understanding offenders 0. 1 background much academic theory and literature exists to explain crime...

Download Understanding Offenders 0. 1 Background Much academic theory and literature exists to explain crime and shop theft –Theft Triangle: Dr Read Hayes Absence

Post on 01-Jan-2016

219 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Understanding Offenders*

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • BackgroundMuch academic theory and literature exists to explain crime and shop theftTheft Triangle: Dr Read Hayes

    Absence though of a full understanding of shop thieves techniques..If we knew HOW they stole, our opportunity for intervention would improve. Lack of these insights in the past has driven counter productive solutions, eg: Pickpocket Poster campaign

    University of Leicester / PRCI commissioned to undertake offender study on hot productsMotiveOpportunityFear of sanctions (Risk of getting caught)

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • MethodologyPin hole cameras to record the theft act as it happens

    Filming of the crime after the event

    Supported by extensive interviews with offenders

    Findings presented today corroborate findings from parallel research study in USA

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Limitations of the studyShows only one part of the theft problem, which in turn is only a part of the shrink problem.We have not (but want to) explore the techniques used byEmployee thievesContractor thievesVendor thievesTechniques around collusion have not also been explored in depth

    Whilst we think we have got close to the truth, some exaggeration is likely

    This study can be dangerous / misleading if reviewed out of context

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Key FindingsSecurity measures & other anti-shrinkage tactics do influence offender behavioursome of the timeLimited available data though suggests only a fraction of thefts are deterred or detectedEstimated 17.0 to 8.5 million thefts per annum in UK with 3O6,000 apprehensions recorded by police = pick up rate of between 0.04-0.02% (UK Home Office 2001)However the motivation to steal is very high & often driven by drug dependencyDetermination, willingness to take risks & acquiring criminal skills help shoplifters defeat preventive measuresWe must not underestimate shopliftersA successful approach to shop theft demands a comprehensive, multi-layered product protection matrix

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Detailed FindingsClassifying Shoplifters

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Classifying shopliftersSome research classifies shoplifters by their experience & frequency of offendingOthers by their motivation (i.e. whether they steal for personal use or steal to sell on)All thieves can be skilledAll thieves can exploit opportunities

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Detailed FindingsClassifying ShopliftersDecision Tree

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Decision treeMany decisions to offend are made before we they reach the storeHowever, once there, there are four key decision points on the tree:Appraisal of combinations of factors influence decisions to proceed or abort at each stageAll decisions can be driven or dominated by rational & emotional factors

    Entering the storeLocating the productConcealing the productLeaving the store

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Entering the store

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Entering the storeOffenders are adept at spotting & exploiting opportunitiesStaff presence will not deter if detection can be evadedSome consider customers a greater riskAre there any good opportunities?

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Entering the storeLocating the product

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • CRAVED model works but has some gaps

    Offender insights suggest that a new AT CUT PRICES model is more robustCan I sell these products?Entering the storeLocating the productConcealableRemovableAvailableValuableEnjoyableDisposable= CRAVEDSource: University of Leicester Hot Stores research 2003

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • AT CUT PRICES

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

    Hot products are:

    Like:

    And not like:

    Affordable

    Batteries

    Computers

    Transportable

    Cigarettes

    Canned Food

    Concealable

    Cosmetics

    VCRs

    Untraceable

    Most FMCG

    Burgled household goods

    Tradable

    Fresh meat

    Christmas lights in June

    Profitable

    Branded goods

    Unbranded goods

    Reputable

    Viagra

    Generic viagra

    Imperishable

    Razor blade cartridges

    Fresh meat

    Consumable

    Pain relievers

    CDs and DVDs

    Evaluable

    Fragrances carrying store stickers

    Opaque or blind packages

    Shiftable

    Bottles of spirits

    Foodstuffs

  • Concealing the productDo I need a partner?Can I neutralise the product protection?Do I need to create a distraction?What role will a partner have to play?Will it make a noise?Can I conceal the products in my clothing or a bag?Can I steal this without getting caught?Will anyone see me conceal the product?Should I move the products before concealment?Can I carry enough in one go?What about product placement?Entering the storeLocating the product

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Can I conceal these products in my clothes or in a bag?Offenders use ordinary clothing to considerable effectBulky items arent necessarily harder to stealPackaging can be discarded if value makes it worthwhile

    Concealing the productEntering the storeLocating the product

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Offenders can deploy technology of their ownThis magic bag is lined with metal foil to prevent EAS activationsCan I neutralise the product protection?Concealing the productEntering the storeLocating the product

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Most of the tags shown are easily removedHowever, they would deter offenders from stealing large quantities if every tag had to be removedThe challenge then would move to defeating the tags at the exitCan I neutralise the product protection?Concealing the productEntering the storeLocating the product

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Leaving the storeConcealing the productEntering the storeLocating the product

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Some product placement tactics give a false sense of security Using learnt techniques helps deflect attentionProducts can be moved to evade surveillanceHow will I leave?Leaving the storeConcealing the productEntering the storeLocating the product

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Detailed FindingsClassifying ShopliftersDecision TreeImplications

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • ImplicationsCurrent solutions definitely help, but motivated offenders can overcome themProduct protection is an organisational issue requiring consideration at all levelsOrganisations need to gather data to identify precisely where action is neededSecurity solutions must be coordinated & respond to specific defined problemsThis requires a good risk assessment, a Product Protection Matrix may assist

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Product Protection Matrix - Shop Theft

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

  • Moving forward...These insights are helpful and instructive but.Shop theft is just a part of the larger, more complex problem of shrink and availabilityTo get it right we have to manage the whole rather than the parts through a structured, evidence based collaborative approach (the ECR Road Map)We believe we can bring global expertise, resource and energy to the partnershipWe want to partner with you but in a structured manner with clearly agreed principles of engagement and resist a fire-fighting approach

    JMK - Asia Pacific Meeting 2/02

    Security measures & other anti-shrinkage tactics do influence offender behaviour. While many speak disparagingly of security technology and personnel, they admit that they may leave a store if they feel they have attracted the attention of a security officer; they try to spot store detectives; they seek out blind-spots to avoid CCTV; and they may carry special magic bags to help defeat EAS systems.

    Yet the motivation to steal is very high & often driven by drug dependency. Almost all the offenders who participated in this research had experienced drug habits that demanded of them up to 300 per day. As most expensive products are usually very well protected, this requires them to steal larger quantities of other goods they can quickly convert into cash for drugs. FMCGs are, by definition, highly attractive targets for shoplifters.

    While most stores now operate a range of security measures as a matter of course, determination, willingness to take risks & criminal skills help shoplifters defeat them.

    According to the UK Home Office, there were 306,000 recorded incidents of shoplifting in the year 2001-02. However, credible estimates of the actual numbers of incidents that took place in the 1990s vary between 8.5 and 17 million each year. Most experts agree that security measures currently deter or detect only a fraction of thefts of this kind.

    Shoplifters are often derided by security & law enforcement professionals, but this research clearly demonstrates that this perspective can be seriously mistaken. Many are highly skilled in both the techniques they use to steal, as well as in the way they think when judging and managing risk.

    We must not make the mistake of underestimating them.

    PRESS SPACEBAR OR CLICK MOUSE TO ADVANCESome research classifies shoplifters by their experience & frequency of offending

    Others by their motivation (i.e. whether they steal for personal use or steal to sell on). There are also concepts of professional and amateur thieves, with the idea that professionals plan, while amateurs rely on opportunism. Indeed, it is important to acknowledg