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Download Title Endocrine system Nervous system Immune system Signal transduction systems in multicellular organisms CHAPTER 15 Endocrine System 1.Endocrine glands

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  • TitleEndocrine systemNervous systemImmune systemSignal transduction systems in multicellular organismsCHAPTER 15Endocrine System1.Endocrine glands2.Hypothalamus and pituitary gland3.Thyroid and parathyroid glands4.Adrenal glands5.Pancreas6.Other endocrine glands7.Homeostasis

  • Fig. 15.1 The action of neurotransmitter differs from that of a hormone.15.1 Endocrine glandsCommon points: Different points: structuraltransmittermethodspeed componentssubstancesNervous systemneuronsneurotransmittersaxons & synapsesrapidEndocrine systemglandshormonesblood streamsslowPortal veinto use chemical signals (and the receptors) and maintain homeostasis.

  • Fig. 15.2 The endocrine system () HypothalamusPituitary GlandPosterior pituitaryAnterior pituitaryThyroidAdrenal GlandAdrenal cortexParathyroids ThymusPancreasGonadsTestesOvariesovary (female)testis(male)parathyroid glands(posterior surface of thyroid)


  • Table 15.1

  • HypothalamusHypothalamic hormone-producing cellsposterior pituitary hormone-producing cells*ACTHproducing cellsTSHproducing cellsAderenal cortexThyroidPituitaryLower endocrine systemsTRHcortisolT3,T4GHproducing cellsPRLproducing cellsLiverMammary gland (PRF)PIHIGF-1LH/FSHproducing cellsGonadssexhormonesADHOTHypothalamus-pituitary-peripheral endocrine system Releasing:Inhibiting:#not included in posterior pituitary hormones CRHWhole bodyGHRHGHIH(Somatostatin)GnRH(=LHRH)whole bodywhole bodysex organ etcbone etc

  • Exocrine versus Endocrine (p334)Duct(s)Differences: with/without duct(s), cell polarity

  • Fig. 15.7 Negative feedback mechanism in the endocrine system.hypothalamusanterior pituitarytarget glandtarget gland hormone(hormone 3)Thyroxine, triiodothyroninefeedbackinhibitsrelease ofhormone 2TSHfeedbackinhibitsrelease ofhormone 1TRHstimulating hormone(hormone 2)TSHreleasing hormone(hormone 1)TRHNegative feedback (p335)Thyroid hormoneThyroid stimulating hormoneThyrotropinTSH-releasing hormone

  • Fig. 15.3 Hormones target specific cells.nontarget cellreceptorscapillaryhormonetarget cellsReceptors (p336)androgennormal androgen receptorsXYXY

  • Fig. 15.3 Hormones target specific cells.target cells without the receptorcapillaryAndrogen insensitivity (p336)XYreceptor abnormality XYandrogen

  • endocrineparacrineautocrinee.g., prostaglandins and growth factors.Prostaglandins are produced, but not carried elsewhere in the bloodstream.Local hormones (p336)

  • The Action of Hormones (p337)

    Peptide hormones

    Steroid hormones

    Amino acid-derived hormones

  • Fig. 15.4 Action of a peptide hormone.capillaryreceptor protein3. cAMP activates an enzyme cascade.glycogen1. Hormone binds to a receptor in the plasma membrane.2. Binding leads to activation of an enzyme that changes ATP to cyclic AMP.cAMP(second messenger)plasmamembraneATPglucose(leaves celland goesto blood)4. Many molecules of glycogen are broken down to glucose, which enters the bloodstream.peptide hormone(first messenger)activatedenzyme

  • Fig. 15.5 Action of a steroid hormone and amino acid-derived hormones.DNAribosomeproteincytoplasm1. Hormone diffuses through plasma membrane because it is lipid soluble.2. Hormone binds to receptor inside nucleus.steroidhormoneplasmamembranereceptorproteinmRNAmRNA3. Hormone-receptor complex activates gene and synthesis of a specific mRNA molecule follows.4. mRNA moves to ribosomes, and protein synthesis occurs.nucleus

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