99/00765 Risk assessment at a JP-4 contamination site after active remediation
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76 Fuel science and technology (fundamental science, analysis, instrumentation)
99/00701 Overview of air pollution control for coal combustion Soud, H. N. troc. Annu. In?. Pittsburgh Cool Conf., 1997, 14, (11). 3-24. A driving force behind the use of air pollution control equipment throughout the world are emission standards. Clean coal technology is becoming. more widely used due to increasingly stringent emission standards. The main air pollutants from pulverized coal-fired power plants are particulate, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. This paper reviews the technologies used to control these emissions. Trends in their application throughout the world will be described using information from IEA Coal Research-the Clean Coal Center databases.
99100762 PAH emission from various Industrial stacks Yang, H.-H. et al. J. Hazard. Mater., 1998, 60, (2), 159-174. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from various industrial stacks in southern Taiwan were studied, determining PAH concentrations (mg N/m3) and emission factors (&kg feedstock). In addition to these eight stationary industrial stacks, an industrial waste incinerator, a diesel engine, and a gasoline-powered engine were selected and combined to identify source indicatory-PAH. Factor analysis was used to estimate the quality contribution of PAH to ambient air by various sources. Heavy oil combustion produced considerably higher 4-, 5-, and 6+7-ring PAH concentrations than other stacks. In addition, the HMW (higher molecular weight) PAH concentrations were significantly higher for the coke oven, electric arc furnace, and heavy oil combustion. Measured total-PAH emission factors of eight stationary sources were 77.0-3970 pg/kg feedstock, while BaP emission factors were 1.87-15.5 &kg feedstock. Among these eight emission sources, the heavy oil plant had the highest total-PAH and the highest BaP emission factors. For mobile sources (diesel- and gasoline- powered vehicles), indicatory PAH were mainly lower molecular weight PAH (AcPy, FL, Flu). Using factor analysis, the cursorily quality analysis of PAH emission was determined to be practicable.
99iOO763 Prospect of environment protection technology and high efficiency power generatlon technology in coal burning power generation Tanaka, M. Kagaku Kogaku no Shinpo, 1997, 31, 148-160. (In Japanese) The environmental protection technology in coal-fired power generation and trends of technology for improving heat efficiency is reviewed, with case examples described.
99lOO764 Pie-evaluation of the biological half-time of caeslum in Japanese male adults Uchiyama, M. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 1998, 41, (l), 83-94. Increased 13Cs body burdens were measured for 22 Japanese male adults following the Chernobyl accident. An average biological half-time of 101 days was estimated. In the 1960s. an average caesium biological half-time of 86 days was reported for 23 Japanese male adults under quasi-equilibrium conditions in regard to Cs from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Comparing the present data with the 1960s results, the difference in the biological half-time of caesium at a confidence level of 90% was not significant but had an increasing tendency. When the two groups of data were combined, the biological half-time for caesium was 93227 days for the 45 individuals. Thus, the reference biological half-time should be 90 days for Japanese male adults. Four subjects were studied in both the 1960s and the 1980s and a clear relationship was observed between the increase in half-time and increase in age.
99lOB766 Risk assessment at a JP-4 contamination site after active remediation Cho, J. S. et al. Global Environ. Biotechnology, Proc. Int. Symp. Int. Sot. Environ. Biotechnology, 3rd. 1997, 321-339. Edited by Wise, D. L. K. After two years of active remediation efforts a risk assessment at a JP-4 contaminated site including conceptual model development, site character- ization, modeling, and exposure assessment was conducted. Soil and groundwater pollution caused by a continuous release of JP-4 jet fuel from holes in an underground pipeline was found in 1988 at the US Coast Guard Support Station, Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Air injection, soil vacuum extraction, and enhanced biodegradation clean-up operated for -18 months, during which time 1700 kg of hydrocarbon out of an initial estimation of 3600 kg was collected. The majority of volatile and biodegradable components were removed by soil vapour extraction and biodegradation, but a large portion of high molecular weight components remained attached in the soil matrix. Since area groundwater is not used for drinking, exposure risk to the human population near the base was expected to be very low. Based on this an evaluation of the risk associated with the weathered residual fuel was conducted without further active remediation.
99100766 Scenario analysis of bloenergy resources and CO2 emissions with a global land use and energy model Yamamoto, H. et al. Enen@, Shigen, 1998, 19, (2), 169-175. (In Japanese) Using a global land use and energy model (GLUE) including land use competitions and overall biomass flows, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate bioenergy potentials, land use changes, and COz emissions in the world. Through a set of simulations, the following results were obtained. Potential of energy crops produced from surplus arable lands will be strongly affected by food supply and demand parameters in the future. The policy option in the world, large-scale introduction of modern fuel wood by felling and planting existing forest, will cause drastic reduction of the
76 Fuel and Energy Abstracts January 1999
mature forest area but will cause little reduction of the accumulated COZ emissions coming from both energy and forest sectors. One reason for this is that the additional CO? emissions owing to the land use conversion from the mature forest to the growing forest will partly cancel out the COz reduction owing to the fuel substitution from fossil fuel to fuel wood. When energy recovery of paper scrap is given priority to material recycling, bioenergy will substitute a part of fossil fuels; however the decrease in recycled paper scrap will cause the increase in roundwood felling demand.
99l99767 Seasonal variation in radiocaesium concentration in willow ptarmigan and rock ptarmigan in central Norway after the Chernobyl fallout Pedersen, H. C. et al. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 1998,41, (1) 65-81. After the Chernobyl accident radioactive caesium (20-60 kBq m-) was deposited in the mountains of central Norway. Two sympatric ptarmigan species, willow ptarmigan Lagopus lagopus and rock ptarmigan L. mums, inhabit this alpine ecosystem and are important game species. In 1987 and 1988, a study was carried out to try to identify factors affecting radioactive caesium concentration in these birds. Juvenile willow ptarmigan contained more radiocaesium than adults, but the two sexes did not differ in radiocaesium concentration. The radiocaesium concentration of food plants correlated with radiocaesium concentration of rock ptarmigan, and a seasonal variation in radiocaesium concentration of both ptarmigan species was seen. Rock ptarmigan contained more radiocaesium than willow ptarmigan during winter, but not in summer. This difference was related to differences in diet. In spite of the high deposition, the radiocaesium concentration in muscle rarely exceeded the limit recommended for human food consumption.
99100766 Sources apportionment of high concentrated atmospheric particulate in Shanghai urban Chen, M. et al. Shanghai Huanjing Kexue, 1997, 16, (lo), 15-17. (In Chinese) Determined were concentrations of atmospheric particulate at nine sites in Shanghai, China with chemical mass balance of receptor model, and the average contribution rates of the particulate from building construction, soil, steel factory, coal burning, motor vehicle exhaust, and burning oil were obtained.
99100769 Status of worldwide coal mine methane emissions and use Bibler, C. J. et al. J. Coal Geol., 1998, 35, (l-4), 283-310. An estimated 29-41 x lo9 m3 of methane is liberated from underground coal mines annually, of which less than 2.3 x 10 m3 is used as fuel. The remaining methane is emitted to the atmosphere, representing the loss of a valuable energy resource. Methane is also a major greenhouse gas and is thus detrimental to the environment when vented to the atmosphere. Coal mine methane recovery and use represents a cost-effective means of significantly reducing methane emissions from coal mining, while increasing mine safety and improving mine economics. The worlds ten largest coal producers are responsible for 90% of global methane emissions associated with the coal fuel cycle. Most of these countries use a portion of the methane that is liberated from their coal mines, but the utilization rate tends to be low and some countries use none at all. Coal mine methane is currently used for a variety of purposes. Methane is used for heating and cooking at many mine facilities and nearby residences. It is also used to fuel boilers, to generate electricity, directly heat air for mine ventilation systems and for coal drying. Several mines in the United States sell high-quality mine gas to natural gas distributors. There are several barriers to decreasing methane emissions by increasing coal mine methane use. Technical barriers include low-permeability coals, variable or low gas quality, variations in gas supply and demand and lack of infrastructure. Economic and institutional barriers include lack of information pertinent to development of the resource, lack of capital and low natural gas prices. A possible option for encouraging coal mine methane recovery and use would be international adoption of a tradable permit system for methane emtsstons.