woodwind. orchestral woodwinds the main instruments (from highest to lowest) are: flute oboe...

Download Woodwind. Orchestral Woodwinds The main instruments (from highest to lowest) are: Flute Oboe Clarinet Bassoon Related woodwind instruments: Piccolo Cor

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  • Slide 1
  • Woodwind
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  • Orchestral Woodwinds The main instruments (from highest to lowest) are: Flute Oboe Clarinet Bassoon Related woodwind instruments: Piccolo Cor Anglais, or English horn Bass Clarinet
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  • How do they produce sound? Instruments classified as wind produce their sounds when a column of a air is made to vibrate through or around them. These vibrations can be set up in a variety of ways, by: Blowing across a hole Forcing the lips to vibrate in a mouthpiece Forcing one or two pieces of cane to vibrate in a mouthpiece (reed) Blowing air past strings or cords (in the case of the human voice) Wind instruments are usually tubes made of a variety of materials such as wood, metal or plastic. For most of them, changes of pitch are made by increasing or decreasing the length of the vibrating column of air in the tube- the longer the air column, the lower the pitch.
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  • The flutes sound is made by blowing across a hole. The oboe and bassoon both have two small, flat pieces of cane, called reeds, inserted at the end. (Double reed instruments) The clarinet has a mouthpiece to which is clamped a large thin reed. (Single reed instrument)
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  • Flute
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  • Held horizontally to the right of the player. The oldest of all instruments that produce pitched sounds (not just rhythms). Originally made from wood, stone, clay or hollow reeds like bamboo. Modern flutes are made of silver, gold or platinum. There are generally 2 to 4 flutes in an orchestra. Often featured playing the melody. You play the flute by blowing across a hole in the mouthpiece, much like blowing across the top of a bottle. Your fingers open and close the keys, which changes the pitch.
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  • Oboe
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  • The Oboe has a sound that is clear and penetrating. The baroque oboe first appeared in France in the 17th century. It was usually made of boxwood and had only three keys: a "great" key and two side keys. The modern symphonic oboe has 45 pieces of keywork! The oboist blows air through a double reed causing the reed to vibrate. The oboist covers various combinations of tone holes with fingers or keys allowing the air to travel through a different length of tubing before it escapes out of the uncovered holes and the bell.
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  • Clarinet
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  • The Clarinet is the only single-reed instrument in the symphony orchestra. The tone of the clarinet is dark and hollow sounding. The clarinet developed from the recorder family and is closely related to the saxophone. The symphonic clarinet was invented by a German inventor named Johann Christoph Denner in the first part of the 18th century. Vivaldi and Handel were the first of the great composers to write music for the clarinet. The early models c. 1700 were played with reed placed up against the upper lip of the performer. Typically there are 4 clarinets in the orchestra (one Eb- clarinet, two A/Bb-clarinets and one base clarinet)
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  • Bassoon
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  • The Bassoon is the largest and lowest sounding member of the woodwind family (except when the contrabassoon is asked to play) The sound of the bassoon is sometimes expressive like an oboe, sometimes funny, and sometimes gruff. It all depends on the music it is asked to play. The early bassoons were called Dulcians or Curtals. The main difference between the modern bassoon and the early bassoons is that these instruments were carved from a single piece of wood and they didn't have any keys. The bassoon has almost 8 feet of tubing that is bent in a "U" shape to make it easier to play. There are typically 2-3 bassoons in an orchestra.
  • Slide 13
  • The Saxophone Invented around 1840 by the Belgian Adolphe Sax. Usually classified as a woodwind because of its mouthpiece. Alto, tenor, and baritone have large upward-pointing bells. Sopranos are straight like a clarinet. Does not regularly appear in the orchestra, but rather in jazz or rock bands. The saxophone has a smooth sound, and is said to be the instrument that produces sounds most like the human voice.
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  • Strings
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  • The Orchestral Strings The main string instruments in the orchestra (from highest to lowest) are violin, viola, cello, double bass. Although differing in size, they all have basically the same shape. Their parts are: The body (containing 2 f holes) Neck Fingerboard Peg Box Tailpiece String effects: Pizzicato Double stopping Vibrato Bridge Scroll Chin rest Bow Tremolo Glissando
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  • Violin
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  • The Violin, sometimes called a fiddle, is the smallest member of the string family. The orchestra has more violins than any other single instrument. The violin section is divided into first and second violins, with the first violins playing the highest notes, and the second violins playing the next highest notes. The violin began as a three stringed instrument. In 1555, a fourth string was added by Italian violin maker Andrea Amati, though it was his student, Italian string maker Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737) who brought the art of violin making to its height and was regarded as the finest stringed instrument builder of all time. The violin rests on the left shoulder, and is kept in place by the players chin. The left hand is responsible for fingering the notes, while the right hand plucks or bows the strings.
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  • Viola
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  • The Viola is slightly bigger than the violin and plays notes that are lower in pitch. The tone of the viola is darker and less brilliant than the violin. The viola plays a middle part in the orchestra. The viola was developed in the 16th and 17th centuries. The shape of the viola is slightly different, and a little heavier than the violin, though it is played in very much the same way.
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  • Cello
  • Slide 24
  • The Cello is one of the bigger instruments in the string family. It plays notes that are lower than the viola, though not as low as the string bass. The strings on the cello are more than twice as long as the strings on the viola, producing rich, and warm lower notes. The symphony orchestra will usually include 8-12 cellists. The first known maker of the cello was Andrea Amati. Amati's original cello was slightly larger than the modern cello. In modern orchestras cellists support most of the weight of the cello with an endpin that extends out from the bottom of the cello.
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  • Double Bass
  • Slide 26
  • The Double Bass is the largest member of the string family. It is also known as the contrabass, upright bass, bull fiddle, bass fiddle, bass violin, or just bass. The original Double Bass appeared in the early 1500s. In our modern orchestra it is common to see eight string basses. It plays the lowest notes of any instrument in the string family and an octave lower than the cello. When you play it it sits on the floor, supported by an endpin.
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  • Harp
  • Slide 28
  • Harps date back thousands of years. Harps can be seen in Middle eastern paintings 2500 years before Christ. Its strings may be plucked or strummed. By the middle of the 18th century the harp had become so popular that composers began to include parts for the harp in their compositions for the symphony orchestra. Harpists use all of their fingers, except for the last finger on each hand, as it is thought to be too short and weak to effectively pluck a string. To change the pitch of individual strings, either up or down, the player presses any one of seven pedals with their feet. The pedals shorten or lengthen the length of the strings, to provide the harpist with the ability to play sharps and flats.
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  • Acoustic Guitar
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  • Instruments like the guitar may have been played as far back as 3,000 years ago. The oldest surviving guitar-like instrument comes from Ancient Egypt. It was used by a singer to the Egyptian queen Hatshepsut named Har-Mose. The main parts of the guitar include the body containing the sound hole, the neck, the fingerboard and the head. The guitar has a wooden sound box (the body) that amplifies the sound made by the plucked strings vibrations. Steel strings on a guitar produce a bright, metallic sound; nylon strings produce a softer, mellower sound.


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