Sediments contamination and sustainable remediation

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  • Sediments Contamination and Sustainable Remediation Catherine Mulligan Masaharu Fukue Yoshio Sato CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Boca Raton London New York
  • Co-published by IWA Publishing, Alliance House, 12 Caxton Street, London SW1H 0QS, UK Tel. +44 (0) 20 7654 5500, Fax +44 (0) 20 7654 5555 publications@iwap.co.uk www.iwapublishing.com 1-84339-300-X 978-1-84339-300-9 CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 2010 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number: 978-1-4200-6153-6 (Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, includ- ing photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Mulligan, Catherine N. Sediments contamination and sustainable remediation / authors, Catherine N. Mulligan, Masaharu Fukue, and Yoshio Sato. p. cm. A CRC title. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4200-6153-6 (Taylor & Francis : alk. paper) -- ISBN 978-1-84339-300-9 (IWA : alk. paper) 1. Contaminated sediments--Management. 2. Soil remediation. 3. Sedimentation and deposition. I. Fukue, Masaharu. II. Sato, Yoshio, 1947- III. Title. TD878.M85 2010 628.168--dc22 2009038395 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com
  • iii Contents Preface.......................................................................................................................ix The Authors............................................................................................................ xiii 1Chapter Introduction to Sediment Contamination and Management.................1 1.1 Introduction................................................................................1 1.2 Sustainable Development and the Aquatic Geoenvironment.........................................................................3 1.3 Sources of Pollutants..................................................................3 1.4 Management of Contaminated Sediments.................................9 1.5 Natural Mitigation Processes................................................... 11 1.6 Bioaccumulation of Contaminants...........................................12 1.7 Sustainable Sediment Management Practices.......................... 14 1.8 Concluding Remarks................................................................ 16 References........................................................................................... 17 2Chapter Introduction to Sediments...................................................................19 2.1 Introduction..............................................................................19 2.2 Definition of Sediments............................................................21 2.3 Types of Sediments..................................................................21 2.3.1 Types of Sediments by Components...........................22 2.3.1.1 Primary Minerals........................................23 2.3.1.2 Secondary Minerals.....................................23 2.3.1.3 Organic Matter.............................................24 2.3.1.4 Oxides and Hydrous Oxides........................24 2.3.1.5 Carbonates and Sulfates..............................24 2.3.2 Types of Sediments by Grain Size..............................24 2.3.3 Structure of Sediments................................................26 2.4 Benthos.....................................................................................30 2.5 Uses of Sediments and Water................................................... 31 2.6 Management of Sediments.......................................................32 2.7 Concluding Remarks................................................................33 References...........................................................................................33 3Chapter ContaminantSediment Interactions...................................................35 3.1 Introduction..............................................................................35 3.2 Factors Influencing ContaminantSediment Interactions........35 3.2.1 Specific Surface Area (SSA).......................................35 3.2.2 Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)...............................39
  • iv Contents 3.3 Sorption of Pollutants and Partition Coefficients..................... 41 3.3.1 Partitioning of Inorganic Pollutants............................44 3.3.2 Selective Sequential Extraction...................................47 3.3.3 Organic Chemical Pollutants......................................50 3.4 Biotransformation and Degradation of Organic Chemicals and Heavy Metals...................................................54 3.4.1 Bioremediation Processes...........................................56 3.4.2 Bioattenuation and Bioavailability..............................58 3.5 Interaction of Contaminants, Organisms, and Sediments........59 3.5.1 Bioaccumulation..........................................................59 3.5.2 Bioturbation.................................................................60 3.6 Chemical Reactions, Geochemical Speciation, and Transport Predictions...............................................................62 3.7 Concluding Remarks................................................................64 References...........................................................................................65 4Chapter Remediation Assessment, Sampling, and Monitoring........................71 4.1 Introduction..............................................................................71 4.2 Cleanup Goals and Background Values...................................72 4.3 Sampling...................................................................................72 4.4 Analysis and Evaluation...........................................................77 4.4.1 Mechanical Properties.................................................77 4.4.1.1 Strength for Sediments................................77 4.4.1.2 Consolidation...............................................79 4.4.2 Physical Properties......................................................79 4.4.2.1 Sediment Temperature.................................79 4.4.2.2 Grain Size....................................................80 4.4.2.3 Specific Gravity........................................... 81 4.4.3 Chemical Sediment Quality........................................82 4.4.3.1 pH................................................................82 4.4.3.2 Organic Pollution Indicators........................83 4.4.3.3 Total Organic Carbon (TOC)......................83 4.4.3.4 Loss on Ignition (Ignition Loss)..................83 4.4.3.5 Nitrogen.......................................................84 4.4.3.6 Phosphorus...................................................85 4.4.3.7 Toxic SubstancesTrace Metals.................86 4.4.3.8 Toxic SubstancesOrganic Micropollutants............................................88 4.4.3.9 Other Environmental Indicators..................90 4.4.3.10 Test Kits....................................................... 91 4.5 Decision Making Using Indicators...........................................92 4.6 Case Studies.............................................................................93 4.6.1 Investigation of Port Sediments..................................93 4.6.2 Lake Sediments...........................................................97 4.7 Concluding Remarks..............................................................102
  • Contents v References......................................................................................... 105 5Chapter Natural Recovery of Contaminated Sediments.................................109 5.1 Introduction............................................................................109 5.2 Natural Recovery Processes of Sediments............................. 111 5.3 Evaluation of the Natural Recovery of Sediments................. 113 5.4 Models for Natural Remediation............................................ 119 5.4.1 Deposition Rate......................................................... 121 5.4.2 Source Loading......................................................... 121 5.4.3 Hydrodynamic Parameters........................................ 121 5.5 Regulatory Framework...........................................................122 5.6 Protocols Developed for Monitored Natural Recovery..........122 5.7 Case Studies of Natural Recovery..........................................124 5.8 Enhanced Natural Recovery...................................................129 5.9 Concluding Remarks..............................................................130 References......................................................................................... 131 6Chapter In Situ Remediation and Management of Contaminated Sediments.......................................................................................... 135 6.1 Introduction............................................................................ 135 6.2 In Situ Capping....................................................................... 135 6.2.1 Design Factors for Sand Capping.............................. 137 6.2.1.1 Consolidation............................................. 137 6.2.2 Rough Estimate of Cap Thickness for Advection..... 140 6.2.2.1 Contaminant Transport.............................. 142 6.2.3 Active Capping..........................................................144 6.3 Rehabilitation of the Coastal Marine Environment...............144 6.3.1 Eutrophication........................................................... 145 6.3.2 Contamination........................................................... 145 6.3.3 Distribution of Contaminated Particles..................... 146 6.3.4 Resuspension Method for Removal of Contaminated Sediment Particles............................. 147 6.3.5 Technology for Sediment Remediation by Resuspension............................................................. 148 6.3.6 Design of a Filter Unit............................................... 149 6.4 Chemical Remediation Technologies.....................................150 6.5 Biological Remediation Technologies.................................... 153 6.6 Creation of Seaweed Swards..................................................156 6.7 Case Studies of Remediation.................................................. 158 6.7.1 Contaminated Sediment Capping Projects............... 158 6.7.2 Steel Slag................................................................... 159 6.7.3 Bioremediation.......................................................... 161 6.8 Concluding Remarks.............................................................. 163 References.........................................................................................164
  • vi Contents 7Chapter Dredging and the Remediation of Dredged Contaminated Sediments.......................................................................................... 169 7.1 Introduction............................................................................ 169 7.2 Sustainable Dredging Strategies............................................. 171 7.3 Physical Remediation Technologies....................................... 172 7.3.1 Physical Separation................................................... 173 7.3.2 Sediment Washing..................................................... 174 7.3.3 Flotation.................................................................... 180 7.3.4 Ultrasonic Cleaning.................................................. 180 7.4 Chemical/Thermal Remediation............................................ 180 7.4.1 Oxidation................................................................... 182 7.4.2 Electrokinetic Remediation....................................... 183 7.4.3 Solidification/Stabilization........................................ 185 7.4.4 Vitrification............................................................... 186 7.4.5 Thermal Extraction................................................... 189 7.5 Biological Remediation..........................................................190 7.5.1 Slurry Reactors.......................................................... 191 7.5.2 Landfarming.............................................................. 191 7.5.3 Composting............................................................... 193 7.5.4 Bioleaching................................................................ 195 7.5.5 Bioconversion Processes........................................... 195 7.5.6 Phytoremediation...................................................... 195 7.6 Beneficial Use of Sediments........................................

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