Western Balkan Countries Assessment of Capacities for Low-carbon and Climate Resilient Development

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UNDP survey results, May 2011

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  • 1. Results of the UNDP surveyAssessment of capacities for low-carbon and climate resilient developmentWestern Balkan countriesFINAL DRAFTPrepared: May 2011 United Nations Development Programme,1

2. Bratislava Regional CentreContentsBackground ................................................................................................................................................... 3Conclusions:.................................................................................................................................................. 4Results of the mapping survey: ..................................................................................................................... 9 Institutional capacity for climate change policy implementation ............................................................. 9 Participation in climate change negotiations: ........................................................................................... 9 National coordination mechanisms/National climate change committees .............................................. 10 Climate change departments/experts: ..................................................................................................... 12 Regional cooperation: ............................................................................................................................. 13 Legislation: ............................................................................................................................................. 14 Carbon emissions trading:....................................................................................................................... 16 Reporting, awareness and knowledge: .................................................................................................... 18 Adaptation:.............................................................................................................................................. 20 Low-carbon development: ...................................................................................................................... 22 Financial resources: ................................................................................................................................ 24 Monitoring and evaluation of climate change policy:............................................................................. 26 Summary of the survey results for UNMIC Kosovo .............................................................................. 27 Additional important things identified by the respondents: ................................................................ 322 3. BackgroundA survey Assessment of capacities for low-carbon and climate resilient development wasconducted in late April, early May 2011 in five Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia andHerzegovina, the FYR1 of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia). A less comprehensive one wasconducted for Kosovo2, as it is not a Party under UN Conventions, which results are presented inthis summary in a separate chapter.The main goal of the survey was to understand better capacity issues that Western Balkancountries face in responding to the new challenges of climate change, in particular as it relates toformulating comprehensive approaches to ensure sustainable human development usingemerging opportunities.The survey consisted of two parts first, mapping the existing capacity of the countries and thesecond, an open assessment with evaluation questions, answers to which will help to understandbetter the context of that particular status3. The mapping was filled in with factual information,while the survey was targeting a wide range of representatives in each country/entity.The survey targeted representatives of the government, including ministries responsible fordevelopment, economy, finance, energy, agriculture, forestry, transport, and environment, aswell as relevant agencies and institutions, industry associations and nongovernmentalorganizations. The total number of respondents was 80. Almost half of the respondents comefrom governmental organizations, and the rest from academia, private companies andnongovernmental organizations. They come predominantly from environment (48.8%) andenergy (22.5%) sectors, but also 11% from areas connected with development and 20% othersectors of economy. In terms of position, the respondent majority are senior (56.3%) and 28.1%medium level, of which 54.3% are men (for UNMIC Kosovo 100% men). Bigger share of them(81.4%) are indirectly involved in climate change policy formulation and 18.6% directly, while58% are indirectly involved in implementation of the policy and 42% directly.The survey was conducted electronically, it was anonymous and results are presented in anaggregated format. Mapping is presented the way it was reported by each countrys respondent,however in some areas there is still some missing information.The results of the survey provide a basis for both host countries and donors to better address theemerging issues that these countries face in addressing low-carbon and climate resilientdevelopment, and point towards capacity gaps that may need to be addressed immediately orneed further in-depth analysis.1Here and hereafter also referred to as Macedonia2Here and hereafter referred in the context of the UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999)3A scoring system was used where 4 = very much, 1 = not at all 3 4. Conclusions:Strengthening and enhancement of existing capacityAlthough there are some institutional capacities already in place to tackle the challenges ofclimate change, further improvements are deemed necessary according to the survey.Institutional capacity and stakeholder involvement in developing and implementing climatechange policies has been assessed as a very high priority by all the countries. The mappingshows that some institutional capacity are already in place in all the countries , such asestablished and operational National Focal Points and Designated National Authorities for CDMprojects approval; preparation of different reports; some strategic documents and legislation; andfunctioning regional cooperation. However, even these areas need further improvement anddevelopment as pointed out by all the respondents in the survey. For example, although theWestern Balkans countries have already made significant efforts in building institutionalcapacities for participation in the Kyoto Protocol, they still face numerous barriers that inhibiteffective implementation of climate change mitigation policies and large-scale engagement incurrent or future carbon trading mechanisms or internationally provided assistance. It is a factthat there are operational Designated National Authorities in all of the countries. At the sametime, there are almost no existing Clean Development Mechanism projects.The following conclusions were drawn from the survey. They are based on the informationprovided by respondents of this study.Broader participation in international climate change negotiationsOverall, more can be done to increase the number of negotiators, include more members withbetter representation from different sectors, as well to increase the capacity to cover varioustopics of the complex international climate change negotiations. Reaching a regional consensusand coordination on certain negotiation positions is assessed as important or very important by90% of respondents.All five countries are non Annex I (developing countries) to the UNFCCC and non Annex B (donot have legally binding mitigation commitments) to the Kyoto Protocol. All of them areundergoing a process of accession to the European Union. As such, there are significantsimilarities in their position in the climate change negotiation process, as well as opportunitiesfor regional cooperation.In all five countries the responsibilities for the implementation of international and nationalclimate change related policy lays with ministries responsible for the environmental policy.Some of the ministries with National Focal Points are responsible for spatial planning. However,it is not clear to what extent the part of the ministry responsible for spatial planning is engagedin climate change, or if an internal coordination mechanism exists. 4 5. Enlarging departments/expert on climate changeTo ensure cross-sectoral impact of climate change interventions, there is a strong need to havespecific climate change departments in key ministries, in particular in environment, energy,agriculture and transport. Currently, dedicated departments for climate change mostly sit in theministries of environment with one or two experts in some other ministries or organizations.Without any doubt, institutional and human capacities are one of the most important factors forthe success of any policy, especially such an innovative one as low-carbon and climate resilientpolicy. In addition, more than 70% believe that if it is not possible to have a dedicateddepartment, at least some climate change experts on specific areas should be working in the keyministries.Establishment and improvement of coordination mechanisms on climate changeCoordination of development and implementation of climate change policies appears to be aweek point in all of the countries. There are no national climate change coordinationmechanisms established in the countries at the moment, and even if some national climatechange committees exist they are not functional. Nowadays, when climate change is not onlyenvironmental issue, but rather a development issue, the need to engage all the ministries andstakeholder is a must.The institutional arrangements for transitioning to low-emission and climate resilientdevelopment should first of all determine an institution or several institutions that would take theleadership and responsibility for coordinating the process and establish a mechanism for cross-sectoral cooperatio

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