The Vertical Distribution of Atmospheric CO 2 and the Latitudinal Partitioning of Global Carbon Fluxes Britton Stephens – NCAR Co-authors - Kevin R. Gurney,

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  • The Vertical Distribution of Atmospheric CO2 and the Latitudinal Partitioning of Global Carbon FluxesBritton Stephens NCARCo-authors - Kevin R. Gurney, Pieter P. Tans, Colm Sweeney, Wouter Peters, Lori Bruhwiler, Philippe Ciais, Michel Ramonet, Philippe Bousquet, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Shuji Aoki, Toshinobu Machida, Gen Inoue, Nikolay Vinnichenko, Jon Lloyd, Armin Jordan, Martin Heimann, Olga Shibistova, Ray L. Langenfelds, L. Paul Steele, Roger J. Francey, A. Scott Denning

    Using data from NOAA/GMD, LSCE, CSIRO, NIES, MPIB, and Tohoku Univ.; Transcom3 model output; and NOAA/GMD and LSCE models.

  • Gurney et al, Nature, 2002TransCom3 model results based on surface data imply a large transfer of carbon from tropical to northern land regions.Level 1 (annual mean)Level 2 (seasonal)Gurney et al, GBC, 2004

    Chart2

    -2.1614-2.4913

    1.10121.7692

    -0.5602-0.8179

    -1.0041-0.8803

    0.08710.0222

    -0.2626-0.487

    -1.6204-1.54

    -1.1796-1.3451

    -2.8-2.8851

    L1and0.3.2Tak

    Model mean monthly statistics:Difference from priorBor NATemp NATrop AmS AmerN AfricS AfricBor AsiTemp AsTrop AsAustralEuropeN PacifW PacifE PacifS PacifNortherN AtlanTrop AtS AtlanS OceanTrop InS India

    Boreal NA0.20690.4682Boreal NATemp NABoreal AsiaTemp AsiaEuropeS. OceanREDO THESEBor NA1.00.8260.659-0.5840.580-0.5270.8980.770-0.0600.3580.6710.312-0.051-0.4560.7060.6300.2940.5000.389-0.1660.7680.629North AmericaDifference from neutral CASADifference from total PriorNorth America

    MonthpresubLU priortot priorpri+uncpri-uncpostspreadpost+witpost-witL1 postTot errorJan0.33-0.281.06-1.57-0.48-0.06Within errorTemp NA0.8261.00.796-0.6740.507-0.5420.8100.863-0.0740.5740.9280.335-0.326-0.1980.6680.3350.5900.3520.415-0.2630.7950.906MonthNB priortot priorpri+uncpri-uncpostspreadpost+witpost-witL1 posttotal errorNAAsiaEurasiaNorthern LandNAAsiaEurasiaNorthern LandMonth

    jan0.69350.00000.69351.4480-0.06101.02540.73231.49360.55710.96790.86920.46820.2192Feb0.59-0.77-0.32-0.48-0.43-0.160.22Trop Am0.6590.7961.0-0.6220.507-0.5520.7150.755-0.1920.5710.7410.204-0.214-0.4080.5860.4400.2830.4440.481-0.2440.8720.848jan2.762.764.630.892.821.053.691.942.251.37jan0.06-0.51-0.99-0.940.06-0.51-0.99-0.94jan0.47

    feb0.77560.00000.77561.54490.00641.36120.86471.86440.85810.97511.00050.50320.2532Mar0.36-1.12-1.01-1.71-0.090.350.25S Amer-0.584-0.674-0.6221.0-0.9240.952-0.421-0.482-0.457-0.767-0.408-0.1980.1490.558-0.329-0.690-0.084-0.675-0.3490.681-0.805-0.797feb2.852.854.810.902.660.923.581.752.061.30feb-0.19-0.80-1.23-1.42-0.19-0.80-1.23-1.42feb0.47

    mar0.95610.00000.95611.73660.17551.31110.88141.75940.86271.23550.98890.44830.2010Apr-0.63-1.43-1.68-0.13-0.960.700.20N Afric0.5800.5070.507-0.9241.0-0.9170.3130.3410.5590.7250.1690.0790.108-0.5860.3730.781-0.1870.7840.398-0.6990.7200.604mar3.003.005.030.962.231.143.071.392.491.42mar-0.77-2.72-2.80-3.57-0.77-2.72-2.80-3.57mar0.41

    apr1.16440.00001.16441.99260.33610.53890.39160.91200.16571.40950.54090.37310.1392May0.27-1.86-1.530.370.110.560.14S Afric-0.527-0.542-0.5520.952-0.9171.0-0.340-0.388-0.504-0.664-0.272-0.0150.1340.709-0.194-0.6840.094-0.662-0.1780.760-0.803-0.704apr2.452.455.03-0.130.400.811.24-0.441.851.17apr-2.05-1.81-2.77-4.82-2.05-1.81-2.77-4.82apr0.33

    may0.75940.00000.75941.8286-0.30971.03180.64651.46360.60011.03510.77740.43180.1865Jun1.71-0.562.57-3.05-2.660.120.19Bor Asi0.8980.8100.715-0.4210.313-0.3401.00.766-0.2980.2620.7730.485-0.233-0.3890.6670.4570.4910.2920.348-0.0090.6810.637may0.37-1.222.20-4.64-1.211.35-0.19-2.24-0.191.69may-1.58-1.16-1.05-2.630.01-0.86-0.46-0.45may0.30

    jun-2.33240.0000-2.3324-0.3050-4.3597-0.62621.41940.2823-1.5347-2.03931.68530.90850.8254Jul0.30-0.55-4.04-1.23-1.730.230.83Temp As0.7700.8630.755-0.4820.341-0.3880.7661.0-0.1760.2780.8300.220-0.261-0.1830.6510.3670.6550.3370.3590.0480.7640.680jun-7.07-8.71-3.53-13.89-5.922.02-4.53-7.31-7.532.45jun1.15-0.48-3.15-2.002.79-0.18-2.540.25jun0.27

    jul-3.79600.0000-3.7960-1.3133-6.2787-3.49422.0218-2.3375-4.6509-3.60772.32931.15671.3380Aug-0.98-0.99-1.152.00-1.410.371.34Trop As-0.060-0.074-0.192-0.4570.559-0.504-0.298-0.1761.00.501-0.349-0.3260.419-0.0760.0240.342-0.1860.5950.271-0.7230.0760.024jul-8.31-9.90-4.47-15.33-8.561.87-6.93-10.18-9.042.48jul-0.24-5.27-7.00-7.241.35-4.98-6.41-5.06jul0.30

    aug-2.22770.0000-2.2277-0.2113-4.2440-3.20441.1486-2.2358-4.1731-2.00931.50250.96860.9382Sep-0.25-0.29-0.75-0.17-2.030.650.94Austral0.3580.5740.571-0.7670.725-0.6640.2620.2780.5011.00.365-0.0050.109-0.1170.5530.3770.1170.6720.694-0.7400.5710.726aug-5.24-6.83-2.03-11.63-7.212.35-5.77-8.65-5.912.76aug-1.970.85-0.56-2.52-0.381.150.03-0.34aug0.30

    sep0.63020.00000.63021.8512-0.59070.37750.66211.0972-0.34210.88270.97790.71970.5180Oct0.19-1.030.420.62-0.430.510.52Europe0.6710.9280.741-0.4080.169-0.2720.7730.830-0.3490.3651.00.328-0.478-0.0380.5470.0400.7120.0460.266-0.0420.6350.823sep0.100.103.78-3.59-0.451.270.79-1.69-0.471.78sep-0.54-0.93-2.96-3.50-0.54-0.93-2.96-3.50sep0.34

    oct1.46820.00001.46822.34220.59431.65820.47272.20621.11011.75750.72370.54800.3003Nov-0.01-0.860.810.98-0.290.370.30N Pacif0.3120.3350.204-0.1980.079-0.0150.4850.220-0.326-0.0050.3281.0-0.463-0.1160.1200.1800.374-0.1850.0160.2320.0390.271oct3.023.025.690.352.180.813.201.172.511.29oct-0.841.040.61-0.23-0.841.040.61-0.23oct0.38

    nov1.10720.00001.10721.90860.30571.09830.50281.62340.57331.35310.72700.52510.2757Dec0.54-0.951.27-0.50-1.140.380.28W Pacif-0.051-0.326-0.2140.1490.1080.134-0.233-0.2610.4190.109-0.478-0.4631.00.2190.2580.318-0.4190.5680.530-0.028-0.110-0.426nov3.173.175.241.102.300.763.231.372.561.20nov-0.871.791.500.63-0.871.791.500.63nov0.45

    dec0.80890.00000.80891.57320.04451.34790.83041.86360.83221.08550.97750.51570.26590.27E Pacif-0.456-0.198-0.4080.558-0.5860.709-0.389-0.183-0.076-0.117-0.038-0.1160.2191.00.078-0.6630.356-0.3390.1800.389-0.588-0.332dec2.902.904.801.012.501.333.401.602.391.61dec-0.410.76-0.37-0.78-0.410.76-0.37-0.78dec0.47

    Temp NA0.67S Pacif0.7060.6680.586-0.3290.373-0.1940.6670.6510.0240.5530.5470.1200.2580.0781.00.3730.4280.5760.817-0.0740.5110.465AsiaAsia

    MonthpresubLU priortot priorpri+uncpri-uncpostspreadpost+witpost-witL1 postTot error0.19Norther0.6300.3350.440-0.6900.781-0.6840.4570.3670.3420.3770.0400.1800.318-0.6630.3731.0-0.1760.8270.437-0.2710.6610.301MonthNB priortot priorpri+uncpri-uncpostspreadpost+witpost-witL1 posttotal errorMonth

    jan2.06990.00002.06993.77930.36051.79321.15832.53331.05311.28291.37460.74010.54770.55N Atlan0.2940.5900.283-0.084-0.1870.0940.4910.655-0.1860.1170.7120.374-0.4190.3560.428-0.1761.0-0.1150.2380.2310.1690.400jan2.442.444.93-0.051.921.022.940.911.341.44jan0.41

    feb2.07660.00002.07663.87560.27751.30320.78712.07010.53631.08491.09890.76690.58810.59Trop At0.5000.3520.444-0.6750.784-0.6620.2920.3370.5950.6720.046-0.1850.568-0.3390.5760.827-0.1151.00.718-0.4860.6490.348feb2.942.945.520.362.141.483.101.171.571.77feb0.37

    mar2.03930.00002.03933.92260.15600.91741.14921.63090.20401.25171.35270.71350.50910.51S Atlan0.3890.4150.481-0.3490.398-0.1780.3480.3590.2710.6940.2660.0160.5300.1800.8170.4370.2380.7181.0-0.1770.3670.334mar3.643.646.360.920.921.322.12-0.272.571.78mar0.44

    apr1.28850.00001.28853.7336-1.1567-0.13731.02550.6188-0.89340.44411.27410.75610.57170.57S Ocean-0.166-0.263-0.2440.681-0.6990.760-0.0090.048-0.723-0.740-0.0420.232-0.0280.389-0.074-0.2710.231-0.486-0.1771.0-0.405-0.508apr4.864.867.931.803.050.924.491.613.661.70apr0.47

    may-0.3909-1.5895-1.98041.2710-5.2318-2.24611.0749-1.3195-3.1727-1.22511.41920.92660.85860.86Trop In0.7680.7950.872-0.8050.720-0.8030.6810.7640.0760.5710.6350.039-0.110-0.5880.5110.6610.1690.6490.367-0.4051.00.819may1.731.445.11-2.230.571.902.21-1.060.632.51may0.45

    jun-4.7328-1.6425-6.3753-1.6104-11.1403-5.29122.0454-4.2412-6.3412-5.49472.29921.05001.10251.10S India0.6290.9060.848-0.7970.604-0.7040.6370.6800.0240.7260.8230.271-0.426-0.3320.4650.3010.4000.3480.334-0.5080.8191.0jun-7.75-8.05-2.50-13.61-8.231.52-5.89-10.58-8.782.80jun0.42

    jul-4.5154-1.5895-6.1049-1.2715-10.9383-5.06092.0728-3.9186-6.2032-5.42872.36671.14231.30481.30jul-11.93-12.22-5.73-18.71-17.202.35-14.53-19.87-13.303.56jul0.41

    aug-3.0142-1.5895-4.6037-0.2491-8.9583-4.00281.6264-2.9369-5.0687-3.89871.94461.06591.13611.14Temp. NAN. AtlanticS. OceanAustralasiaN AmericaNorthern + North Atlanticaug-7.83-8.12-2.70-13.55-6.984.50-4.64-9.31-9.125.07aug0.43

    sep-0.53170.0000-0.53172.9437-4.0071-0.82321.29440.1872-1.8337-1.35111.64211.01041.02091.02Jan1.790.04-1.040.992.82-0.020.0849315068sep2.082.085.88-1.721.152.322.93-0.620.912.92sep0.47

    oct1.55180.00001.55184.0706-0.96690.52450.87501.3771-0.32810.75491.22170.85260.72690.73Feb1.30-0.38-1.280.462.66-0.710.0767123288oct4.114.117.141.075.141.576.643.653.052.17oct0.49

    nov2.06100.00002.06103.97160.15051.19941.06231.96860.43021.20611.31150.76920.59170.59Mar0.92-0.48-0.730.082.23-0.550.0849315068nov3.073.075.790.354.861.736.093.621.892.12nov0.45

    dec2.09580.00002.09583.83370.35791.14791.57541.88540.41051.30931.73950.73750.54390.54Apr-0.14-0.23-0.34-0.330.400.050.0821917808dec2.642.645.150.123.401.784.452.341.552.06dec0.42

    Trop Am0.89May-2.25-0.27-0.42-0.55-1.21-0.140.0849315068EurasiaEurasia

    MonthpresubLU priortot priorpri+uncpri-uncpostspreadpost+witpost-witL1 postTot error0.26Jun-5.29-0.90-0.66-0.41-5.92-0.800.0821917808MonthNB priortot priorpri+uncpri-uncpostspreadpost+witpost-witL1 posttotal errorMonth

    jan1.35050.00001.35055.6262-2.92520.65731.57793.8561-2.54142.01033.56683.198810.232310.23Jul-5.06-0.53-0.53-0.32-8.56-1.380.0849315068jan4.104.107.021.183.112.074.271.952.432.37jan0.40

    feb3.53920.00003.53927.7936-0.71522.04931.65735.3342-1.23563.89193.67933.284910.790610.79Aug-4.00-0.16-0.40-0.53-7.21-1.190.0849315068feb4.424.427.431.413.191.984.342.032.322.29feb0.38

    mar1.53540.00001.53545.7488-2.67811.48361.65784.7143-1.74702.19873.63123.230710.437410.44Sep-0.82-0.21-0.06-1.09-0.45-0.990.0821917808mar4.834.838.001.672.031.663.370.693.172.13mar0.42

    apr1.41980.00001.41985.7262-2.88652.30071.86495.2920-0.69052.03433.52502.99138.94798.95Oct0.520.01-0.17-0.562.18-0.470.0849315068apr5.515.519.171.852.731.014.281.183.681.85apr0.42

    may-1.11620.0000-1.11623.4717-5.7041-0.53242.19432.0405-3.1053-0.50373.38152.57296.61986.62Nov1.20-0.02-0.370.142.30-0.190.0821917808may-2.71-3.301.76-8.35-3.761.86-1.98-5.54-4.512.57may0.35

    jun-1.26291.67290.41005.1113-4.2913-0.58502.69491.8107-2.9807-0.61173.60582.39575.73945.74Dec1.15-0.36-0.620.962.50-0.410.0849315068jun-12.47-13.08-6.20-19.95-15.621.64-13.12-18.11-14.052.99jun0.36

    jul-2.59501.6190-0.97613.8925-5.8447-2.02881.40950.1678-4.2255-2.01092.60992.19664.82514.83jul-16.48-17.07-9.39-24.76-23.482.50-20.68-26.28-18.553.75jul0.36

    aug-1.31521.61900.30385.2070-4.59950.13733.59632.5707-2.2961-0.70654.34222.43345.92145.92aug-8.78-9.37-3.05-15.69-9.345.06-6.89-11.78-10.705.62aug0.39

    sep-1.17901.67290.49405.7004-4.7125-0.04993.42832.8016-2.9013-0.52894.45922.85158.13118.13sep4.734.739.180.271.772.443.68-0.142.913.10sep0.43

    oct-1.20570.0000-1.20573.8021-6.21350.70742.38383.6879-2.2730-0.59493.81652.98058.88348.88oct6.846.8410.403.287.452.259.105.795.222.79oct0.46

    nov0.12770.00000.12774.9255-4.67001.64061.38465.0391-1.75780.75993.66973.398511.549811.55nov5.445.448.622.276.952.528.365.533.622.89nov0.45

    dec0.69940.00000.69945.1743-3.77553.12551.72446.3290-0.07791.34673.63813.203510.262410.26dec4.574.577.531.624.202.025.412.992.912.36dec0.41

    S Amer2.92Northern LandNorthern Land

    MonthpresubLU priortot priorpri+uncpri-uncpostspreadpost+witpost-witL1 postTot error0.84MonthNB priortot priorpri+uncpri-uncpostspreadpost+witpost-witL1 posttotal errorMonth

    jan-2.34190.0000-2.34191.4243-6.1081-3.41811.6993-0.4783-6.3580-2.55173.39562.93988.64248.64-0.18jan6.876.8710.333.405.932.377.384.474.682.78jan0.42

    feb-1.43260.0000-1.43262.3942-5.2595-2.15691.08320.9884-5.3022-1.48373.32663.14539.89299.890.24feb7.277.2710.863.685.852.707.324.374.383.07feb0.41

    mar-2.07700.0000-2.07701.4477-5.6017-2.85401.0722-0.0467-5.6613-2.28173.00512.80737.88097.88-0.60mar7.837.8311.594.064.262.445.842.685.662.91mar0.42

    apr-0.90640.0000-0.90642.2161-4.0289-1.97420.80550.5543-4.5026-1.05892.65372.52856.39336.390.70apr7.967.9612.443.483.141.184.901.375.532.12apr0.39

    may0.35440.00000.35442.9202-2.2114-0.18460.77531.9863-2.35540.19632.30522.17094.71284.711.26may-2.34-4.521.59-10.62-4.972.75-2.92-7.02-4.703.43may0.34

    jun1.35050.00001.35053.6470-0.94601.12290.71203.1068-0.86091.16712.10781.98393.93593.94-0.18jun-19.54-21.79-13.18-30.39-21.532.80-18.68-24.39-21.593.99jun0.33

    jul1.93920.00001.93924.1527-0.27431.66680.74023.5962-0.26261.81152.06651.92943.72263.722.80jul-24.80-26.97-17.56-36.38-32.043.20-28.80-35.27-27.594.55jul0.34

    aug3.10840.00003.10845.39080.82602.53741.04194.51830.55653.00312.23821.98093.92403.921.61aug-14.02-16.20-8.27-24.13-16.545.03-13.70-19.38-16.615.78aug0.36

    sep2.63650.00002.63655.20990.06322.33650.75054.50550.16762.43552.29522.16904.70464.700.59sep4.834.8310.61-0.961.322.923.60-0.952.443.70sep0.39

    oct1.02200.00001.02203.9227-1.87871.62451.23154.0100-0.76110.87672.68462.38555.69065.69-1.17oct9.869.8614.315.419.632.6511.577.697.733.28oct0.44

    nov-1.37360.0000-1.37362.1502-4.8974-0.09551.57422.7177-2.9086-1.51973.22372.81327.91417.910.61nov8.618.6112.404.829.242.8110.947.556.183.28nov0.45

    dec-2.28070.0000-2.28071.4143-5.9756-1.37661.77111.5905-4.3437-2.48933.45552.96718.80378.80-0.31dec7.487.4810.993.976.692.498.205.195.302.91dec0.43

    N Afric2.52Tropical Land2.78Tropical Land

    MonthpresubLU priortot priorpri+uncpri-uncpostspreadpost+witpost-witL1 postTot error0.73MonthNB priortot priorpri+uncpri-uncpostspreadpost+witpost-witL1 posttotal errorMonth

    jan2.44080.58873.02955.33050.72852.82331.11734.84920.79732.31662.31362.02594.10434.102.24jan4.237.1812.352.005.662.049.751.565.464.57jan0.79

    feb2.57590.65183.22765.69500.76032.91741.49735.12880.70602.20022.67062.21144.89034.891.28feb5.839.0914.483.716.732.8611.072.396.515.19feb0.81

    mar1.66020.00001.66024.0252-0.70482.63001.68104.72640.53351.52102.68712.09644.39494.39-3.68mar3.923.929.14-1.313.543.847.76-0.675.145.70mar0.81

    apr0.73240.00000.73243.2270-1.76221.97691.50674.2048-0.25090.55142.68962.22794.96354.96-1.41apr2.672.678.09-2.764.343.328.490.193.785.31apr0.77

    may-0.41680.0000-0.41682.2031-3.03671.63531.80263.8158-0.5451-0.59582.82912.18054.75464.75-4.87may-1.28-1.284.42-6.972.244.146.03-1.55-0.165.62may0.67

    jun-0.63880.0000-0.63882.0718-3.34930.85481.41293.0072-1.2976-0.80102.57472.15244.63284.63-4.73jun-1.380.306.11-5.521.283.735.00-2.45-0.225.27jun0.64

    jul-0.27430.0000-0.27432.2860-2.8347-0.31731.60811.6548-2.2894-0.45062.54461.97213.88923.89-3.18jul-2.961.016.90-4.88-0.872.242.61-4.34-1.884.13jul0.59

    aug-2.32420.0000-2.32420.6323-5.2808-2.87231.6449-0.7876-4.9570-2.53982.65552.08474.34604.35-3.59aug-4.42-0.445.71-6.59-3.474.430.21-7.15-3.365.76aug0.60

    sep-3.30570.0000-3.3057-0.0331-6.5783-1.76041.80020.4891-4.0098-3.43142.88112.24955.06035.061.37sep-4.38-2.713.81-9.22-3.845.690.21-7.90-3.186.99sep0.62

    oct-2.34420.0000-2.34420.7590-5.4475-1.06471.97181.3454-3.4749-2.56023.11392.41015.80865.81-0.50oct-4.20-4.202.09-10.48-1.253.963.00-5.49-3.135.80oct0.68

    nov0.15940.00000.15942.9079-2.58910.062...