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Name: Date

Kingdom Animalia Unit Plan

Major Topics

1. Compare the evolutionary trends among Animal Phyla.

-Levels of organization, cephalization, coelom development, symmetry and reproduction.

2. Describe the life functions Animal Phyla need to survive.

-Digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, reproduction, segmentation, nervous system and movement.

3. Invertebrate Phyla.

4. Chordata Phyla.

Invertebrate Phyla Topics and Concepts

-For each phyla you must be able to:

a) Examine and identify the phyla’s unifying characteristics.

b) Describe how the phyla carries out its life functions.

c) Describe the phyla’s ecological role.

1. Phylum Porifera

2. Phylum Cnidaria

a) Compare and contrast the structure, general function and mobility of Cnidarian polyp and medusa body plans.

b) Describe the advantages of a mobile stage in the life cycle of Cnidarians.

*Explain the evolutionary significance of colonial (Porifera) versus multi-cellular (Cnidaria) lifeforms.

3. Phylum Platyhelminthes

4. Phylum Nematoda

*Describe the physical changes that were necessary for Platyhelminthes and Nematodes to become parasitic.

*Evaluate the characteristics of a successful parasite.

*Describe human disorders caused by non-segmented worms.

5. Phylum Annelida

*Compare Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Annelida in respect to evolutionary changes.

6. Phylum Mollusca

7. Phylum Arthropoda

8. Phylum Echinodermata

*Compare how Mollusca, Echinodermata and Arthropoda have evolved to adapt to different niches.

Chordata Phyla Topics and Concepts

1. Subphylum Vertebrata

a) Examine and identify Vertebrata unifying characteristics.

b) Describe how Vertebrates carry out their life functions.

c) Describe the ecological role of Vertebrates.

*Compare Vertebrates and Invertebrates in respect to increasing complexity, with reference to:

-Endoskeleton vs. exoskeleton.

-Presence or absence of vertebral column.

-Closed vs. open circulatory system.

Vocabulary

Levels of organization (cell, tissue, organ, organ system) Circulatory system (open, closed)

Reproduction (asexual, sexual) Cephalization

Feeding (fluid feeder, filter feeder, parasitic, free-living) Movement (sessile, motile)

Symmetry (asymmetry, radial, bilateral) Polyp, Medusa

Coelom (acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, coelomate) Respiration (diffusion)

Skeleton (endoskeleton, exoskeleton, vertebral column) Niche

Life function

Name: Date:

Biology 11: Domain Eukarya,

Kingdom Animalia Evolutionary Trends

Purpose: To begin exploring the unifying features of Kingdom Animalia, as well as the observable evolutionary developments through time that have created the animal diversity seen today.

Text: 365 to 369 *This is required reading!

What is an Animal?

Which of the organisms below are animals?

What characteristics do all animals have in common?

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How long have animals been around for?

-Scanning electron microscope view of Otavia antiqua, the oldest known animal fossil (2012).

-It was found in 760 million year old limestone in Namibia and is about the size of a sandgrain.

-Generally, the oldest accepted animal fossils are 575-550my old.

Animals are thought to have evolved from colonial protists:

1. Common ancestor of animals lived 1 bya, flagellated colonial protist.

2. Larger colony formed from flagellated spheres

3. Reproductive and somatic cells specialized

Animal Life Cycles

Most animals follow a Diplontic life cycle. What is meant by this term?

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Below is a more detailed, but fairly universal, Sea Star diplontic life cycle:

See what this life cycle actually looks like by viewing the Sea Biscuit (Sea Star) video.

Animal Levels of Organization

Biologists categorize animals into three levels of organization:

a) Cellular: ________________________________________________________________

b) Tissue: _________________________________________________________________

c) Organ: __________________________________________________________________

Match the organisms pictured right to their correct level of organization.

Animal Body Plans

Another way that Biologists categorize animals is by the general features of their body structure:

a) Body Symmetry

There are two basic types of animal symmetry, both of which come with their own terms to describe different parts of the body. Label the diagrams below with the terms appropriate for their type of symmetry:

Radial Symmetry

Bilateral Symmetry

Which of the two types of symmetry above is associated with a more sessile lifestyle, in which the animal is attached to a surface and waits for food to come to it? How does its body plan facilitate this?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Which symmetry is associated with a more active lifestyle, in which the animal actively searches for food? How does its body plan facilitate this?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Which symmetry is associated with a greater degree of cephalization?

_____________________________________________________

b) Digestive Systems

Biologists have identified two basic types of digestive system organizations:

i) Sac-like body plan:

-Has a single opening that acts as the mouth and anus and leads to a gastrovascular cavity.

-Food circulates in the gvc to all parts of the body.

ii) Tube-within-a-tube body plan:

-Separate mouth and anus, with a specialized digestive tract inbetween.

-Food travels one way only.

c) Germ Layers

Germ layers are layers of cells in the developing embryo that eventually develop into different parts of the body.

An organism can have either two or three germ layers:

i) Diploblastic

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ii) Triploblastic

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d) Body Cavity

Triploblastic organisms can further be categorized by the presence or absence of a body (coelomic) cavity.

The Coelomic Cavity is a fluid filled space between the digestive tract and body wall and works to cushion internal organs and allow them to grow and move independently.

In soft bodied organisms, a non-compressible fluid in the coelomic cavity forms a hydrostatic skeleton. Like all skeletons, this fluid provides a rigid structure against which muscles contract to allow movement.

There are three different ways that the Coelomic Cavity can be organized:

i) Acoelomate

-No body cavity.

-Solid mass of mesoderm between the digestive tract and body wall.

ii) Pseudocoelomate

-Body cavity present.

Mesoderm lines the outer body wall only.

iii) Coelomate

-Body cavity present.

-Mesoderm lines the outer body wall and the digestive tract.

Protostomes and Deuterostomes

Triploblastic animals can also be organized based on the pattern of their embryological development. At a basic level:

i) Protostomes have the blastopore become the organism’s ____________________

ii) Deuterostomes have the blastopore become the organism’s____________________

Other patterns of embryo development can be used to differentiate between protostomes and deuterostomes:

What are you, a protostome or a deuterostome?

Phylogenetic Tree: Kingdom Animalia

Based on the morphological characteristics we have explored above, we can create a phylogenetic tree to show the evolutionary relationships between members of Kingdom Animalia.

Biology 11: Introduction to Kingdom Animalia Page 7