The Use of Pro Bio Tics in Shrimp Aquaculture

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<ul><li><p>8/8/2019 The Use of Pro Bio Tics in Shrimp Aquaculture</p><p> 1/10</p><p>M I N I R E V I E W</p><p>The use of probiotics in shrimp aquaculture</p><p>Ali Farzanfar</p><p>Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, Tehran, Iran</p><p>Correspondence: Ali Farzanfar, Iranian</p><p>Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO), No.</p><p>297, West Fatemi Ave., Tehran, Iran. Tel.:198</p><p>912 3153788; fax:198 192 4562534; e-mail:</p><p></p><p>Received 13 February 2006;</p><p>accepted 7 April 2006.</p><p>First published online 20 June 2006.</p><p>DOI:10.1111/j.1574-695X.2006.00116.x</p><p>Editor: Willem van Leeuwen</p><p>Keywords</p><p>shrimp; aquaculture; probiotic; lactic acid</p><p>bacteria; Streptococcus spp.; Lactobacillus</p><p>spp.; Bacillus spp.</p><p>Abstract</p><p>Shrimp aquaculture, as well as other industries, constantly requires new techniques</p><p>in order to increase production yield. Modern technologies and other sciences</p><p>such as biotechnology and microbiology are important tools that could lead to a</p><p>higher quality and greater quantity of products. Feeding and new practices in</p><p>farming usually play an important role in aquaculture, and the addition of various</p><p>additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice</p><p>of many fish and shrimp feed manufacturers and farmers. Probiotics, as bio-</p><p>friendly agents such as lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp., can be introduced intothe culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well</p><p>as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are</p><p>nonpathogenic and nontoxic microorganisms without undesirable side-effects</p><p>when administered to aquatic organisms. These strains of bacteria have many</p><p>other positive effects, which are described in this article.</p><p>Introduction</p><p>The use of probiotics as farm animal feed supplements dates</p><p>back to the 1970s. They were originally incorporated intofeed to increase the animals growth and improve its health</p><p>by increasing its resistance to disease. The results obtained in</p><p>many countries have indicated that some of the bacteria</p><p>used in probiotics (Lactobacilli) are capable of stimulating</p><p>the immune system (Fuller, 1992).</p><p>The beneficial effect of the application of certain bene-</p><p>ficial bacteria in human, pig, cattle and poultry nutrition</p><p>has been well documented. However, the use of such</p><p>probiotics in aquaculture is a relatively new concept.</p><p>With interest in treatments with friendly bacterial candi-</p><p>dates increasing rapidly in aquaculture, several research</p><p>projects that deal with the growth and survival of fish</p><p>larvae, crustaceans and oysters have been undertaken (Ali,</p><p>2000).</p><p>Yasudo and Taga (1980) predicted that some bacteria</p><p>would be found to be useful not only as food but also as</p><p>biological controllers of fish disease and activators of</p><p>nutrient regeneration. It was only in the late 1980s that the</p><p>first publication on biological control in aquaculture</p><p>emerged, and since then the research effort has continually</p><p>increased (Verschuere et al., 2000).</p><p>Background of study</p><p>On fishes</p><p>Bacteria live in every corner of the aquatic environment. The</p><p>fish egg is the first stage of a fish life-cycle that could be</p><p>exposed to bacteria. Therefore, a relatively dense, nonpatho-</p><p>genic, and diverse adherent microbiota present on the eggs</p><p>would probably be an effective barrier against the formation</p><p>of a colony by pathogens on fish eggs. In addition, the</p><p>establishment of a normal gut microbiota may be regarded</p><p>as complementary to the establishment of the digestive</p><p>system, and under normal conditions it serves as a barrier</p><p>against invading pathogens. Larvae may ingest substantial</p><p>amounts of bacteria. It is obvious that the egg microbiota</p><p>will affect the primary colonization of the fish larvae</p><p>(Verschuere et al., 2000).</p><p>Kennedy et al. (1998) used probiotic bacteria in the</p><p>culture of marine fish larvae. They identified and used</p><p>probionts for the culture of common snook, red drum,</p><p>spotted sea trout and striped mullet. They then observed</p><p>that the application of probiotic bacteria to larval fish tanks</p><p>(from egg through transformation) increased survival, size</p><p>uniformity, and growth rate. The periodic addition of</p><p>bacteria to the tanks altered the microbial communities of</p><p>FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 48 (2006) 149158 c 2006 Federation of European Microbiological SocietiesPublished by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved</p></li><li><p>8/8/2019 The Use of Pro Bio Tics in Shrimp Aquaculture</p><p> 2/10</p><p>both tanks and fish. In addition, they noticed that the fish</p><p>eggs incubated with probiotic bacteria were less likely to</p><p>develop bacterial overgrowth and die than those incubated</p><p>without probiotic bacteria.</p><p>Carnevali et al. (2004) isolated Lactobacillus fructivorans</p><p>(AS17B) from sea bream (Sparus aurata) gut, and then</p><p>administered it during sea bream development using Bra-chinons plicatilis and/or Artemia salina and dry feed as</p><p>vectors. At the end of the experiments, they found a</p><p>significantly decreased larvae and fry mortality in their</p><p>treated groups.</p><p>Previously, Gildberg et al. (1997) had analysed the effect</p><p>of a probiotic of lactic acid bacteria in the feed of Atlantic</p><p>cod fry (Gadus morha) on growth and survival rates. In their</p><p>study, a dry feed containing lactic acid bacteria (Carnobac-</p><p>terium divergens) that had been isolated from adult intes-</p><p>tines was given to cod fry. After 3 weeks of feeding the fry</p><p>were exposed to a virulent strain of Vibrio anguillarum. The</p><p>number of deaths was recorded during a further 3 weeks of</p><p>feeding with feed supplemented with lactic acid bacteria. A</p><p>certain improvement in disease resistance was obtained, and</p><p>at the end of the experiment lactic acid bacteria dominated</p><p>the intestinal flora in surviving fish given feed supplemented</p><p>with lactic acid bacteria.</p><p>Lara-Flores et al. (2003) used two probiotic bacteria and</p><p>the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as growth promoters in</p><p>Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry. The results of this</p><p>study indicated that the fry subjected to diets with a</p><p>probiotic supplement exhibited greater growth than those</p><p>fed with the control diet. In addition, they suggested that the</p><p>yeast is an appropriate growth-stimulating additive in tilapia</p><p>cultivation.</p><p>On crustaceans</p><p>During the last few decades, aquaculture has become the</p><p>worlds fastest growing food production sector, with cul-</p><p>tured shrimp growing at an annual rate of 16.8%. Mean-</p><p>while, according to a World Bank report, global losses</p><p>resulting from shrimp diseases are around 3 billion US</p><p>dollars. The potential negative consequences of using anti-</p><p>biotics in aquaculture, such as the development of drug-</p><p>resistant bacteria and the reduced efficiency of antibiotic</p><p>resistant for human and animal diseases, have led to sugges-</p><p>tions of the use of nonpathogenic bacteria as probiotic</p><p>control agents (Vaseeharan &amp; Ramasamy, 2003).</p><p>Moriarty (1999) reported on his successful experiences of</p><p>using probiotic bacteria instead of antibiotics to control</p><p>Luminus vibrios in shrimp farms in Negros, Philipine. The</p><p>effects of ozone and probiotics on the survival of black tiger</p><p>shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were recorded by Meunpol et al.</p><p>(2003). They investigated the effects of ozone with and</p><p>without feeds supplemented with the probiotic Bacillus S11</p><p>on bacterial (Vibrio harveyi) growth and shrimp (P. mono-</p><p>don) survival. According to the results of their study,</p><p>shrimp survival after probiotic treatment, coupled with</p><p>ozonation, increased significantly compared with controls.</p><p>The antagonistic effect of Bacillus against the pathogenic</p><p>Vibrios was evaluated in black tiger shrimp (P. monodon),</p><p>and it was suggested as an alternative treatment factorinstead of antibiotics in shrimp aquaculture (Vaseeharan &amp;</p><p>Ramasamy, 2003).</p><p>In another experiment that was performed by Rengpipat</p><p>et al. (2003), the growth and resistance to Vibrio in black</p><p>tiger shrimp (P. monodon) fed with a Bacillus probiotic</p><p>(BS11) were studied. It was found that the growth and</p><p>survival rates of shrimps fed on the probiotic supplement</p><p>were significantly greater than those of the controls. Some</p><p>strains of Gram-negative bacteria have been used as probio-</p><p>tics in shrimps too. For instance, Alvandi et al. (2004)</p><p>isolated Pseudomonas sp. PM11 and Vibrio fluvialis PM17</p><p>as candidate probions from the gut of farm-reared subadult</p><p>shrimp and tested for their effect on the immunity indica-</p><p>tors of black tiger shrimp. The results of the study suggest</p><p>that the criteria used for the selection of putative probiotic</p><p>strains, such as predominant growth on primary isolation</p><p>media, ability to produce extracellular enzymes and side-</p><p>ropheros, did not bring about the desired effect in vivo and</p><p>improve the immune system in shrimp.</p><p>Nogami and Maeda (1992) found that production of crab</p><p>(Portunus trituberculatus) larvae increased following the</p><p>addition of bacterial strain PM-4 to their culture water. He</p><p>isolated PM-4 from a crustacean culturing pond and</p><p>cultured it in large quantities to add daily to the water of</p><p>crab larvae. When bacteria increased to more than a specificpopulation, the protozoan population grew rapidly and</p><p>reduced the bacterial population.</p><p>On bivalve mollusks</p><p>The mass culture of scallops and oysters has been introduced</p><p>in many countries. However, mass mortalities of larvae have</p><p>frequently occurred, limiting the success of the hatcheries.</p><p>To prevent these mortalities, most farmers routinely use</p><p>antibiotics. As mentioned above, antibiotics have limited</p><p>applicability, because of the ability of a large variety of</p><p>pathogens to develop multiple antibiotic resistance. An</p><p>alternative method for controlling pathogenic bacterial</p><p>strains in bivalve farms may be the addition of pure culture</p><p>of natural bacteria isolates (probiotics), which have been</p><p>shown through experimentation to produce chemical sub-</p><p>stances inhibitory to bacterial pathogens (Gildberg et al.,</p><p>1997; Riquelme et al., 1997; Vaseeharan &amp; Ramasamy, 2003).</p><p>Alteromons haloplanktis was isolated from the gonads of</p><p>Chilean scallop ( Argopecten purpuratus) brood stock and</p><p>displayed in vitro inhibitory activity against the known</p><p>FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 48 (2006) 149158c 2006 Federation of European Microbiological SocietiesPublished by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved</p><p>150 A. Farzanfar</p></li><li><p>8/8/2019 The Use of Pro Bio Tics in Shrimp Aquaculture</p><p> 3/10</p><p>pathogens Vibrio ordalii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. anguillar-</p><p>um, V. alginolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila. In an experi-</p><p>mental infection, the A. haloplanktis and a Vibrio strain 11</p><p>(that showed in vitro inhibition effects on V. anguillarum)</p><p>protected the scallop larvae against the V. anguillarum</p><p>(Riquelme et al., 1997; Verschuere et al., 2000).</p><p>Douillet &amp; Langdon (1994) added a bacteria strain (CA2)as a food supplement to larval cultures of the oyster</p><p>Crassostrea gigas. They found more growth in larvae that</p><p>had been treated by CA2 bacteria cells.</p><p>On water quality</p><p>There are no serious problems for water quality during the</p><p>initial stages of farming aquatic organisms, when the</p><p>stocked organisms are small and their metabolism rate and</p><p>amounts of supplementary feed are low. However, with the</p><p>progress of culture the organisms grow, leading to a rapid</p><p>increase in biomass, and water quality deteriorates, mainly</p><p>as a result of the accumulation of metabolic waste of</p><p>cultured organisms, decomposition of unutilized feed, and</p><p>decay of biotic materials (Prabhu et al., 1999). At this time,</p><p>the application of a group of beneficial microorganisms</p><p>(such as Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Nitrosomonas, Cellulomonas,</p><p> Nitrobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhodoseudomonas, Nitrosomonas</p><p>and Acinetobacter) would be very useful for controlling the</p><p>pathogenic microorganisms and water quality (Prabhu</p><p>et al., 1999; Shariffet al., 2001; Irianto &amp; Austin, 2002).</p><p>By definition, bacteria added directly to pond water are</p><p>not probiotics, and should not be compared with living</p><p>microorganisms added to feed (Rengpipat et al., 2003).</p><p>Many workers have evaluated some specific microorganismsas biological improvers for water quality: Douilett (1998)</p><p>used a probiotic additive consisting of a blend of bacteria in</p><p>a liquid suspension in intensive production systems. The</p><p>probiotic blend improved water quality in fish and crusta-</p><p>cean cultures by reducing the concentration of organic</p><p>materials (OM) and ammonia. This procedure was accom-</p><p>plished by a series of enzymatic processes carried out in</p><p>succession by the various strains present in the probiotic</p><p>blend. The addition of this blend to culture systems reduced</p><p>the concentration of Vibrio strains and thus controlled</p><p>diseases caused by Vibrio strains. In addition, Bacillus spp.</p><p>have been evaluated as probiotics, with uses including the</p><p>improvement of water quality by influencing the composi-</p><p>tion of water-borne microbial populations and reducing the</p><p>number of pathogens in the vicinity of the farm species.</p><p>Thus, the Bacilli are thought to antagonize potential patho-</p><p>gens in the aquatic environment (Irianto &amp; Austin, 2002).</p><p>Bacterial species belonging to the genera Bacillus, Pseudo-</p><p>monas, Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Acinetobacter and Cellu-</p><p>lomonas are known to help in the mineralization of organic</p><p>water and in reducing the accumulation of organic loads</p><p>(Shariffet al., 2001). Furthermore, there are many reports of</p><p>the use of microbial products in aquaculture ponds for</p><p>increasing the removal rate of ammonia. Prabhu et al.</p><p>(1999) used some microorganisms in a shrimp farm to</p><p>evaluate them as a factor for controlling the water quality.</p><p>According to the results of this study, all factors of water-</p><p>quality parameters were at optimum levels in the experi-mental ponds compared with the control.</p><p>On human consumption</p><p>The use of live microorganisms to enhance human health is</p><p>not new. For thousands of years, long before the discovery of</p><p>antibiotics, people have been consuming live microbial food</p><p>supplements such as fermented milks. According to Ayurve-</p><p>da, one of the oldest medical sciences that dates back to</p><p>around 2500 BC, the consumption of yoghurt is recom-</p><p>mended for the maintenance of overall good health. A</p><p>scientific explanation of the beneficial effects of lactic acidbacteria present in fermented milk was first provided in</p><p>1907 by the Nobel Prize-winning Russian physiologist Eli</p><p>Metchnikoff. In his fascinating treatise The Prolongation of</p><p>Life, Metchnikoff states that, The dependence of the</p><p>intestinal microbes on the food makes it possible to adopt</p><p>measures to modify the flora in our bodies and to replace</p><p>the harmful microbes by useful microbes (Talwalkar, 2003).</p><p>He proposed that the acid-producing organisms in fermen-</p><p>ted dairy products could prevent fouling in the large</p><p>intestine and thus lead to a prolongation of the life span of</p><p>the consumer (Heller, 2001). Probiotics have a great variety</p><p>of effects on human health. Probiotic therapy could be used</p><p>for applications such as: modulation of the intestinalmicrobial communities, immune modulation, controlling</p><p>allergic diseases, treating diseases related to the gastrointest-</p><p>inal tract such as inflammatory bowel disease, and control-</p><p>ling colorectal cancer and...</p></li></ul>


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