5 - qa qc procedures

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  • Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)CGE Training MaterialsNational Greenhouse Gas Inventories

    Quality Assurance/Quality ControlVersion 2, April 2012

  • Target Audience and Objective of the Training MaterialsThese training materials are suitable for people with beginner to intermediate level knowledge of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory development.

    After having read this presentation, in combination with the related documentation, the reader should:Have an overview of how QA/QC procedures are conductedHave a general understanding of the methods and tools available, as well as of the main challenges of GHG inventory development in that particular areaBe able to determine which methods suits their countrys situation bestKnow where to find more detailed information on the topic discussed.

    These training materials have been developed primarily on the basis of methodologies developed, by the IPCC; hence the reader is always encouraged to refer to the original documents to obtain further detailed information on a particular issue.

    *Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • AcronymsGPGGood Practice Guidance

    ISOInternational Organization for Standardization

    LULUCFLand Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry

    QA/QCQuality Assurance/Quality Control

    Please also see the additional supporting information in the "notes" that accompany each slide (taken from the IPCC GPG).

    *Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • DefinitionsQuality assurance (QA), performed by personnel not directly involved in the inventory compilation/development process, is a planned system of review procedures.

    Quality control (QC), performed by personnel compiling the inventory, is a system of routine technical activities to assess and maintain the quality of the inventory as it is being compiled.

    Verification refers to the collection of activities and procedures conducted during the planning and development, or after completion of an inventory, that can help to establish its reliability for the intended applications of the inventory:

    Verification activities may be constituents of both QA and QC, depending on the methods used and the stage at which independent information is used.*Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • ObjectivesQA, QC and verification are essential components of a good GHG inventory:

    Rationale and objectives

    Roles and responsibilities

    Procedures

    Documentation.*Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • Rationale*An important goal of IPCC inventory guidance is to support the development of national GHG inventories that can be readily assessed in terms of quality.

    It is good practice to implement QA/QC and verification procedures in the development of national GHG inventories to accomplish this goal.Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • QA/QC GoalsA QA, QC and verification system contributes to the objectives of good practice in inventory development, namely to improve:

    TransparencyAccuracyConsistencyComparabilityCompleteness.

    QA/QC and verification activities should be integral parts of the inventory process.

    *Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • Practical ConsiderationsTo take into account:

    Resources and time allocated to QA/QC planFrequency of QA/QC checks and reviewsAppropriate level of QA/QC for each categoryAvailability and access to informationNeed to acquire/collect additional data Procedures to ensure confidentialityRequirements for documenting and archiving informationWhether increased effort on QA/QC will result in improved estimates and reduced uncertaintiesWhether sufficient independent data and expertise are available to conduct verification activities.*Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • QA/QC ElementsInventory compiler:Coordinates QA/QC activities and defines roles

    A QA/QC plan

    General QC procedures:Apply to all inventory categories

    Category-specific QC procedures

    QA and review procedures

    QA/QC system interaction with uncertainty analyses

    Verification activities

    Reporting, documentation and archiving procedures. *Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • Roles and ResponsibilitiesInventory compiler:

    Defines specific responsibilities and procedures for the QA/QC and verification activities:Planning, preparation, and management QA/QC procedures may be delegated to other agencies or organizations (e.g. central statistical agency)

    Responsible for ensuring that the QA/QC plan is developed and implemented.

    It is good practice for the inventory compiler to designate a QA/QC coordinator.

    *Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • QA/QC PlanThe QA/QC and verification plan should outline:

    QA/QC and verification activities to be implemented Inclusive of scheduled time frameInstitutional arrangements and responsibilities for implementation.

    A key component of the plan is the list of data quality objectives:

    Concrete targets to be achieved in the inventory preparation:Appropriate and realisticMeasurableEnable improvements in the inventory.

    Incorporate periodic revisions and revisions of the plan.

    Refer to external standards and guidelines (e.g. ISO).

    *Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • General QC ProceduresAlthough general QC procedures are designed to be implemented for all categories and on a routine basis, it may not be necessary or possible to check all aspects of the inventory input data, parameters and calculations every year.

    Checks may be performed on selected sets of data and processes:

    A representative sample of data and calculations from every category may be subjected to general QC procedures each year.

    In establishing criteria and processes for selecting sample data sets and processes, it is good practice for the inventory compiler to plan to undertake QC checks on all parts of the inventory over an appropriate period of time as determined in the QA/QC plan.

    *Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • General QC Procedures (cont.)In some cases, estimates are prepared for the inventory compiler by outside consultants or agencies:

    The inventory compiler should ensure that the consultants/agencies are aware of the QC procedures outlined in the IPCC GPG.

    Particular attention should be given to parts of the inventory development that rely on external, and shared databases:

    Due to the quantity of data that may need to be checked for some categories, automated checks are encouraged where possible.

    *Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • General QC Procedures (cont.)*Example of check list for general QC.Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • General QC Procedures (Tier 1) Table 5.5.1 of the IPCC GPG for LULUCF*Generic quality checks related to calculations, data processing, completeness and documentation that are applicable to all inventory source and sink categories.Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • *Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)General QC Procedures (Tier 1) Table 5.5.1 of the IPCC GPG for LULUCF (cont.)

  • Category-specific QCComplement general inventory QC procedures with QC procedures directed at specific types of data used in the methods for individual source or sink categories.

    Applied on a case-by-case basis focusing on:

    Key categoriesWhere significant methodological and data revisions have taken place.

    Inventory compilers applying higher tier methods in compiling national inventories should utilise category-specific QC procedures to help evaluate the quality of national approaches.

    *Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • Prioritizing QA/QC at Category LevelIs a source/sink a key category?

    Is a methodology complex or data heavy?

    Are emission factors different from IPCC default factors or commonly used factors?

    Was a category updated a long time ago?

    Did the last QA/QC and verification take place a long time ago?

    Did significant changes occur in how data are processed and managed?

    Is there a risk of double counting or incomplete estimates?*Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • Category-specific QC: Emission FactorsIPCC default emission factors QC:

    Assess applicability to national circumstancesCompare with site or plant-level factors

    Country-specific emission factors:

    QC check on the background data used to develop emission factorsQC check on modelsComparison with IPCC default emission factorsComparison of emission factors between countriesComparison with plant-level emission factors.*Training Materials for National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesConsultative Group of Experts (CGE)

  • Category-specific QC: Dire