Soil contamination and remediation

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Soil contamination and remediation

Shoaib iqbalIn the name of Allah, the beneficent the merciful

Soil contamination and remediation

What is SoilWhat is soil contaminationNatural and anthropogenic activitiesCausesWhat is soil RemediationSoil Remediation- Types of TechniquesMy point of view

Contents

Soil contamination

Soil contamination is when the concentration of chemicals, nutrients or elements in the soil becomes more than it normally as a result of human action. If this contamination goes on to harm living organisms, we can call it pollution

Natural and anthropogenic activitiesAnthropogenicAccidental spills and leaks during storage (transport or use of chemicals )Mining activities (crushing and processing of raw materials )Agricultural activities (spread of herbicides/pesticides/ and fertilizers)Transportation activities (e.g., vehicle emissions)Dumping of chemicals (such as illegal dumping)Storage of wastes in landfills (which may leak to groundwater or generate polluted vapors)

Natural activitiesNatural accumulation of compounds in soil: (due to imbalances between atmospheric deposition and leaching away with precipitation water)Natural production in soil under certain environmental conditions: (natural formation of soil in the presence of a chlorine source, metallic object and using the energy generated by a thunderstorm)Leaks from sewer lines into subsurface: (e.g. adding chlorine which could generate such as chloroform)

Causes by contamination

Reduction in soil fertilityImbalance is the flora and fauna of the soil.Salinity increases in the soil making it unfit for cultivation.Crops grown on polluted soil cause health problems on consumptionSoil pollution creates toxic dust.Foul odor due to chemicals and gases can lead to problems like headaches, nausea, etc.Pollutants in soil causing death of many soil organismsAccidents in goods transportCauses

Soil remediation, also known as soil washingVarious processes designed to remove contaminants from soil Like : heavy metals, pesticides, cyanides, volatiles, creosote, and semi-volatiles from soilSoil Remediation

BioremediationIn-situ bioremediationEx-situ bioremediationThermal DesorptionEncapsulation Soil Chemical OxidationStabilizationSoil WashingSoil DisposalSoil Remediation- Types of Techniques

Bio-remediation refers to the process of using micro organism.To remove the environmental pollutants or prevent pollution,The removal of organic waste by microbes for environmental cleanup is the essence of bioremediation.The other name used for bio-remediation are bio-treatment, bio-reclamation, and bio restoration.Bio-RemediationTypes of Bio-RemediationIn-situ bioremediationEx-situ bioremediation

What is In Situ Ex Situ Remediation

In situ remediation is performed directly on the site without excavating soil contaminants or disturbance to the soil structure.Ex situ remediation is performed indirectly process, excavation of contaminated soil, which is transported to a special landfill, where treated.

Thermal Desorption

Thermal desorption is a process where heat is usedto remove contaminants from soilthermal desorption processes can be categorized into two groups: high temperature(320 to 560C) and low temperature (90 to 320C)

EncapsulationEncapsulation process does not filter contaminants from soil it separates them. It mixing the polluted soil with lime, cement, and concrete, to preventing the contaminants from spreading to clean soil.

Soil Chemical Oxidationchemical oxidation involves the injection or direct mixing of chemical oxidants into soil for the primary purpose and complete contaminant destructionChemox (CHEMOX OXYGEN BREATHING APPARATUS) involves oxidizing contaminants with the purpose of reducing the concentration.

Stabilization is the process of blending materials with a soil to improve properties of the soil.stabilization reduces the power of hazardous substances and contaminants in the environment through both physical and chemicalStabilization is a wide sense methodsStabilization is being used for a variety of engineering works like construction of road.

Stabilization

Soil washing is the process in which water is used to remove contaminants from soil such an organic ,inorganic and radioactive contaminants . The process works by dissolving contaminants in the wash solution. Mostorganicandinorganiccontaminants bindto clay, silt, and organic soil particles.Washing separates the small particles from the large particles.Separated material is smaller in volume and more easily disposedSoil Washing

Soil DisposalThis can be the simplest solution to contaminated land, excavate, haul and dispose of the contaminated soilsUsed to be that simple before thelandfill tax escalatorwas introduced and environmental responsibilities started to grow.soil disposalis still a reachable option, its just cheap used to be.

Should Ban on use of plastic bags.Authority should Recycling of plastic wastes.Must be ban on deforestation.Increasing plantation programs.Social and agro forestry programs.Awareness campaign programs.Some steps to reduce soil contamination/pollution

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