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  • ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

    Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    TOPIC

    Equatorial Tropical Climate

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    Equator The zone of the Equator has a tropical rainforest climate, also known as an equatorial climate.

    Usually, its average annual temperature is around 30 C (86 F) during the day and 23 C (73 F) at night.

    Rainfall is very high, usually from 2,500 to 3,500 mm per year.

    Average precipitation days are around 200 per year and average sunshine hours are around 2000 per yea

    As the name specifies, the equatorial climate is found at or near the equator.

    The characteristic features of the temperature, humidity and rainfall are described below:Temperature:

    The temperature, therefore is uniformly high through out the year.

    The average temperature of each month hovers around 80 F (27 C) .

    The difference between the hottest and coolest month is very small, normally less than 5 F (3 C).

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_rainforest_climate

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    IntroductionRainfall is heavy and falls uniformly in each month of the year

    Relative humidity is also excessive.

    The total annual rainfall for the equatorial regions is generally more than 80 inches (2000 mm) and the average relative humidity is around 80 %

    The Equatorial Climate

    This climate is found in areas located very close to the equator.

    The climate is hot and humid all the year round with excessive rainfall.

    There is no dry season and the rainfall is equally distributed in all months of the year.

    This type of climate is also called the climate of three eighties i.e., 80 F ( 27 C ) temperature throughout the year, 80 in (2000 mm) or more total annual rainfall and 80% relative humidity throughout the year.

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    Example

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    Building methodology in cold regions

    In hilly parts where rocky rubble, ashlars and pieces of stone are available.

    These can be patched together with a mud mortar to form walls.

    Finer stonework veneer covers the outside.

    Sometimes wood beams and rafters are used with slate tiles for roofing if available.

    These houses usually have two stories, with the livestock living on the ground.

    Often a verandah runs along the side of the house.

    The roof is pitched to deal with the monsoon season and the house may sit on raised plinths or bamboo poles to cope with floors.

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    Method

    (Basic structure and plastering) (Intermediate stage)

    (Final product)

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    Traditional House in Solan (Himachal Pradesh, India)

    [The south east side elevation]

    Example

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    Location The house is located in village Basal, Solan in Himachal Pradesh.

    Built on a gentle hill slope which is sparsely populated, it has a small water channel running besides it.

    The dwelling was built in 1923 and occupied by an agrarian family whose main preoccupation was to stores grains efficiently.

    Built around 80 years back, the house belongs to an agrarian family.

    Situated along a gentle slope, the density of houses is less and lot of greenery.

    Hills give this house it scenic beauty.

    The house has been built taking into account the furious winters when it snows and the summers, which make the house really warm

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    Layout Plan

    The house has been built such that the cow-shed and kitchen form a separate unit, away from the living quarters.

    The living quarters basically include bedrooms and stores for storage of grains.

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    ElevationThe sloping roof as seen in the traditional dwelling is a common feature in all the houses in the area as is compact planning of the house.

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    Section

    The house which constitutes many stores has been built for storage of grains which formed the back bone of the agrarian family.Boxes of various sizes can been found.

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    The Attic

    An interesting part of the house is the attic which is used to store corn which forms the staple diet of the people.

    The two windows on the sides ventilate and dry the corn at the same time protecting from the rain.

    Although the main function of the attic is to insulate the house, it serves as an excellent storage space.

  • Environmental Science Laxmi Institute Of Architecture

    Building Material

    This is the kind of ladder used to go to the attic where the corn is stored.

    All the building construction material used is locally available like the stone and sand of which the walls are made, the timber is also readily available.

    The staircase used to reach the first floor of the house is made of timber, with stone slabs also introduced.

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