levelsof (;; Arrangc information working on chemicalsafetyissues: aimedat stafluse-. irncl to (h) Devclop mechanisms make maximum use in OF F) PREVENTION ltLEGAt INTER'NATIoNAL PR'oDucrs countriesofinternationallyavailableinformation; rirarrtc lN Toxlc ANDDANGERoUS promote principlesfor accident (i) Invite UNEP to lg.66Thereiscumentlynoglobalinternationalagreefor aud prerctttion.prepareclness response Governments' products(toxic ment on traffic in toxic and dangerous on builcling ILO, OECD andECE and industry thepublic. thosethat are banned'sevproductsare and dangerous work in this area. erely restricted,withclrawnor not approvedfor use or and in saleby Governments orderto protectpublichealthMEANSOF IMPLEMENTATION A l F / N A N C / N GA N D C O S T E V A L U A T T O N lg.62.fheConlerencesecretariathasestimatedtheaverthe age total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing programme in developing countries to activities of this from the bc abour $600 million, inclu

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