tropical climate tropical rainforest
Post on 06-Apr-2017
Embed Size (px)
250 cm per year of precipitation
rarely gets higher than 93 F (34 C) or drops below 68 F (20 C)
Location: The area between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 N latitude) and the Tropic of Capricorn
(23.5 S latitude)
Rainfall: rainforests receive at least 80 inches (200 cm) of rain per year.
Canopy: rainforests have a canopy, which is the layer of branches and leaves formed by closely
spaced rainforest trees. Most of the plants and animals in the rainforest live in the canopy. The
canopy may be 100 feet (30 m) above the ground.
Biodiversity: rainforests have a high level of biological diversity or biodiversity. Biodiversity is
the name for all living thingslike plants, animals, and fungifound in an ecosystem. Scientists
believe that about half of the plants and animals found on Earths land surface live in rainforests.
Symbiotic relationships between species: species in the rainforest often work together. In a
symbiotic relationship, two different species benefit by helping each otheryou can think of it as
a partnership. For example, some plants produce small housing structures and sugar for ants. In
return the ants protect the plants from other insects that want to feed on the plants leaves.
Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Cancer
Tropical Rain Forests
Typical Flora and Fauna
Contains up to 30 million species
Around 15,000 tree species more than
10% are threatened
Over 900 threatened bird species
4 layers: emergent layer, canopy layer,
understory layer, and forest floor
Many species are located ONLY here!!!
Cecropia Tree: Sprays formic acid and
are covered by armies of ants.
Matapalo Strangling Fig: Grow up and
tangle around the trunk of the host tree.
Heliconia Flower: Its shape fits the
hummingbirds bill. Hummingbirds
pollinate these flowers.
Rafflesia: Produces largest flower in the
world. One of the worst smelling
Stags-Horn Fern: Epiphyte. Forms two
types of fronds
Amazon Basins Royal Water Lily:
Support a childs weight. Has spikes on
the bottom to keep away predators.
Armadillo: Its scaly surface protects it. Rolls up for
Gorillas: Endangered species. Largest of the apes.
Mandrill: Males have elaborate face patterns. They have long
mobile snouts and sharp claws for digging.
Macaw: Brightly colored parrots. Crack hard nuts with their
big, strong bills.
Peacocks: Males have a remarkable tail that it uses during
Quetzal: They have emerald green heads, black and green
tail feathers, and the under parts are red, black, and white.
African Snake Millipede: Reaches eleven inches. Bright red
with black head. Squirts out a stinking and irritant liquid
Ogre-Faced Spider: Makes webs above a regularly used ant
trail and hangs from the web to capture them.
Theraphosa Leblondi: One of the largest spiders. Have a
potent venom and only attack if severely provoked.
Darwins Frog: The males takes protection to an extreme
level. It holds the fertilized eggs in the mouth for protection.
Animals must be able to live in a warm climate with lots of annual rainfall
Many animals (and reptiles, insects, etc.) disguise themselves in the forest by blending in with their surroundings
Plants must be able to live in warm climate with lots of annual rainfall, lack of sunlight (forest floor), or a lot of sunlight (emergent and canopy layers)
Dominant Species: Plants
Often grows as an undergrowth
scattered or in patches in the
It likes temperatures between 40
degrees Fahrenheit and 100
Grow to be 50-80 feet.
They all have a tall graceful trunks
topped by a crown light feathery
leaves that are 15-17 feet long.
The weight of the tiger can be up to 575
The Bengal tiger can get up to ten feet long
and three feet tall.
Chimpanzees are about 3 to 5 feet tall and
weigh from 99 to 176 pounds.
The favorite food of chimpanzees are fruits
and young leaves, but they like many
different types of food.
Adults weigh 12-20 pounds.
Their fangs can grow a 1/2 inch.
The King Cobra can grow up to 12-18 feet.
Coconut TreesOrchids Seeds Banana Trees Bamboo
Macaws Fruit Bats Monkeys Insects
Vampire Bats Iguanas Red-Eyed Tree Frog
Today most forest dwellers live in
small settlements or practice nomadic
hunting and gathering. In the past,
tropical rainforests and surrounding
areas supported great civilizations like
the Mayas, Incas, and Aztecs that
developed complex societies and
made important contributions to
These great civilizations faced some
of the same environmental problems
(excessive forest loss, soil erosion,
overpopulation, lack of water supplies)
that we face today. For the Maya, the
damage they caused to the
environment apparently was great
enough to cause their downfall.
Tropical rainforests are home to tribal peoples who rely on their surroundings for
food, shelter, and medicines. Today very few forest people live in traditional ways;
most have been displaced by outside settlers or have been forced to give up their
lifestyles by governments.
Of the remaining forest people, the Amazon supports the largest native, or
indigenous populations, although these people, too, have been impacted by the
modern world. While they still depend on the forest for traditional hunting and
gathering, most Amerindians, as American indigenous people are called, grow
crops (like bananas, manioc, and rice), use western goods (like metal pots, pans,
and utensils), and make regular trips to towns and cities to bring foods and wares to
market. Still, these forest people can teach us a lot about the rainforest. Their
knowledge of medicinal plants used for treating illness is unmatched, and they have
a great understanding of the ecology of the Amazon rainforest.
In Africa there are native forest dwellers sometimes known as pygmies. The tallest
of these people, also called the Mbuti, rarely exceed 5 feet in height. Their small
size enables them to move about the forest more efficiently than taller people.
Housing in rainforests
What they want to say about this?
We don't need walls on our houses for
anything. It doesn't get cold here, and we
don't need much privacy at all. Privacy to
us is a lot different than what you may be
If you came here and built a simple
house, put walls around it, and wrote
your name on the door, that doesn't
mean that it is off limits or private. But,
we do practice privacy when we bathe in
the river. Even though we don't wear a
lot of clothing usually, the women bathe
at one time or place and the men at
Are you used to having your own room at
home? Well, you sure wouldn't get your
own room around here!
To build our house, we put up some
poles to support a thatched roof. Since it
rains here so much, we do a good job in
making the roof to have as few leaks as
Advantages of a rainforest
help stabilize the worlds climate
provide a home to many plants and animals
maintain the water cycle
protect against flood, drought, and erosion
are a source for medicines and foods
support tribal people
and are an interesting place to visit
Rainforest occupy 6% of the Earths surface
350 million of the worlds poorest people depend on forests for their subsistence & survival
Rainforests produce 20 30% of the worlds oxygen
U.S. National Cancer Institute has identified over 1400 tropical forest plants with the potential to fight cancer
Rainforests are the source of an estimated 2500 edible fruits
Every year at least 50 million acres are destroyed an area the
size of England, Wales, and Scotland combined
Over 900 threatened bird species
U.S. imports over $20 million worth of rainforest plants for
medicinal purposes annually