week 3 fakes and frauds

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  • 1. Todays topic--a controversy:Archaeological Fakes

2. SciencePseudo-science--is a method--is a set of beliefs disguised as science--is self correcting --no self-correction, just repetition of beliefs--uses full context of evidence--ignores context of evidence--tests hypotheses with new data --no testing, no data gathering--tests are repeatable, verifiable --ignores most evidence--is objective: uses information from the world--uses out of date information--critical about the source of information --relies on mistaken ideas--scientists are flexible, they change ideas --pseudo scientists are inflexiblewhen wrongFeder says that science is about creating laws that will explain past action and predictfuture action, regardless of when and where it takes place.This may be the case for physical sciences, but is usually not the case for social sciences becausehumans are complex beingsexplaining and predicting human behavior can be impossible. 3. A fake is an object claimed to be much older than it actually is. 4. ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5. The truth is that when forgeries go unnoticed we are all victims. When a modern object istaken to be a historical artifact, the past is misrepresented, and hence it is likely to bemisunderstood.--Kenneth LapatinAnd because successful forgeries are successful to the degreethat they appeal to our modern ideas and ideals about the past,forgeries can contribute significantly to our tendency tore-create the past in the manner most attractive to our modernneeds and desires. --Kenneth LapatinFake snake goddessclaimed to be from Crete, 1500 BC 6. ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 7. Brian Reinhardt:known to have madeand sold thousandsof stone artifacts tocollectors whoassumed the artifactswere ancient. 8. X X X X X X X X X XX 9. Ancient Chinese Bronzes,Zhou dynasty, 1000-250 BCFake snake goddessclaimed to be from Crete, 1500 BC 10. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C.Muse de lHomme, ParisBritish Museum,London 11. What clues suggest that an artifact is a fake? 1) Provenience 12. What clues suggest that an artifact is a fake? 1) Provenience 2) Provenance -History of ownership of an artifact 13. What clues suggest that an artifact is a fake?The Michigan relic 1) Provenience 2) Provenance -History of ownership of an artifact 3) Style 14. What clues suggest that an artifact is a fake? 1) Provenience 2) Provenance -History of ownership of an artifact 3) Style 4) Materials analysis 15. Crystal Skull, the Inscriptions, Temple ofon display at The British Museum, LondonPalenque, Mexico 16. Mitchell Hedges Crystal Skull National Museum of the American IndianNew York CityNew Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian, Washington DC 17. --Provenience--Provenance--Style--Manufacturing Technology Frederick Mitchell Hedges Anna Mitchell Hedges (Left: at ruin of Lubaantun, Belize) (daughter of Frederick Mitchell Hedges) 18. Mitchell Hedges: Thomas Gann: taken to Lubaantundiscovered in 1924 by Gann, Lubaantunthen claims HEin 1903 discovered it!!Frederick Mitchell Hedges(Left: at ruin of Lubaantun, Belize) 19. Anna Mitchell Hedges(daughter of Frederick Mitchell Hedges) 20. Jane Walsh: debunker ofMitchell Hedges Skull Ruins of Lubaantun, Belize, Central AmericaAnna Mitchell Hedges (daughter of Frederick Mitchell Hedges) 21. --Provenience--Provenance--Style--Manufacturing Technology Sothebys auction catalogue 22. --Provenience--Provenance--Style--Manufacturing Technology Mitchell Hedges Skull, superimposed on theBritish Museum Skull yellow outline of the British Museum skull 23. --ProvenienceJane Walsh: debunker of Mitchell Hedges Skull--Provenance--Style--Manufacturing TechnologyCut mark madeby a stone toolCut mark made bya diamond drill 24. Electron microscopeimage of a cut mark from the MitchellHedges skullCut mark madeby a stone tool Cut mark made by a diamond drill 25. Getty Kouros 26. Hairstyle:Getty KourosCorinthian,600 BCdisplaytag says:Greek, about530 BC, or modern forgeryFeet:Attic,525 BC 27. Jane Walsh: debunker ofMitchell Hedges SkullGetty Kouros as it is displayed in the Getty Museum 28. Slides beyond here not presented in class 29. The text is a name tag, identifying function and owner of the pot Drinking InitialvesselglyphName (not deciphered)God N title (not Atole deciphered)(maize gruel)