Transgenerational and Latina Mothers

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<p>TRANSGENERATIONAL EDUCACIN: LATINA MOTHERS EVERYDAY PEDAGOGIES OF CULTURAL CITIZENSHIP IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH</p> <p>by</p> <p>PR EV</p> <p>A dissertation submitted to the faculty of The University of Utah in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of</p> <p>Doctor of Philosophy</p> <p>Department of Education, Culture, and Society The University of Utah August 2010</p> <p>IE</p> <p>Judith Flores Carmona</p> <p>W</p> <p>UMI Number: 3413558</p> <p>All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.</p> <p>PR EV</p> <p>UMI 3413558 Copyright 2010 by ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This edition of the work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code.</p> <p>ProQuest LLC 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346</p> <p>IE</p> <p>W</p> <p>PR EV</p> <p>Copyright Judith Flores Carmona 2010 All Rights Reserved</p> <p>IE</p> <p>W</p> <p>The University of Utah Graduate School</p> <p>STATEMENT OF DISSERTATION APPROVAL</p> <p>The dissertation of</p> <p>Judith Flores Carmona</p> <p>has been approved by the following supervisory committee members:</p> <p>Dolores Delgado Bernal</p> <p>, Chair</p> <p>06/01/2010Date Approved</p> <p>Audrey Thompson</p> <p>W, Member</p> <p>06/01/2010Date Approved</p> <p>Roderic Land</p> <p>IEHarvey Kantor</p> <p>, Member</p> <p>06/01/2010Date Approved</p> <p>PR EVEnrique Aleman Rina Benmayor</p> <p>, Member</p> <p>06/01/2010Date Approved</p> <p>, Member</p> <p>06/01/2010Date Approved</p> <p>and by</p> <p>, Chair of</p> <p>the Department of</p> <p>Education, Culture, and Society</p> <p>and by Charles A. Wight, Dean of The Graduate School.</p> <p>ABSTRACT This critical ethnographic study used Chicana/Latina feminist theory and Latina/o cultural citizenship to explore and examine how Latina mothers (their epistemologies, bodies, and lived experiences serve as pedagogical devices) transmit and co-create knowledge intergenerationally for and with their children. The primary focus of the study was to find out how Latina mothers enact their responsibility to fight for basic social needs and the various forms of activism that take place through their participation in their</p> <p>how teachable moments spring from the mothers everyday rituals, from their practices, silences, the mystery of their lives, and their doing, was foundational to this critical ethnography. Latina mothers bodies become a pedagogical device as they negotiate what knowledge to pass on to their children and with/among each other. Latina mothers inculcate more holistic forms of education (educacin) to their children through pedagogies of the home. Enacting cultural signifiers and practices of [in]formal education that take place in Latina/o homes through Latina mothers bodies demonstrated how everyday teachings through their quotidian doing are passed on to their children. Latina mothers stories and lessons are taught to their children through oral histories, their everyday rituals and practices, the stories that arise from interactions entre mujeres (among women), and in sharing their own testimonio. The findings from this study acknowledge how Latinas everyday culturalfamilial-communal practices serve to inculcate sobrevivencia (survival) lessons and transgenerational knowledge, education, and educacin, that can serve their children to claim</p> <p>PR EV</p> <p>IE</p> <p>childrens education and educacin in their community, school, and homes. Understanding</p> <p>W</p> <p>rights and create spaces of belonging in Salt Lake City, Utah. The findings elaborated and expanded the concepts of trangenerational educacin and pedagogies of cultural citizenship.</p> <p>PR EViv</p> <p>IE</p> <p>W</p> <p>TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT.iii LIST OF TABLES.viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..ix Chapter ONE INTRODUCTION.1 My Mother.1 Background and Setting.....5 Salt Lake City, Utah: The Jackson and Guadalupe Communities.7 Previous Studies....9 Statement of the Problem.....11 Focus of the Study............16 Significance: Building on Previous Studies.....21 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE...26</p> <p>TWO</p> <p>THREE</p> <p>PR EV</p> <p>Introduction..26 Overview: Chicana/Latina Feminist Theory, Theory in the Flesh...28 Situating Chicana/Latina Feminist Theory Constructs....32 The Land and the Brown Bodys Facultad in the Borderlands...32 Educacin of Sobrevivencia and Supervivencia Through Testimonio39 Testimonio....40 Introduction to Latina/o Cultural Citizenship..46 Overview: Latina/o Cultural Citizenship Practices......48 Latina Mothers Pedagogies of Cultural Citizenship...50 Latina/o Cultural Citizenship and Chicana/Latina Feminist Theory...52 METHODOLOGY ..59 Introduction: Research Questions, Approach, and Rationale..59 Research Design...61 Population Selection: Participants.......62 Data Gathering Methods. 66</p> <p>IE</p> <p>W</p> <p>Interviewing: Testimonio as Reciprocal Process 71 Observations and Thick Description ...75 Portraiture ...76 Data Analysis Procedures78 Portraiture and Latina Motherist Portraits...79 Angela..79 Portrait Analysis..80 The Researchers Positionality .......83 Reflexivity...85 Ethical and Political Considerations86 Rationale for Qualitative Research..86 FOUR LATINA MOTHERIST PORTRAITS IN THE WEST SIDE OF SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH...............88 West Side, Salt Lake City, Utah: The Jackson and Guadalupe Communities and Latina Homes89 Latina Motherist Portraits....92 ngela..96 Maite..100 Patty: Esta es Mi Historia......105 Viviana...116 Montserrat..120 Lourdes..............................124 Knowledge Shared Across Generations129 TRES GENERACIONES OF TRANSGENERATIONAL EDUCACIN.131</p> <p>FIVE</p> <p>SIX</p> <p>PR EVvi</p> <p>Aprendi Todo lo Bueno Pero lo Malo No: Mujer-oriented Teaching and Educacin..135 Teaching Through Silence and by Doing: Hacemos Cosas Para Salir Adelante.144 Transgenerational Educacin: I Write in a Notebook....151 Mothers Consejos.161 Valerse Por S Misma y Por Si Mismo..165 LATINA MOTHERS PEDAGOGIES OF CULTURAL CITIZENSHIP: SOBREVIVENCIA AND SUPERVIVENCIA.172 Sobrevivencia and Supervivencia: The Body as a Pedagogical Device173 Latina Mothers: Supervivencia and Their Facultad..179 Pedagogies of Cultural Citizenship: Latina Motherist Practices and Gendered Citizenship.....................................184</p> <p>IE</p> <p>W</p> <p>Discussion: Oral Histories and What the Daughters and Sons of Immigrant Mothers Learn197 SEVEN CONCLUSION: UNFINISHED TESTIMONIOS AND LATINA MOTHERIST PORTRAITS: TIENE QUE DARNOS COPIAS.200 Mi Madre: Las Madres..200 Transformations in Me and in the Mothers204 Looking Forward: Possibilities and Implications..207 May 7, 2010: An Act of Reciprocity and Community Care..208 APPENDICES A: B: C: D: E: BACKGROUND: ADELANTE: A COLLEGE AWARENESS AND PREPARATORY PARTNERSHIP...211 GOOGLE MAP OF JACKSON AND GUADALUPE NEIGHBORHOODS.216 THE COMMUNAL TEACHING CHEST ACTIVITY........217 TWO TESTIMONIOS........223</p> <p>REFERENCES..231</p> <p>PR EVvii</p> <p>INTERVIEW PROTOCOLS.....227</p> <p>IE</p> <p>W</p> <p>LIST OF TABLES Table Page</p> <p>1: Organizational Data Chart.79 2: ngela..100 3: Maite104 4: Patty.115 5: Viviana.119</p> <p>7: Lourdes.127</p> <p>PR EV</p> <p>IE</p> <p>6: Montserrat124</p> <p>W</p> <p>ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I must first thank the Latina mothers in this study (Angela, Viviana, Montserrat, Lourdes, Maite, and Patty) for sharing their wisdom and for allowing me to learn from and about them and their families. Muchas gracias. The Latina mothers and their families became my community and support system during my graduate studies at the University of Utah. I owe much of my community connections to them and to the Adelante partnership. I have truly been blessed to have the support and love of my two mothers, Josefina</p> <p>Carmelo, Matt, Jos G. Jos, Ninfa, Rosalia, Edith, and Junior, I love you and I thank you for caring and loving me. Gracias, to my sister [in law] Jenny. I left my home in Los Angeles in 1997 to undertake a life in academia. My familia in Los Angeles and in Texas have constantly welcomed me back home to offer me their unconditional love and support. Mi familia, who at times didnt understand why I needed so much school, kept me inspired and forced me to push forward to finish. I apologize for missing out on births, birthdays, graduations, first steps, first words, and much more. My nieces, Adriana, Gabriela, Johanna, Jasmine, Jeidy, Jennine, and Brianna, may you continue la fuerza de la mujer in our family. Vincent, Brandon, Issa, Serafin, and Andres hechenle ganas, please persevere and succeed. A ti tambien te doy las gracias Travis for always being there when I needed you. I thank my aunts, my mothers sisters, for their unconditional love, for caring about me and for being so giving.</p> <p>PR EV</p> <p>IE</p> <p>and Dee. Mike has been a father and a friend. I love them immensely. My siblings,</p> <p>W</p> <p>I thank mi querida mentor, Cecilia Burciaga, who was instrumental in getting me into academia. You are a force in my life and you continue to be a role model for me and for many others across the country. Thank you for teaching me to stay strong en este mundo academico. While at California State University, Monterey Bay, I am grateful to have met many good friends and mentors who continue to offer me guidance, support, and love, including Dr. Rina Benmayor, Dr. Christine Sleeter, Dr. Pamela Motoike, Debra Busman (MFA), Dr. Rebeca Burciaga, and Dr. Maria Villaseor. I shared with Rina, who was on my committee, that I have been so fortunate throughout my educational career, at CSUMB in the BA and in the MA program. I was very well prepared to take on the arduous, satisfying, fulfilling, painful, stressful, and loving task of completing the Ph.D. I wouldn't change a thing from this experience.</p> <p>I want to thank all the professors I have had the privilege of meeting and learning from. Thank you for believing in my work, for the B+ or A-, for the feedback on my writing, for pushing and enforcing the critical thinking boundaries and compassionate understanding, for encouraging me to reflect and connect across differences in genuine ways, for allowing my voice in your courses, for listening, caring, mentoring, and most importantly, for teaching me. Gracias. When my dear Cecilia welcomed my mother and me on Fort Ord, for the first time in spring 1997, I hadn't yet grasped the immensity of the academic world and the satisfaction of accomplishing this by your side and with your guidance. Much love to you, dear faculty, friends, colegas, allies, and mentors! I must thank my friends Vania, Axil, Ellen, Bethtina, Christina, Marcella, Alicia, and Normamuchas gracias por su amistad incondicional.</p> <p>PR EVx</p> <p>IE</p> <p>W</p> <p>I extend my gratitude to the supportive staff and students in the Department of Education, Culture, and Society (ECS); I especially thank Hannah, Marty, and Daryl. I am indebted to my dear friends who allowed me to vent, to create spaces, to engage in critical dialogues, to learn from each other in panel presentations, those who helped me in and with my work in Adelante, and those of you who helped me escape from my academic world. Thank you Debra and Glenda (WoCG), Latinas Telling Testimonios (LTT) mujeres, Mujeres Activas en Letras y Cambio Social (MALCS), Women of Color group, Adelante coworkers, teachers, and colleagues. Finally, thank you friends in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy (ELP). Muchas gracias Dr. Octavio Villalpando. My sincere gratitude and appreciation goes to Kim and Ruth, Sundy, Barbara, Belinda, and DeeDee; your work inspires me and allows me to see theory and praxis come together as well as camaraderie, friendship, mentorship, and collegialityall in the same space. I cannot thank you enough for our Study-Writing-Support Group and for allowing room to vent, release, and exhale during our sessions. You are in my heart and I hope we continue on this journey together.</p> <p>I extend my sincere gratitude to my fabulous, supportive, committed, incredible, loving committee members, Dr. Dolores Delgado Bernal, Dr. Audrey Thompson, Dr. Rina Benmayor, Dr. Enrique Alemn, Jr., and Dr. Roderic Land. Thank you. As codirectors of the Adelante partnership, Drs. Delgado Bernal and Alemn, allowed me to be part of the partnership on so many levels but most importantly to create and foster the relationships with the families and students. Gracias. Without the unconditional wisdom, feedback, and suggestions from Dr. Delgado Bernal, this study would not be completed. Dr. Aleman, mil gracias for your optimism and for being there to listen, to allow me to share my work, and</p> <p>PR EVxi</p> <p>IE</p> <p>W</p> <p>for believing in me. The theoretical feedback from Drs. Rina Benmayor and Audrey Thompson is immensely appreciated. I always learn something new from you. Dr. Roderic Land, thank you for allowing me to express my fears and doubts and for letting me know this was normal. Every time I stopped by your office or when you noticed I was second-guessing myselfyou always motivated me. I thank all of you from the bottom of my heart. Mil gracias de corazn.</p> <p>PR EVxii</p> <p>IE</p> <p>W</p> <p>CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION My Mother I did not know my birth story until I was about 7 years old. This story, often told to</p> <p>say to me tu naciste en el monte/you were born in the fields it was to ridicule and humiliate me, to make me feel ashamed and inferior. On September 15, 1978, close to midnight, I was born in the middle of sugar cane fields. My mother and father were not allowed to live together even though they had been married since my mom was 15 years old and my dad was 19. Friction and tensions between my maternal grandparents and my father impeded them living together. I have two older brothers, Carmelo, 40 years old and Jos G., 33 years old; Rosa, my younger sister, is a year younger than me. There is a 9-year gap between Carmelo and me. My mother tells me that she and my dad saw each other a escondidas/ hiding and in secretive meetings; their connections resulted in pregnancies and then the chastising of my moms behavior at home by my grandparents. Learning the story of how and where I was born, not from my mother but from an aunt, made me feel embarrassed to discuss my origins. As a child, I never had the courage to ask my mother about my birthmy family members illustration of it to belittle me had worked. As a consequence, I began rejecting my mother. It was also around this time that my mother migrated to the United States. The mother-daughter connection, along with</p> <p>PR EV</p> <p>IE</p> <p>W</p> <p>me by tia Alberta, was not told to me so I could feel proud of myself. Rather, when she would</p> <p>2 silence or lack of communication between us, widened with the distance. When I finally joined my mother in Los Angeles, California, at almost 11 years old, I hardly had anything to say to my mother. I did want to know why she had migrated to the U.S. leaving us behind, and about my father and whether all the horrible stories I had heard about him were true. It wasnt until I was a college undergraduate and rea...</p>