tropical climate tropical rainforest

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  • Tropical Rain

    Forest

  • Characteristics

    Climate

    250 cm per year of precipitation

    Humid

    rarely gets higher than 93 F (34 C) or drops below 68 F (20 C)

    Location: The area between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 N latitude) and the Tropic of Capricorn

    (23.5 S latitude)

    Rainfall: rainforests receive at least 80 inches (200 cm) of rain per year.

    Canopy: rainforests have a canopy, which is the layer of branches and leaves formed by closely

    spaced rainforest trees. Most of the plants and animals in the rainforest live in the canopy. The

    canopy may be 100 feet (30 m) above the ground.

    Biodiversity: rainforests have a high level of biological diversity or biodiversity. Biodiversity is

    the name for all living thingslike plants, animals, and fungifound in an ecosystem. Scientists

    believe that about half of the plants and animals found on Earths land surface live in rainforests.

    Symbiotic relationships between species: species in the rainforest often work together. In a

    symbiotic relationship, two different species benefit by helping each otheryou can think of it as

    a partnership. For example, some plants produce small housing structures and sugar for ants. In

    return the ants protect the plants from other insects that want to feed on the plants leaves.

  • Tropic of Capricorn

    Tropic of Cancer

    Equator

    Tropical Rain Forests

    Worldwide

  • Typical Flora and Fauna

    Contains up to 30 million species

    Around 15,000 tree species more than

    10% are threatened

    Over 900 threatened bird species

    4 layers: emergent layer, canopy layer,

    understory layer, and forest floor

    Many species are located ONLY here!!!

  • Plants

    Cecropia Tree: Sprays formic acid and

    are covered by armies of ants.

    Matapalo Strangling Fig: Grow up and

    tangle around the trunk of the host tree.

    Heliconia Flower: Its shape fits the

    hummingbirds bill. Hummingbirds

    pollinate these flowers.

    Rafflesia: Produces largest flower in the

    world. One of the worst smelling

    flowers.

    Stags-Horn Fern: Epiphyte. Forms two

    types of fronds

    Amazon Basins Royal Water Lily:

    Support a childs weight. Has spikes on

    the bottom to keep away predators.

  • Animals

    Armadillo: Its scaly surface protects it. Rolls up for

    protection.

    Gorillas: Endangered species. Largest of the apes.

    Mandrill: Males have elaborate face patterns. They have long

    mobile snouts and sharp claws for digging.

    Macaw: Brightly colored parrots. Crack hard nuts with their

    big, strong bills.

    Peacocks: Males have a remarkable tail that it uses during

    mating displays.

    Quetzal: They have emerald green heads, black and green

    tail feathers, and the under parts are red, black, and white.

    African Snake Millipede: Reaches eleven inches. Bright red

    with black head. Squirts out a stinking and irritant liquid

    called benzoquinone.

    Ogre-Faced Spider: Makes webs above a regularly used ant

    trail and hangs from the web to capture them.

    Theraphosa Leblondi: One of the largest spiders. Have a

    potent venom and only attack if severely provoked.

    Darwins Frog: The males takes protection to an extreme

    level. It holds the fertilized eggs in the mouth for protection.

  • Adaptations

    Animals must be able to live in a warm climate with lots of annual rainfall

    Many animals (and reptiles, insects, etc.) disguise themselves in the forest by blending in with their surroundings

    Plants must be able to live in warm climate with lots of annual rainfall, lack of sunlight (forest floor), or a lot of sunlight (emergent and canopy layers)

  • Dominant Species: Plants

    Bengal Bamboo

    Often grows as an undergrowth

    scattered or in patches in the

    forest.

    It likes temperatures between 40

    degrees Fahrenheit and 100

    degrees Fahrenheit.

    Coconut Tree

    Grow to be 50-80 feet.

    They all have a tall graceful trunks

    topped by a crown light feathery

    leaves that are 15-17 feet long.

  • Dominant Species:

    Animals

    Bengal Tiger

    The weight of the tiger can be up to 575

    pounds.

    The Bengal tiger can get up to ten feet long

    and three feet tall.

    Chimpanzee

    Chimpanzees are about 3 to 5 feet tall and

    weigh from 99 to 176 pounds.

    The favorite food of chimpanzees are fruits

    and young leaves, but they like many

    different types of food.

    King Cobra

    Adults weigh 12-20 pounds.

    Their fangs can grow a 1/2 inch.

    The King Cobra can grow up to 12-18 feet.

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  • Food Web

    Coconut TreesOrchids Seeds Banana Trees Bamboo

    Macaws Fruit Bats Monkeys Insects

    Chimpanzees Parrots

    Vampire Bats Iguanas Red-Eyed Tree Frog

    Python Jaguar

  • Great civilisations

    Today most forest dwellers live in

    small settlements or practice nomadic

    hunting and gathering. In the past,

    tropical rainforests and surrounding

    areas supported great civilizations like

    the Mayas, Incas, and Aztecs that

    developed complex societies and

    made important contributions to

    science.

    These great civilizations faced some

    of the same environmental problems

    (excessive forest loss, soil erosion,

    overpopulation, lack of water supplies)

    that we face today. For the Maya, the

    damage they caused to the

    environment apparently was great

    enough to cause their downfall.

    Tilak

    Machu picchu

  • Rainforest peoples

    Tropical rainforests are home to tribal peoples who rely on their surroundings for

    food, shelter, and medicines. Today very few forest people live in traditional ways;

    most have been displaced by outside settlers or have been forced to give up their

    lifestyles by governments.

    Of the remaining forest people, the Amazon supports the largest native, or

    indigenous populations, although these people, too, have been impacted by the

    modern world. While they still depend on the forest for traditional hunting and

    gathering, most Amerindians, as American indigenous people are called, grow

    crops (like bananas, manioc, and rice), use western goods (like metal pots, pans,

    and utensils), and make regular trips to towns and cities to bring foods and wares to

    market. Still, these forest people can teach us a lot about the rainforest. Their

    knowledge of medicinal plants used for treating illness is unmatched, and they have

    a great understanding of the ecology of the Amazon rainforest.

    In Africa there are native forest dwellers sometimes known as pygmies. The tallest

    of these people, also called the Mbuti, rarely exceed 5 feet in height. Their small

    size enables them to move about the forest more efficiently than taller people.

  • Housing in rainforests

    What they want to say about this?

    We don't need walls on our houses for

    anything. It doesn't get cold here, and we

    don't need much privacy at all. Privacy to

    us is a lot different than what you may be

    used to.

    If you came here and built a simple

    house, put walls around it, and wrote

    your name on the door, that doesn't

    mean that it is off limits or private. But,

    we do practice privacy when we bathe in

    the river. Even though we don't wear a

    lot of clothing usually, the women bathe

    at one time or place and the men at

    another.

    Are you used to having your own room at

    home? Well, you sure wouldn't get your

    own room around here!

    To build our house, we put up some

    poles to support a thatched roof. Since it

    rains here so much, we do a good job in

    making the roof to have as few leaks as

    possible.

  • Advantages of a rainforest

    help stabilize the worlds climate

    provide a home to many plants and animals

    maintain the water cycle

    protect against flood, drought, and erosion

    are a source for medicines and foods

    support tribal people

    and are an interesting place to visit

  • Random Facts

    Rainforest occupy 6% of the Earths surface

    350 million of the worlds poorest people depend on forests for their subsistence & survival

    Rainforests produce 20 30% of the worlds oxygen

    U.S. National Cancer Institute has identified over 1400 tropical forest plants with the potential to fight cancer

    Rainforests are the source of an estimated 2500 edible fruits

    Every year at least 50 million acres are destroyed an area the

    size of England, Wales, and Scotland combined

    Over 900 threatened bird species

    U.S. imports over $20 million worth of rainforest plants for

    medicinal purposes annually