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  • 11.123BigPlans:AdaptingtoClimateChangeMITDepartmentofUrbanStudiesandPlanning Tue,Thu,9:3011:00am,Room9451Spring2016 Units306,HASSInstructors: MichaelWilson LindaShiOffice: SteamCafe 9265OfficeHours: TBD Friday10am12pmEmail: mtwilson@mit.edu lindashi@mit.edu

    Makenolittleplanstheyhavenomagictostirmen'sbloodandprobablywillthemselvesnotberealized.Makebigplansaimhighinhopeandwork,rememberingthatanoble,logicaldiagramoncerecordedwillnotdie.

    DanielBurnham

    Withoverhalftheworldlivingincities,theprocessesandchallengesofurbanizationtouchoneveryaspectofmodernsociety.CitiesinAsiaandotherpartsoftheGlobalSoutharegrowingatunprecedentedspeedsandscales,whileothersinpostindustrializedregionsfacethechallengeofdecliningpopulationsandinvestment.Largeurbanregionscanofferagglomerationeconomies,culturalvibrancyanddiversity,andthepotentialforenvironmentalsustainabilitythroughcompactdevelopment.Atthesametime,climatechangeisalreadyimposingexponentiallyincreasingeconomicdamagesonurbanregions,manyofthelargestofwhicharelocatedinoralongrivers,deltas,andcoastlines.Within50to100years,anincreaseof24Cinglobalaveragetemperaturecouldcause5feetormoreofsealevelrise,fundamentallyaffectingthegeographyoftheplacesthatcanbeinhabited,developed,orprotected.Theconvergenceofthesemajorenvironmental,social,andeconomictrendsmakesforsomeofthemostintractablechallengesconfrontingmodernsociety.Throughouthistory,complexissuessuchasthesehaveinspiredbigurbanplansthathavecapturedsocietysimaginationwiththeirtechnologicalpromiseandphysicalscaleofreform.Overtime,however,therehasbeengrowingpushbackfromcommunityandenvironmentalactivistsabouttheinsensitivityofBigPlans,aswellasashiftinginurbangovernancefromthestatetoprivateandnongovernmentalactors.ItwouldseemthatBigPlanshaveneverbeenmorenecessary,yetareincreasinglymorecomplextodevelopandimplement.Inthisundergraduatecourse,weexplorethesethemesthroughthelensofplanningforclimateadaptationincoastalcities.Roughlyhalfoftheclasseswillfeaturelecturesbytheinstructors,urbandesigners,andotherpractitioners.Thesepresentationswillhighlightpastvisionsformanagingurbanenvironmentalchallenges,thedifferentapproachestocoastalresiliencyplanningtoday,andthecomplexityofdevelopingandimplementinglargescaleplans.TheotherhalfofthecoursefeaturesatermlongworkshopprojectthatenvisionsMITscampusforitsnextcenturyintheyear2100andbeyond,whenMITmaybeperiodicallyinundatedbyrainfall,riverflows,and/orstormsurge.Intheseworkshopsessions,wewillapplytheanalyticalperspectiveslearnedfromthelecturesanddiscussionstoMITsclimatechangeadaptationchallenges.

    11.123|BigPlans|Spring2016|1

    Updated12.01.2015

    mailto:mtwilson@mit.edumailto:lindashi@mit.edu

  • Throughoutthecourse,wellconsiderthefollowingquestions: WhatmakesaplanBig,whatmakesitaPlan? WholeadsBigPlanning,andwhobenefitsandlosesfromBigPlans? AtwhatscalesoftimeandspacedoweevaluateBigPlans? WhydoBigPlanssooftenfailorexacerbateexistingchallenges? HowcanBigPlansbeambitious,butalsosensitive?

    Asourjumpingoffpoint,therecentlycompletedCambridgeClimateVulnerabilityAssessmentwasatechnicalstudyoftheCambridgepopulation,infrastructure,publichealth,andlocaleconomyintermsofrisksandvulnerabilitiestoimpactsresultingfromincreasedtemperatures,moreintensestorms,andstormsurgefloodingassociatedwithsealevelrise.Thiswinter,theCityispivotingtowardsapreparedness,resilience,andgeneralmasterplan.Inparallel,MITisdevelopingabetterunderstandingofwhatclimatevulnerabilitymeansforitsstudents,buildings,openspaces,andacademic/researchcontinuity.WeaskyoutoimaginehowboldmoveslikethecreationofthemodernCharlesRiverbasinorplacingatimecapsulein1957forthenextmillenniumunderMIT.nanocanprovidetheaspirationandinspirationtoinformourBigPlansforMIT2100.Wewillembraceawidevarietyofskills,interests,andbackgroundstoinformeachteamsBigPlanstudentsfromalldepartmentsarewelcome.Classroomdiscussions,debates,anddesignexerciseshelpstudentsdevelopanuancedappreciationforthepoliticalcomplexityoflargescaleplanningprocessesandimpacts.Attheendofthesemester,studentteamswillpresenttheirplanstoinvitedjurors,andsubmitindividualessaysevaluatingtheirplangiventhethemesofthecourse. Throughthisclass,youwilldevelopanintroductorygraspofthecommonskillsusedbyplanners:mappingdata,analyzingasite,establishingavision,addressingstakeholderconcerns,evaluatingimpacts,draftingimplementationstrategies,andpresentingyourdesignconceptinapublicforum.Inaddition,youwillgainanappreciationforhowtoevaluatetheemergingeffortsthatpromotecitiesclimateresilience.Whetheryoupursueplanningasacareerornevertakeanotherplanningclass,theseskillswillmakeyouamorereflectiveandeffectiveresidentofcitieswheretheseplansaretakingplace.CourseDeliverablesWewillprovideindepthdescriptionsatthebeginningofthesemesterforeachofthedeliverables,butfornow,asanoverview,youcananticipatethefollowingassignments:

    PlanJam(dueeitherMarch8orApril5,inpairs)ChooseeitherMegaprojectsforResilienceorGrassrootsCommunityPlansanddevelopashortcasestudy.Youandyourpartnerwillwriteuponeparagraphabouttheissueplannersarefacinginaparticularcity,andasecondparagraphdescribinghowthecitysolvedtheproblem,andhowyoumighthavecomeupwithalternativesolutions.Inclass,presentuptofiveslidesonthecase.Attheendofthesemester,wewillhaveadiscussion,CompetingVisions,OnePlaninformedbyyourfindingsoneachoftheseissues.

    FourProjectWorkshops(variousduedates)Deliverableswillvarybyweek,andareintendedtobecumulativeasyourgroupmovestowardsthefinalprojectionpresentationandreflectionessay.

    FinalGroupProjectPresentation(May2at11:59pm)Studentteamswilldeveloparealisticproposalthatadvocatesfortheirgroupsparticularperspective,givenlongtermuncertaintiesbecauseofclimatechange.TheplancanbeintheformofaPowerPointpresentationthatwillbepresentedtotheclasswithaninvitedjury.

    11.123|BigPlans|Spring2016|2

    Updated12.01.2015

  • FinalProjectIndividualReflectionEssay(May12at11:59pm)ComeupwithaconcisedefinitionofwhatyouthinkisaBigPlan,andthencriticallyevaluateyourproposalbasedonthisdefinition.ThoroughlysubstantiateyourdefinitionofBigPlansbasedonthereadingandthecasematerial.Analyzethetradeoffstheteammadeinpursuitofsocial,environmental,andeconomicdevelopmentgoals,andforeseeablechallengestoadoptingtheproposal.Useclearwritingorganizationandlanguage,aswellasformalcitationsandbibliography.Essayswillbe8to10pagesdoublespaced.

    KeyCourseDatesbyFeb12 MeetwithLindaand/orMikebyFeb23 FormTeamsMar1 BigProblemStatementMar8 PlanJam1(HalfoftheClasstoPresent)Mar17 BigIdeaStatementApr5 PlanJam2(HalfoftheClasstoPresent)Apr7 PublicBenefitsApr14 ImplementationStrategyApr26/28 DraftPresentationsDue(HalfoftheClasstoMeetEachDate)May2 FinalGroupProjectPresentationsDue(at11:59pm)May3 FinalGroupProjectPresentations(ExtendedClass)May12 FinalProjectIndividualReflectionEssayDue(at11:59pm)EvaluationandGrading

    PlanJam 10% ProjectWorkshops 20% FinalGroupProjectPresentation 20% FinalIndividualReflectionEssay 30% Participation 20%

    CourseAdministrativePoliciesClassParticipation

    Participationisveryimportantinthisclass.Yourparticipationgradewillreflectyourlevelofengagementduringdiscussionsofreadings,guestlectures,projectworkshops,andpeerpresentations.

    Weexpectyoutoreadapproximately60pagesperweekifmorepagesareassigned,pleaseatleastskimallrequiredreadings.

    YoushouldplantomeetwithoneorbothoftheinstructorsduringtheirofficehoursbyFebruary12.Itcanjustbefor10or15minutes,butwewanttogettoknowyou!WewillarrangethesemeetingsandofficehoursviaasharedGoogleCalendarhere:http://tinyurl.com/ogx695t

    Attendanceisanimportantpartofyourparticipationgradeaswell.Morethanthreesessionsofunexcusedabsences,orexcessivelateness,willbegroundsforgradepenalties.

    LaptopsandphonesAsmuchaswelovethesemodernconveniences,theycangetinthewayofdiscussion.Pleasekeepthemquietandyouractivitieslimitedtothosethatareofbenefittotheclassandyourlearning.

    11.123|BigPlans|Spring2016|3

    Updated12.01.2015

  • WritingGuidelinesandHelpAllwrittenassignmentsshouldincludereferencesandcitations,anduseAPAconventions.TheMITWritingandCommunicationCenter(12132)http://writing.mit.edu/wccoffersprofessionaladvicefrompublishedwritersaboutoralpresentationsandaboutalltypesofacademic,creative,andprofessionalwriting.Onwritingapositionpaper/memo,seesomehelpfultipsfromHKShere.DisabilitiesIfyouhaveadocumenteddisability,oranyotherproblemyouthinkmayaffectyourabilitytoperforminclass,pleaseseeusearlyinthesemestersothatarrangementsmaybemadetoaccommodateyou.ForMITspolicyonaccommodationsfordisabilities,seehttp://mit.edu/uaap/sds/students.AcademicMisconductPlagiarismandcheatingarebothacademiccrimes.Never1)turninanassignmentthatyoudidnotwriteyourself,2)turninanassignmentforthisclassthatyoupreviouslyturnedinforanotherclass.Ifyoudoso,itmayresultinafailinggradefortheclass,andpossiblyevensuspension.Pleaseseeusifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutwhatconstitutesplagiarism.Anyonecaughtplagiarizingorcheatingwillbereportedtotheprovostinlinewithrecognizeduniversityprocedures.ForMITsguidelinesforacademicintegrity,seehttp://web.mit.edu/academicintegrity.

    11.123|BigPlans|Spring2016|4

    Updated12.01.2015

    http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HO_Herman_Policy-Memos_9_24_12.pdfhttp://mit.edu/uaap/sds/students

  • CourseOverviewPleasenotethatthescheduleissubjecttochange.

    WEEK DATE LECTURES WORKSHOPS DELIVERABLES

    W1 02.02 CourseIntroduction

    MeetwithMikeorLindaduringofficehoursbeforePresidentsDayWeekend

    02.04 HistoricResponsetoEnvironmentalChallenges:InventingtheCharlesRiver

    W2 02.09 MandatesforChange:TheNexusofLawandBigInfrastructurewiththeBostonHarborCleanup

    02.11 AnUncertainFuture:ClimateChangePlanninginBostonandCambridge

    W3 02.16 NOCLASSPRESIDENT'SDAY

    02.18 MIT2100:IntroductiontoTermProject

    W4 02.23 MappingMIT:MethodWorkshop

    FormTeams

    02.25 MappingMIT:SiteVisit

    W5 03.01 Site/SWOTAnalysis

    BigProblemStatement

    03.03 NewYorksPostIndustrialWaterfront(Protect)

    W6 03.08 PlanJam:MegaProjectsforResilience(Defend)

    03.10 RoomfortheRiver:DutchModel(Accommodate)

    W7 03.15 RetrofittingNewOrleansforWater(Retreat)

    03.17

    PlanningConcept IdeaStatement

    W8 03.22 NOCLASSSPRINGBREAK

    03.24 NOCLASSSPRINGBREAK

    W9 03.29 MasterPlanning:ImagineBoston2030

    03.31 PublicPrivateDevelopment:BostonHarborwalk

    11.123|BigPlans|Spring2016|5

    Updated12.01.2015

  • W10 04.05 PlanJam:OppositiontoEnvironmentalProjects

    04.07 StakeholderAnalysis

    PublicBenefits

    W11 04.12 Discussion:ImplementationStrategiesofCases

    04.14 ImplementationandPhasing

    ImplementationStrategy

    W12 04.19 NOCLASSPATRIOTSDAY

    04.21 Discussion:CompetingVisions,OnePlan?

    W13 04.26 PracticePresentations(HalfoftheClass)

    DeskCrits DraftPresentation

    04.28 PracticePresentations(OtherHalfoftheClass)

    DeskCrits DraftPresentation

    W14 05.03 EXTENDEDCLASS(811AM) FinalProjectPresentations

    FinalPresentation

    05.05 InClassNegotiations

    W15 05.10 EvaluatingBigPlans

    05.12 Discussion:TheFutureofBigPlanning FinalIndividualPapers

    11.123|BigPlans|Spring2016|6

    Updated12.01.2015

  • CourseSchedule&ReadingsPleasenotethatthereadingswillbeupdatedpriortothestartofthesemester.Feb2 CourseIntroduction

    QuestionsoftheDay Whatisclimateadaptationplanning? Whatisresilience?Whatisrobustness?

    RecommendedReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Feb4 HistoricResponsestoUrbanEnvironmentalChallenges:InventingtheCharlesRiver

    QuestionsoftheDay HowhaveBigPlansofthepastaddressedmajorurbanenvironmentalchallenges? HowcanweseetheinventionoftheCharlesRiverandMITscampusasaBigPlan?

    RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    JohnFriedmann.(2011[2000]).Thegoodcity:indefenseofutopianthinking,inJohnFriedmann,Insurgencies:EssaysinPlanningTheory(p.144161).NewYork:Routledge.

    Feb9 MandatesforChange:TheNexusofLawandBigInfrastructurewiththeBostonHarbor

    CleanupQuestionsoftheDay

    HowdidtheBostonregioncometogethertosolveitswastewaterissue? Whatcobenefitshasinfrastructureunlockedalongthewaterfront?

    RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Feb11 AnUncertainFuture:ClimateChangePlanninginBostonandCambridge

    QuestionsoftheDay Whatisthestateoftheartinclimateresilienceandadaptationplanning? WheredoestheBostonregionstandrelativetoothergeographies?

    RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Feb16 NOCLASSPRESIDENTSDAY

    [MeetwithMikeand/orLindabeforethisWeekend]Feb18MIT2100:IntroductiontoTermProject

    QuestionsoftheDay WhatclimatevulnerabilitiesdoesMITface? Whatdoyouthinkthefutureofthecampuswillbe?

    PleaseSeeProjectDescriptionforMoreInformationFeb23 MappingMIT:MethodWorkshop

    QuestionsoftheDay WhatarethekeyfeaturesofMITscampus,fromaplanningperspective? Howdopeopleseeacity?Howcanwevisuallyreadandanalyzeasite?

    11.123|BigPlans|Spring2016|7

    Updated12.01.2015

  • Howcanweusedatatounderstandanddocumentasitefromafar?PleaseSeeProjectDescriptionforMoreInformation

    Feb25 MappingMIT:SiteVisit

    PleaseSeeProjectDescriptionforMoreInformationMar1 Workshop:SiteandStrengths,Weaknesses,Opportunities,andThreatsAnalyses

    QuestionsoftheDay Whatchallengesdoesthesitefaceandopportunitiesdoesitafford?Howdidyour

    understandingofMITevolveafterseeingitfromanewperspective? Whatkeyplanningissuewillyourgroupfocuson?

    PleaseSeeProjectDescriptionforMoreInformationMar3 PlanningthePostIndustrialWaterfront:NYCPostSandy(Protect)

    QuestionoftheDay Asoururbanwaterfrontstransitionfromindustrialtootheruses,whataretheirchallenges

    andopportunities?Andsusceptibilitytoclimatechange?RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Mar8PlanJam:MegaprojectsforResilience(Defend)

    QuestionsoftheDay Howhaveplannersproposedinfrastructuretodefendcitiesagainststormsurgeandsea

    levelrise? Whyarelargescaleinfrastructureprojectsseeminglydoomedtocostoverrunsand

    scheduledelays?Isadaptivemanagementaviablesolution?RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Mar10 RoomfortheRiver:TheDutchModel(Accomodate)

    GuestLecture:TBDQuestionsoftheDay

    Inwhatwayscananewcitybedesignedtoaccommodatewater? Whatarekeylessonstobelearnedfromstateledplanning?

    RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Mar15 RetrofittingNewOrleansforWater(Retreat)

    GuestLecture:ZacharyLamb,DoctoralStudent,DUSPQuestionoftheDay

    Givenpoliticalandgeomorphologicalrealities,isretreatanoptionforsomeregions? Howcanplanningprocessesproactivelyincorporatetheinterestsoftheurbanpoor?

    RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Mar17 Workshop:PlanningConcept

    PleaseSeeProjectDescriptionforMoreInformation

    11.123|BigPlans|Spring2016|8

    Updated12.01.2015

  • Mar22 NOCLASS,SPRINGBREAKMar24 NOCLASS,SPRINGBREAKMar29MasterPlanning:ImagineBoston2030

    GuestLecture:TBDQuestionoftheDay

    WithbothCambridgeandBostonundergoingcomprehensivemasterplanningprocesses,whatschangedandwhatsthesame?

    RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Mar31 PublicPrivateDevelopment:BostonHarborwalkGuestLecture:TBDQuestionoftheDay

    Howcanthepublicandprivatesectorscometogethertoproducedevelopmentthatsharesrisksandbenefitstheentirecommunity?

    RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Apr5 PlanJam:OppositiontoEnvironmentalProjects

    QuestionoftheDay WhatlocallyinspiredplanshavechangedthefaceoftheBostonregion?Howhas

    oppositionchangedthecourseofBigPlans?RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    DavidHarvey.(2008).RighttotheCity.NewLeftReview53:2340. IrisMarionYoung.(1990).CityLifeandDifference.InJusticeandthePoliticsof

    Difference(p.226256).Princeton,NJ:PrincetonUniversityPress.Apr7 Workshop:IdentifyingStakeholdersandPublicBenefits

    QuestionsoftheDay Howcanstakeholdersinformtheshapeofaproject? Howcantheproposedbenefitsfromaprojectbeguaranteedtobedelivered?

    PleaseSeeProjectDescriptionforMoreInformationApr12 Discussion:ImplementationStrategiesofCases

    QuestionoftheDay Whatstrategieshavethevariousprojectswevediscussedthissemesterdeployedto

    ensuresuccessfulimplementation?Howhassuccessbeendefined,andforwhom?RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Apr14 Workshop:ImplementationandPhasing

    PleaseSeeProjectDescriptionforMoreInformationApr19 NOCLASSPATRIOTSDAY

    11.123|BigPlans|Spring2016|9

    Updated12.01.2015

  • Apr21 Discussion:CompetingVisions,OnePlan?QuestionoftheDay

    HowcanBigPlansovercomethechallengesofthedemocraticprocesstobuildcoalitionsanddealwithcompetingvisions?

    RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    Apr26/28PracticePresentations

    Wewillnotmeetasaclassthisweek.HalfoftheteamswillmeetwiththeinstructorstopresenttheirdraftpresentationsintheTuesdayclass,andtheotherhalfwilldolikewiseThursday.

    [May2 FinalProjectPresentationsDueat11:59PM]May3 FinalProjectPresentations

    [Note:Thisisanextended3hourclassfrom811AM]May5 InClassNegotiations

    QuestionoftheDay Howdoesyourgroupsvisionmeasureuptotheotherplanspresented?Onwhatcould

    yourgroupcompromisetomakeaunifiedplanandwhatareitsnonnegotiables?PleaseSeeProjectDescriptionforMoreInformation

    May10 EvaluatingBigPlans

    QuestionsoftheDay Whatarethedominantnarrativesbehindthefailuresofplanning?Andsuccessstories? Howcanplanningfindsolutionsfortheworldschallengeswithinitself?

    RequiredReadingsAdditionalReadings

    May12 Discussion:TheFutureofBigPlanning(andtheRoleofPlannersandEngineers)

    QuestionsoftheDay Whatistheroleoftheplannerfacilitator,convener,visionary,advocate? Howdotheplansweveexaminedtodateseektoadvanceamorejustcity?Isthisor

    shouldthisbeanexplicitgoal?RequiredReadings

    AmericanInstituteofCertifiedPlannersCodeofEthics NationalSocietyofProfessionalEngineersCodeofEthics SusanFainstein.(2010).IntroductionandConclusion.InPlanningandtheJustCity(p.

    16and165184).NewYork,NY:CornellUniversityPress.[May12FinalIndividualProjectResponsePapersDueat11:59PM]

    11.123|BigPlans|Spring2016|10

    Updated12.01.2015

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